City status in Indonesia

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In Indonesian law, the term "city" (kota) is generally defined as the second-level administrative subdivision of the Republic of Indonesia, an equivalent to regency (kabupaten). The difference between a city and a regency is that a city has non-agricultural economic activities and a dense urban population, while a regency comprises predominantly rural areas and is larger in area than a city. [1] However, Indonesia historically had several classifications of cities.

Contents

According to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia , the official dictionary of Indonesian language, city (kota) is "a densely populated area with high density and modern facilities and most of the population works outside of agriculture." [2]

Historical classification

Buitenzorg was granted city status (gemeente
) by the government of the Dutch East Indies on 1 April 1905 Coat of Arms of Buitenzorg (1932).svg
Buitenzorg was granted city status (gemeente) by the government of the Dutch East Indies on 1 April 1905

Gemeente/municipality

During the Dutch East Indies period, a city was governed as gemeente, or municipality, since the decentralisation law in 1903. The gemeente was a third-level subdivision, below residentie (residency) and gouvernement (governorate). [4]

Kota besar and kota kecil

The terms kota besar (big city), and kota kecil (small city or town), were used since the implementation of the Act Number 22 of 1948. Kota Besar was an urban equivalent of kabupaten (regency), which was the country's second level subdivision, just below province. Kota kecil, used for a small urban area, was the third-level division below regency and province. [5]

Kotaraya, kotamadya, and kotapraja

City classification in Indonesia
during 1965–1974
city typesubdivision levelequivalence
KotarayaFirst-level Province
KotamadyaSecond-level Regency
KotaprajaThird-level Districts

According to the Act Number 18 of 1965, cities in Indonesia were classified into three: kotaraya (great city, first-level subdivision), kotamadya (medium city, second-level subdivision), and kotapraja (small city or town, third-level subdivision). Kotaraya is an equivalent of a province, kotamadya is an equivalent of a regency, while kotapraja is an equivalent of kecamatan (districts). Jakarta was the only city granted the kotaraya status, due to its function as the capital of Indonesia. [6]

The terms kotaraya and kotapraja had been abolished since 1974, and kotamadya was used for most of urban areas in Indonesia up to 1999. Jakarta continued to become the only urban area with a province status. [7]

Kota administratif

The term kota administratif (administrative city, not to be confused with kota administrasi) was used after the implementation of Act Number 5 of 1974. Kota administratif status was granted to a town inside the territory of a regency (kabupaten) that were deemed necessary in accordance with the town's growth and development. Kota administratif does not have autonomy and its own legislature, and was responsible to its parent regency. [7] The term kota administratif was abolished with the implementation of Act Number 22 of 1999, and all kota administratif were either granted full kota (city) status or dissolved and merged with its parent regency. [8]

Kota

The term kota (city) has been implemented to substitute kotamadya since the post-Suharto era in Indonesia. [8] Kota is headed by a mayor (walikota), who is directly elected via elections to serve for a five-year term, which can be renewed for one further five-year term. Each kota is divided further into districts, more commonly known as kecamatan.

Jakarta as a city

Jakarta City Hall, the seat of the governor of Jakarta Balai Kota DKI Jakarta.jpg
Jakarta City Hall, the seat of the governor of Jakarta

Jakarta, then known as Batavia, was the first city in the archipelago to be developed by the Dutch Empire. On the 4 March 1621, the first city government (stad) was created in Batavia, and on 1 April 1905, it became the very first municipality (gemeente) of the Dutch East Indies. [9] Upon Indonesian independence, it remains as the city within the province of West Java. With the release of the Act Number 1 of 1957, Jakarta became the first provincial-level city in Indonesia. [10] Although Jakarta is now written as a 'province' in Indonesian law products, it is still widely referred to as a city. [11] [12] [13] [14] The United Nations (UN) classifies Jakarta as a 'city' on its statistical database. [15]

The Special Capital Region of Jakarta consists of five 'administrative cities' and one 'administrative regency'. Unlike other actual cities in Indonesia, administrative cities in Jakarta are not self-governing, and were only created for bureaucracy purposes. The administrative cities do not have city councils, and their mayors were exclusively selected by the Governor of Jakarta without any public election. Ryas Rasyid, an Indonesian regional government expert, stated that Jakarta is a "province with a city management". [16] Anies Baswedan, the 17th Governor of Jakarta, asserted that "Jakarta has only an area of 600 square kilometres. It is a city with the province status." [17] Unlike other 36 Indonesian provinces whose governors work in a 'governor office', the governor of Jakarta works in a city hall ( Balai Kota DKI Jakarta ). [18]

List of cities by date of incorporation

CityDate incorporatedFirst city statusPresent-day province
Jakarta [a] 4 March 1621 [9] Stad Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Bogor [b] 1 April 1905 [3] Gemeente West Java
Bandung 1 April 1906 [19] Gemeente West Java
Blitar 1 April 1906 [20] Gemeente East Java
Cirebon 1 April 1906 [21] Gemeente West Java
Kediri 1 April 1906 [22] Gemeente East Java
Makassar 1 April 1906 [23] Gemeente South Sulawesi
Magelang 1 April 1906 [24] Gemeente Central Java
Padang 1 April 1906 [25] Gemeente West Sumatra
Palembang 1 April 1906 [26] Gemeente South Sumatra
Pekalongan 1 April 1906 [27] Gemeente Central Java
Semarang 1 April 1906 [28] Gemeente Central Java
Surabaya 1 April 1906 [29] Gemeente East Java
Tegal 1 April 1906 [30] Gemeente Central Java
Medan 1 April 1909 [31] Gemeente North Sumatra
Malang 1 April 1914 [32] Gemeente East Java
Sukabumi 1 April 1914 [33] Gemeente West Java
Binjai 1 July 1917 [34] Gemeente North Sumatra
Pematang Siantar 1 July 1917 [34] [35] Gemeente North Sumatra
Tanjung Balai 1 July 1917 [34] Gemeente North Sumatra
Tebing Tinggi 1 July 1917 [34] Gemeente North Sumatra
Salatiga 1 July 1917 [36] Gemeente Central Java
Madiun 20 June 1918 [37] [35] Gemeente East Java
Mojokerto 20 June 1918 [38] [35] Gemeente East Java
Pasuruan 20 June 1918 [39] [35] Gemeente East Java
Bukittinggi [c] 1 July 1918 [35] Gemeente West Sumatra
Probolinggo 1 July 1918 [40] [35] Gemeente East Java
Sawahlunto 1 July 1918 [41] [35] Gemeente West Sumatra
Banjarmasin 1 July 1919 [42] Gemeente South Kalimantan
Manado 1 July 1919 [43] [35] Gemeente North Sulawesi
Banda Aceh [d] 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B Aceh
Bengkulu 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B Bengkulu
Jambi 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B Jambi
Pangkal Pinang 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B Bangka Belitung Islands
Pekanbaru 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B Riau
Sibolga 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B North Sumatra
Bandar Lampung [e] 17 May 1946 [44] Kota otonom B Lampung
Pontianak 14 August 1946 [45] Landschaps-gemeente West Kalimantan
Surakarta 5 June 1947 [46] Haminte Kota Central Java
Yogyakarta 8 June 1947 [47] Haminte Kota Special Region of Yogyakarta
Padang Panjang 23 March 1956 [48] Kota Kecil West Sumatra
Payakumbuh 23 March 1956 [48] Kota Kecil West Sumatra
Solok 23 March 1956 [48] Kota Kecil West Sumatra
Balikpapan 4 July 1959 [45] Kotapraja (2nd-level) East Kalimantan
Palangka Raya 17 July 1957 [49] Kotapraja (2nd-level) Central Kalimantan
Gorontalo 4 July 1959 [50] Kotapraja (2nd-level) Gorontalo
Ambon 31 July 1958 [51] Kotapraja (2nd-level) Maluku
Parepare 4 July 1959 [50] Kotapraja (2nd-level) South Sulawesi
Samarinda 4 July 1959 [45] Kotapraja (2nd-level) East Kalimantan
Sabang 14 June 1965 [52] Kotapraja (2nd-level) Aceh
Batam 7 December 1983 [53] Kotamadya Riau Islands
Bitung 15 August 1990 [54] Kotamadya North Sulawesi
Denpasar 15 January 1992 [55] Kotamadya Bali
Tangerang 27 February 1993 [56] Kotamadya Banten
Mataram 26 July 1993 [57] Kotamadya West Nusa Tenggara
Jayapura 2 August 1993 [58] Kotamadya Papua
Palu 22 July 1994 [59] Kotamadya Central Sulawesi
Kendari 3 August 1995 [60] Kotamadya Southeast Sulawesi
Kupang 11 April 1996 [61] Kotamadya East Nusa Tenggara
Bekasi 16 December 1996 [62] Kotamadya West Java
Tarakan 8 October 1997 [63] Kotamadya North Kalimantan
Banjarbaru 20 April 1999 [64] Kotamadya South Kalimantan
Cilegon 20 April 1999 [65] Kotamadya Banten
Depok 20 April 1999 [65] Kotamadya West Java
Dumai 20 April 1999 [66] Kotamadya Riau
Metro 20 April 1999 [67] Kotamadya Lampung
Ternate 20 April 1999 [68] Kotamadya North Maluku
Bontang 4 October 1999 [69] Kota East Kalimantan
Sorong 4 October 1999 [70] Kota West Papua
Batu 21 June 2001 [71] Kota East Java
Baubau 21 June 2001 [72] Kota Southeast Sulawesi
Cimahi 21 June 2001 [73] Kota West Java
Langsa 21 June 2001 [74] Kota Aceh
Lhokseumawe 21 June 2001 [75] Kota Aceh
Lubuklinggau 21 June 2001 [76] Kota South Sumatra
Padang Sidempuan 21 June 2001 [77] Kota North Sumatra
Pagar Alam 21 June 2001 [78] Kota South Sumatra
Prabumulih 21 June 2001 [79] Kota South Sumatra
Singkawang 21 June 2001 [80] Kota West Kalimantan
Tanjung Pinang 21 June 2001 [81] Kota Riau Islands
Tasikmalaya 21 June 2001 [82] Kota West Java
Banjar 11 December 2002 [83] Kota West Java
Bima 10 April 2002 [84] Kota West Nusa Tenggara
Palopo 10 April 2002 [85] Kota South Sulawesi
Pariaman 10 April 2002 [86] Kota West Sumatra
Tidore 25 February 2003 [87] Kota North Maluku
Tomohon 25 February 2003 [88] Kota North Sulawesi
Kotamobagu 2 January 2007 [89] Kota North Sulawesi
Subulussalam 2 January 2007 [90] Kota Aceh
Serang 10 August 2007 [91] Kota Banten
Tual 10 August 2007 [92] Kota Maluku
Sungai Penuh 21 July 2008 [93] Kota Jambi
Gunungsitoli 26 November 2008 [94] Kota North Sumatra
South Tangerang 26 November 2008 [95] Kota Banten
Notes

See also

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  55. "Undang-undang Nomor 1 tahun 1992 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Denpasar". Law No. 1 of 1992 (in Indonesian).
  56. "Undang-undang Nomor 2 tahun 1993 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadiya Daerah Tingkat II Tangerang". Law No. 2 of 1993 (in Indonesian).
  57. "Undang-undang Nomor 4 tahun 1993 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Mataram". Law No. 4 of 1993 (in Indonesian).
  58. "Undang-undang Nomor 6 tahun 1993 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Jayapura". Law No. 6 of 1993 (in Indonesian).
  59. "Undang-undang Nomor 4 tahun 1994 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Palu". Law No. 4 of 1994 (in Indonesian).
  60. "Undang-undang Nomor 5 tahun 1995 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Kendari". Law No. 5 of 1995 (in Indonesian).
  61. "Undang-undang Nomor 5 tahun 1996 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Kupang". Law No. 5 of 1996 (in Indonesian).
  62. "Undang-undang Nomor 9 tahun 1996 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Bekasi". Law No. 9 of 1996 (in Indonesian).
  63. "Undang-undang Nomor 29 tahun 1997 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Tarakan". Law No. 29 of 1997 (in Indonesian).
  64. "Undang-undang Nomor 9 tahun 1999 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Banjar Baru". Law No. 9 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  65. 1 2 "Undang-undang Nomor 15 tahun 1999 Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Depok Dan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Cilegon". Law No. 15 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  66. "Undang-undang Nomor 16 tahun 1999 tentang Pembentukan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Dumai". Law No. 16 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  67. "Undang-undang Nomor 12 tahun 1999 Pembentukan Daerah Tingkat II Way Kanan, Kabupaten Daerah Tingkat II Lampung Timur Dan Kotamadya Daerah Tingkat II Metro". Law No. 12 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  68. "Undang-undang Nomor 11 tahun 1999 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Daerah Tingkat II Ternate". Law No. 11 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  69. "Undang-undang Nomor 47 tahun 1999 tentang Pembentukan Daerah Kabupaten Nunukan, Daerah Kabupaten Malinau, Daerah Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Daerah Kabupaten Kutai Timur, Dan Daerah Kota Bontang". Law No. 47 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  70. "Undang-undang Nomor 45 tahun 1999 tentang Pembentukan Daerah Propinsi Irian Jaya Tengah, Daerah Propinsi Irian Jaya Barat, Daerah Kabupaten Paniai, Daerah Kabupaten Mimika, Daerah Kabupaten Puncak Jaya, Dan Daerah Kabupaten Puncak Jaya Dan Daerah Kota Sorong". Law No. 45 of 1999 (in Indonesian).
  71. "Undang-undang Nomor 11 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Batu". Law No. 11 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  72. "Undang-undang Nomor 13 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Bau-bau". Law No. 13 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  73. "Undang-undang Nomor 9 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Cimahi". Law No. 9 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  74. "Undang-undang Nomor 3 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Langsa". Law No. 3 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  75. "Undang-undang Nomor 2 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Lhokseumawe". Law No. 2 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  76. "Undang-undang Nomor 7 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Lubuk Linggau". Law No. 7 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  77. "Undang-undang Nomor 4 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Padang Sidempuan". Law No. 4 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  78. "Undang-undang Nomor 8 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Pagar Alam". Law No. 8 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  79. "Undang-undang Nomor 6 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Prabumulih". Law No. 6 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  80. "Undang-undang Nomor 12 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Singkawang". Law No. 12 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  81. "Undang-undang Nomor 5 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Tanjung Pinang". Law No. 5 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  82. "Undang-undang Nomor 10 tahun 2001 tentang Pembentukan Kota Tasikmalaya". Law No. 10 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  83. "Undang-undang Nomor 27 tahun 2002 tentang Pembentukan Kota Banjar Di Provinsi Jawa Barat". Law No. 27 of 2002 (in Indonesian).
  84. "Undang-undang Nomor 13 tahun 2002 tentang Pembentukan Kota Bima Di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat". Law No. 13 of 2002 (in Indonesian).
  85. "Undang-undang Nomor 11 tahun 2002 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Mamasa Dan Kota Palopo Di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan". Law No. 11 of 2002 (in Indonesian).
  86. "Undang-undang Nomor 12 tahun 2002 tentang Pembentukan Kota Pariaman Di Provinsi Sumatera Barat". Law No. 12 of 2002 (in Indonesian).
  87. "Undang-undang Nomor 1 tahun 2003 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Halmahera Utara, Kabupaten Halmahera Selatan, Kabupaten Sula, Kabupaten Halmahera Timur, dan Kabu-paten Kota Tidore Kepulauan di Provinsi Maluku Utara". Law No. 1 of 2003 (in Indonesian).
  88. "Undang-undang Nomor 10 tahun 2002 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Minahasa Selatan dan Kota Tomohon di Provinsi Sulawesi Utara". Law No. 10 of 2002 (in Indonesian).
  89. "Undang-undang Nomor 4 tahun 2007 tentang Pembentukan Kota Kotamobagu di Provinsi Sulawesi utara". Law No. 4 of 2007 (in Indonesian).
  90. "Undang-undang Nomor 8 tahun 2007 tentang Pembentukan Kota Subulussalam di Provinsi Naggroe Aceh Darussalam". Law No. 8 of 2007 (in Indonesian).
  91. "Undang-undang Nomor 32 tahun 2007 tentang Pembentukan Kota Serang Di Provinsi Banten". Law No. 32 of 2007 (in Indonesian).
  92. "Undang-undang Nomor 31 tahun 2007 tentang Pembentukan Kota Tual di Provinsi Maluku". Law No. 31 of 2007 (in Indonesian).
  93. "Undang-undang Nomor 25 tahun 2008 tentang Pembentukan Kota Sungai Penuh Di Provinsi Jambi". Law No. 25 of 2008 (in Indonesian).
  94. "Undang-undang Nomor 47 tahun 2008 tentang Pembentukan Kota Gunungsitoli Di Provinsi Sumatera Utara". Law No. 47 of 2008 (in Indonesian).
  95. "Undang-undang Nomor 51 tahun 2008 tentang Pembentukan Kota Tangerang Selatan Di Provinsi Banten". Law No. 51 of 2008 (in Indonesian).