|This article is part of a series on|
|Subdivisions of Indonesia|
|full list; cities by GDP; cities by population; regencies by population)|
In Indonesian law, the term "city" (kota) is generally defined as the second-level administrative subdivision of the Republic of Indonesia, an equivalent to regency (kabupaten). The difference between a city and a regency is that a city has non-agricultural economic activities and a dense urban population, while a regency comprises predominantly rural areas and is larger in area than a city. However, Indonesia historically had several classifications of cities.
According to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia , the official dictionary of Indonesian language, city (kota) is "a densely populated area with high density and modern facilities and most of the population works outside of agriculture."
During the Dutch East Indies period, a city was governed as gemeente, or municipality, since the decentralisation law in 1903. The gemeente was a third-level subdivision, below residentie (residency) and gouvernement (governorate).
The terms kota besar (big city), and kota kecil (small city or town), were used since the implementation of the Act Number 22 of 1948. Kota Besar was an urban equivalent of kabupaten (regency), which was the country's second level subdivision, just below province. Kota kecil, used for a small urban area, was the third-level division below regency and province.
|city type||subdivision level||equivalence|
According to the Act Number 18 of 1965, cities in Indonesia were classified into three: kotaraya (great city, first-level subdivision), kotamadya (medium city, second-level subdivision), and kotapraja (small city or town, third-level subdivision). Kotaraya is an equivalent of a province, kotamadya is an equivalent of a regency, while kotapraja is an equivalent of kecamatan (districts). Jakarta was the only city granted the kotaraya status, due to its function as the capital of Indonesia.
The terms kotaraya and kotapraja had been abolished since 1974, and kotamadya was used for most of urban areas in Indonesia up to 1999. Jakarta continued to become the only urban area with a province status.
The term kota administratif (administrative city, not to be confused with kota administrasi) was used after the implementation of Act Number 5 of 1974. Kota administratif status was granted to a town inside the territory of a regency (kabupaten) that were deemed necessary in accordance with the town's growth and development. Kota administratif does not have autonomy and its own legislature, and was responsible to its parent regency. The term kota administratif was abolished with the implementation of Act Number 22 of 1999, and all kota administratif were either granted full kota (city) status or dissolved and merged with its parent regency.
The term kota (city) has been implemented to substitute kotamadya since the post-Suharto era in Indonesia. Kota is headed by a mayor (walikota), who is directly elected via elections to serve for a five-year term, which can be renewed for one further five-year term. Each kota is divided further into districts, more commonly known as kecamatan.
Jakarta, then known as Batavia, was the first city in the archipelago to be developed by the Dutch Empire. On the 4 March 1621, the first city government (stad) was created in Batavia, and on 1 April 1905, it became the very first municipality (gemeente) of the Dutch East Indies. Upon Indonesian independence, it remains as the city within the province of West Java. With the release of the Act Number 1 of 1957, Jakarta became the first provincial-level city in Indonesia. Although Jakarta is now written as a 'province' in Indonesian law products, it is still widely referred to as a city. The United Nations (UN) classifies Jakarta as a 'city' on its statistical database.
The Special Capital Region of Jakarta consists of five 'administrative cities' and one 'administrative regency'. Unlike other actual cities in Indonesia, administrative cities in Jakarta are not self-governing, and were only created for bureaucracy purposes. The administrative cities do not have city councils, and their mayors were exclusively selected by the Governor of Jakarta without any public election. Ryas Rasyid, an Indonesian regional government expert, stated that Jakarta is a "province with a city management". Balai Kota DKI Jakarta ).Anies Baswedan, the 17th Governor of Jakarta, asserted that "Jakarta has only an area of 600 square kilometres. It is a city with the province status." Unlike other 36 Indonesian provinces whose governors work in a 'governor office', the governor of Jakarta works in a city hall (
|City||Date incorporated||First city status||Present-day province|
|Jakarta [a]||4 March 1621||Stad||Special Capital Region of Jakarta|
|Bogor [b]||1 April 1905||Gemeente||West Java|
|Bandung||1 April 1906||Gemeente||West Java|
|Blitar||1 April 1906||Gemeente||East Java|
|Cirebon||1 April 1906||Gemeente||West Java|
|Kediri||1 April 1906||Gemeente||East Java|
|Makassar||1 April 1906||Gemeente||South Sulawesi|
|Magelang||1 April 1906||Gemeente||Central Java|
|Padang||1 April 1906||Gemeente||West Sumatra|
|Palembang||1 April 1906||Gemeente||South Sumatra|
|Pekalongan||1 April 1906||Gemeente||Central Java|
|Semarang||1 April 1906||Gemeente||Central Java|
|Surabaya||1 April 1906||Gemeente||East Java|
|Tegal||1 April 1906||Gemeente||Central Java|
|Medan||1 April 1909||Gemeente||North Sumatra|
|Malang||1 April 1914||Gemeente||East Java|
|Sukabumi||1 April 1914||Gemeente||West Java|
|Binjai||1 July 1917||Gemeente||North Sumatra|
|Pematang Siantar||1 July 1917||Gemeente||North Sumatra|
|Tanjung Balai||1 July 1917||Gemeente||North Sumatra|
|Tebing Tinggi||1 July 1917||Gemeente||North Sumatra|
|Salatiga||1 July 1917||Gemeente||Central Java|
|Madiun||20 June 1918||Gemeente||East Java|
|Mojokerto||20 June 1918||Gemeente||East Java|
|Pasuruan||20 June 1918||Gemeente||East Java|
|Bukittinggi [c]||1 July 1918||Gemeente||West Sumatra|
|Probolinggo||1 July 1918||Gemeente||East Java|
|Sawahlunto||1 July 1918||Gemeente||West Sumatra|
|Banjarmasin||1 July 1919||Gemeente||South Kalimantan|
|Manado||1 July 1919||Gemeente||North Sulawesi|
|Banda Aceh [d]||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||Aceh|
|Bengkulu||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||Bengkulu|
|Jambi||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||Jambi|
|Pangkal Pinang||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||Bangka Belitung Islands|
|Pekanbaru||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||Riau|
|Sibolga||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||North Sumatra|
|Bandar Lampung [e]||17 May 1946||Kota otonom B||Lampung|
|Pontianak||14 August 1946||Landschaps-gemeente||West Kalimantan|
|Surakarta||5 June 1947||Haminte Kota||Central Java|
|Yogyakarta||8 June 1947||Haminte Kota||Special Region of Yogyakarta|
|Padang Panjang||23 March 1956||Kota Kecil||West Sumatra|
|Payakumbuh||23 March 1956||Kota Kecil||West Sumatra|
|Solok||23 March 1956||Kota Kecil||West Sumatra|
|Balikpapan||4 July 1959||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||East Kalimantan|
|Palangka Raya||17 July 1957||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||Central Kalimantan|
|Gorontalo||4 July 1959||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||Gorontalo|
|Ambon||31 July 1958||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||Maluku|
|Parepare||4 July 1959||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||South Sulawesi|
|Samarinda||4 July 1959||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||East Kalimantan|
|Sabang||14 June 1965||Kotapraja (2nd-level)||Aceh|
|Batam||7 December 1983||Kotamadya||Riau Islands|
|Bitung||15 August 1990||Kotamadya||North Sulawesi|
|Denpasar||15 January 1992||Kotamadya||Bali|
|Tangerang||27 February 1993||Kotamadya||Banten|
|Mataram||26 July 1993||Kotamadya||West Nusa Tenggara|
|Jayapura||2 August 1993||Kotamadya||Papua|
|Palu||22 July 1994||Kotamadya||Central Sulawesi|
|Kendari||3 August 1995||Kotamadya||Southeast Sulawesi|
|Kupang||11 April 1996||Kotamadya||East Nusa Tenggara|
|Bekasi||16 December 1996||Kotamadya||West Java|
|Tarakan||8 October 1997||Kotamadya||North Kalimantan|
|Banjarbaru||20 April 1999||Kotamadya||South Kalimantan|
|Cilegon||20 April 1999||Kotamadya||Banten|
|Depok||20 April 1999||Kotamadya||West Java|
|Dumai||20 April 1999||Kotamadya||Riau|
|Metro||20 April 1999||Kotamadya||Lampung|
|Ternate||20 April 1999||Kotamadya||North Maluku|
|Bontang||4 October 1999||Kota||East Kalimantan|
|Sorong||4 October 1999||Kota||West Papua|
|Batu||21 June 2001||Kota||East Java|
|Baubau||21 June 2001||Kota||Southeast Sulawesi|
|Cimahi||21 June 2001||Kota||West Java|
|Langsa||21 June 2001||Kota||Aceh|
|Lhokseumawe||21 June 2001||Kota||Aceh|
|Lubuklinggau||21 June 2001||Kota||South Sumatra|
|Padang Sidempuan||21 June 2001||Kota||North Sumatra|
|Pagar Alam||21 June 2001||Kota||South Sumatra|
|Prabumulih||21 June 2001||Kota||South Sumatra|
|Singkawang||21 June 2001||Kota||West Kalimantan|
|Tanjung Pinang||21 June 2001||Kota||Riau Islands|
|Tasikmalaya||21 June 2001||Kota||West Java|
|Banjar||11 December 2002||Kota||West Java|
|Bima||10 April 2002||Kota||West Nusa Tenggara|
|Palopo||10 April 2002||Kota||South Sulawesi|
|Pariaman||10 April 2002||Kota||West Sumatra|
|Tidore||25 February 2003||Kota||North Maluku|
|Tomohon||25 February 2003||Kota||North Sulawesi|
|Kotamobagu||2 January 2007||Kota||North Sulawesi|
|Subulussalam||2 January 2007||Kota||Aceh|
|Serang||10 August 2007||Kota||Banten|
|Tual||10 August 2007||Kota||Maluku|
|Sungai Penuh||21 July 2008||Kota||Jambi|
|Gunungsitoli||26 November 2008||Kota||North Sumatra|
|South Tangerang||26 November 2008||Kota||Banten|
Provinces of Indonesia are the 37 administrative divisions of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).
Nias is an island located off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Nias is also the name of the archipelago of which the island is the centre, but also includes the Batu Islands to the south-east and the small Hinako Islands to the west. Nias Island covers an area of 5,625.0 km2 (2,171.8 sq mi). It is mostly a lowland area rising to around 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. There were 756,338 inhabitants on the island at the 2010 Census; at the 2015 Census this had risen to 798,506 and the 2020 Census resulted in a total of 880,550.
A regency, sometimes incorrectly referred to as a district, is an administrative division of Indonesia, directly under a province. Regencies and cities are divided into districts.
East Timor was a claimed province of Indonesia that existed between 1976 and 1999 during the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Its territory corresponded to the previous Portuguese Timor and to the present-day independent country of Timor-Leste.
Indonesia is divided into provinces. Provinces are made up of regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). Provinces, regencies and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies.
In Indonesia, village or subdistrict is the fourth-level subdivision below a district, regency/city, and province. There are a number of names and types for villages in Indonesia, with desa being the most frequently used for regencies and kelurahan for cities. According to the 2019 report by the Ministry of Home Affairs, there are 8,488 urban villages and 74,953 rural villages in Indonesia.
Law of Indonesia is based on a civil law system, intermixed with local customary law and the Roman Dutch law. Before the Dutch presence and colonization began in the sixteenth century, indigenous kingdoms ruled the archipelago independently with their own custom laws, known as adat. Foreign influences from India, China and the Middle East have not only affected culture, but also the customary adat laws. The people of Aceh in Sumatra, for instance, observe their own sharia law, while ethnic groups like the Toraja in Sulawesi still follow their animistic customary law.
Ambelau or Ambalau is a volcanic island in the Banda Sea within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island forms an administrative district which is part of the South Buru Regency of Maluku province, Indonesia. It has a land area of 201.7 km2, and had a population of 6,846 at the 2010 Census. The administrative center is Wailua, a settlement located at the south of the island. About half of the island's population is composed of indigenous Ambelau people who speak the Ambelau language; the other half are mostly immigrants from the nearby Maluku Islands and Java.
Gunung Mas Regency is one of the thirteen regencies of Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The regency seat is located at the town of Kuala Kurun in Kurun District. The population of Gunung Mas Regency was 96,900 at the 2010 Census ; and 135,373 at the 2020 Census.
Malinau Regency is a regency of North Kalimantan Province in Indonesia. The administrative centre is the town of Malinau. The regency is home to the Kayan Mentarang National Park. It covers an area of 40,088.38 km2, and had a population of 62,423 at the 2010 Census and 82,510 at the 2020 Census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 83,796. It is the regency with the largest area in the province, as well as the least densely populated. Other than that, Malinau is the only regency in North Kalimantan that is predominantly Protestant and the second most-developed region in North Kalimantan after Tarakan in terms of Human Development Index.
Minahasa Regency is a regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its capital is Tondano. It covers an area of 1,141.64 km2 and had a population of 310,384 at the 2010 Census; this rose to 347,290 at the 2020 Census.
The term district, in the context of Indonesia, refers to the third-level administrative subdivision, below regency or city. The local term kecamatan is used in majority of Indonesian areas, except in Papua, West Papua, and the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The term distrik is used in Papua and West Papua. In the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the term kapanewon is used for districts within the regencies, while the term kemantren is used for districts within Yogyakarta, the province's only city. According to Statistics Indonesia, there are a total of 7,252 districts in Indonesia as at 2019, subdivided into 83,820 administrative villages.
In Indonesia, a regional regulation is a regulation that is passed by Indonesian local governments and carry the force of law in that region. There are two levels of regional regulations. Provinces pass provincial regulation, while the second tier subdivisions of Indonesia, known as regencies and cities pass regency regulation and city regulation, respectively. Each type of regional regulation is passed by the region's parliamentary body together with their chief executive.
The Greater Medan metropolitan area, known locally as Mebidangro is a metropolitan area in North Sumatra, Indonesia, which consists of Medan City, Binjai City, Deli Serdang Regency and part of Karo Regency. The metropolitan area is established by a presidential decree in 2011. It is a leading economic centre in western Indonesia, especially for provinces of Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra and Riau. The metropolitan area also serves as a hub for western Indonesia.
West Muna Regency is a new regency of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, established under Act No.14 of 2014, dated 23 July 2014 by separation from the Muna Regency. It covers an area of 906.28 km2, and the districts comprising it had a population of 71,632 at the 2010 Census; the 2020 Census resulted in a population of 84,590, and the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 84,777, comprising 41,888 males and 42,889 females.The administrative centre lies at Laworo.
Central Buton Regency is a new regency of Southeast Sulawesi established by separation from Buton Regency under Act No.15 of 2014, dated 23 July 2014. It covers an area of 837.08 km2 comprising the southern parts of Muna Island and Kabaena Island, together with several small offshore islands adjacent to the two main islands. It had a population of 86,112 at the 2010 Census and 114,773 at the 2020 Census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 116,599. The administrative centre lies at Labungkari.
South Buton Regency is a regency located in Southeast Sulawesi. This regency was formed from the southern part of Buton Regency, from which it was separated by Act No.16 of 2014, dated 23 July 2014. It covers an area of 546.58 km2, and the population of the districts now comprising the new regency was 74,974 at the 2010 Census and 95,261 at the 2020 Census. The regency capital is located in Batauga.
This is a list of emblems or coat of arms used in Indonesia. Indonesia is divided into 37 provinces, and each province is divided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). There are 416 regencies and 98 cities. Each province, regency, and city has its own emblem.
Central Sumatra was a province in Indonesia whose territories included present day West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, and the Riau Islands. Since 1957 this province has not been registered as an Indonesian province after it was dissolved by Emergency Law No 19/1957 and divided into the provinces of West Sumatra, Riau and Jambi through Law No 61/1958 by the Sukarno government.