Balikpapan

Last updated

Balikpapan
City of Balikpapan
Kota Balikpapan
2018-12-04 Balikpapan cropped.jpg
2017-11-14 Batakan.jpg
Gedung DPRD Balikpapan.jpg
E-Walk Balikpapan.JPG
Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman International Airport.jpg
2018-06-13 Balikpapan Islamic Center.jpg
Kantor Kepolisian Daerah Kalimantan Timur.jpg
Clockwise from top: Central business district, Balikpapan Regional People's Representative Council, Sepinggan International Airport, East Kalimantan Regional Police, Balikpapan Islamic Center, E-Walk shopping mall, and Batakan Stadium
Coat of arms of Balikpapan.svg
Etymology: id: Balik (Behind) and Papan (Plank)
Nicknames: 
id: Balikpapan Kota Beriman (Balikpapan, City of Believers)
Motto(s): 
bjn: Gawi Manuntung Waja Sampai Kaputing (Hard Work until Finish)
Anthem: Hymne Balikpapan"
Lokasi Kalimantan Timur Kota Balikpapan.svg
Location within East Kalimantan
Balikpapan
Interactive Map of Balikpapan
Indonesia Kalimantan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Balikpapan
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Balikpapan
Balikpapan (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 1°16′36.5″S116°49′39.8″E / 1.276806°S 116.827722°E / -1.276806; 116.827722 Coordinates: 1°16′36.5″S116°49′39.8″E / 1.276806°S 116.827722°E / -1.276806; 116.827722
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Kalimantan
Province Coat of arms of East Kalimantan.svg East Kalimantan
Established10 February 1897
Government
  TypeCity
  BodyCity of Balikpapan Government
  MayorRahmad Mas'ud
  Vice MayorVacant
Area
  Total503.3 km2 (194.3 sq mi)
  Water160.1 km2 (61.8 sq mi)
Elevation
52 m (171 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total688,318
  Density1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
Demographics
  Ethnic groups
  Religion [1] Islam 89.50%
Protestanism 7.51%
Catholic 1.78%
Buddhism 0.95%
Hinduism 0.12%
Confucianism 0.01%
Others 0.01%
Time zone UTC+8 (WITA)
Postal Code
List
  • 76111, 76112, 76113, 76114, 76115, 76116, 76117, 76118, 76119, 76121, 76122, 76123, 76124, 76125, 76126, 76127, 76128, 76129, 76131, 76132, 76133, 76134, 76136 [2]
Area code(s) (+62) 542
Vehicle registration KT
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.801 (Very High) [3]
AirportSultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Sepinggan International Airport
Website balikpapan.go.id

Balikpapan is a seaport city in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Located on the east coast of the island of Borneo (Kalimantan), the city is the financial center of Kalimantan and the main gateway to the new capital of Indonesia. [4] [5] [6] Balikpapan is the city with the largest economy in Kalimantan with an estimated 2016 GDP at Rp 73.18 trillion. [7] The city has both the busiest airport and seaport in Kalimantan, namely Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Sepinggan Airport and Port of Semayang. With a population of 688,318 as at the 2020 Census, Balikpapan is the second most populous city in East Kalimantan, after Samarinda. [8] Balikpapan has been consistently ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Indonesia. [9] [10]

Contents

Balikpapan was originally a fishing village built by Buginese people in the 19th century. The first oil drilling began in Balikpapan on 10 February 1897, which was later set as the anniversary of the city. In 1899, the Dutch East Indies colonial administration granted a township status to Balikpapan. In 1907, Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij (BPM) made the city as its headquarters and imported skilled laborers, engineers, and managers from overseas. Subsequently, numerous multi-national companies came to Balikpapan to invest in the oil industry. This resulted in the economic boom of Balikpapan and attracted many migrants and expatriates. [11]

During World War II, the Empire of Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in first Balikpapan Battle in 1942 and second battle in 1945. The battles impacted critical infrastructure, including the oil refinery stations and seaport which were completely burned to the ground. Upon Indonesia's independence, BPM extended its activities in Balikpapan until 1965 when Pertamina, the Indonesian state-owned oil company, took control over the ownership of BPM and its oil exploration activities. [11]

Etymology and nicknames

There are several popular stories and legends explaining the origin of Balikpapan: [12] [13]

The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Oil City, City of Believers (Kota Beriman), which uniquely "BERIMAN" word is acronym from: BERsih (clean), Indah (magnificent), dan nyaMAN (comfortable). [15]

History

Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij oil refinery, 1910s COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Gezicht over de Baai van Balikpapan met olietanks en steigers van de Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij (BPM) TMnr 60018714.jpg
Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij oil refinery, 1910s

Before the oil boom of the early 1900s, Balikpapan was an isolated Bugis fishing village. Balikpapan's toponym (balik = "behind" and papan = "plank") is from a folk story in which a local king threw his newborn daughter into the sea to protect her from his enemies. The baby was tied beneath some planks that were discovered by a fisherman. An alternative story is that, at the time of the Kutai sultanate, Sultan Muhammad Idris sent 1000 planks to aid the Paser Kingdom to build a new palace. The planks were shipped from Kutai to Paser along the Borneo shoreline by roping all the planks together. 10 out of the 1000 planks that were originally shipped resurfaced in a place currently called Balikpapan.

Oil Development

On 10 February 1897, [16] a small refinery company, Mathilda, began the first oil drilling. [17] Building of roads, wharves, warehouses, offices, barracks, and bungalows started when the Dutch oil company Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij (BPM) arrived in the area.

Second World War

Battle of Balikpapan (1945) RAAF B-25s attack Balikpapan 1945.jpg
Battle of Balikpapan (1945)

On 24 January 1942, a Japanese invasion convoy arrived at Balikpapan and was attacked by four United States Navy destroyers that sank three Japanese transports. [18] The Japanese army landed and met with no opposition by the Dutch troops, which had been ordered to evacuate after destroying the oil installations. [19] In responds to this, the Japanese massacred 78 Dutch POWs and civilians. [20]

Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) intelligence determined that half of all lubricating oils used by the Japanese military and 60 percent of all their aviation fuel came from refineries in Balikpapan, and it was therefore an extremely important target. The American 380th Bombardment Group under the command of the RAAF, including the famous B-24 Liberator Shady Lady, attacked the oil refineries in August 1943 from Darwin, Australia. Amazingly, there were no aircraft losses, despite the crash landing and subsequent repair of the Shady Lady.

In September and October 1944, the 5th and 13th Air Forces under the command of General George Kenney launched a series of five raids from Noemfoor Island. [21] [22] Kenney was a strong advocate for using the powerful B-29 Superfortress for this raid but was forced to use the B-24 Liberator instead. Unbeknownst to the Allied forces, the Japanese Air Force had conserved many of its dwindling numbers of fighters to protect the important oil refineries. The first two raids did not have fighter cover and suffered severe losses.

The 1945 Battle of Balikpapan concluded the Borneo campaign and Allied forces took control of Borneo island. Extensive wartime damage curtailed almost all oil production in the area until Royal Dutch Shell completed major repairs in 1950.

CIA Air Raid

In 1958, the CIA attacked Balikpapan and stopped oil exports. The US was running a CIA covert mission to undermine President Sukarno's government by supporting right-wing rebels in Indonesia. The CIA, Taiwan and the Philippines had provided the Permesta rebels in North Sulawesi with an insurgent air force, the Angkatan Udara Revolusioner (AUREV). On 28 April 1958, a CIA pilot, William H. Beale, flying a B-26 Invader bomber aircraft that was painted black and showing no markings, [23] dropped 500 pounds (230 kilograms) of four bombs on Balikpapan. The first damaged the runway at Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport, the second set the British oil tanker SS San Flaviano on fire and sank her [24] [25] [26] and the third bounced off the British tanker MV Daronia without exploding. [27] Beale's fourth bomb set on fire and sank the Indonesian Navy Bathurst-classcorvette KRI Hang Tuah, killing 18 crew and wounding 28. [27] Before attacking Hang Tuah, Beale also machine-gunned the oil pipes to Shell's wharf. [27]

The CIA had orders to attack unarmed foreign merchant ships in order to drive foreign trade away from Indonesia and weaken its economy, with the intention of undermining Sukarno's government. [27] The day before attacking Balikpapan, Beale had also damaged a Shell complex at Ambon, Maluku. [28] His Balikpapan raid succeeded in persuading Shell to suspend tanker services from Balikpapan and withdraw shore-based wives and families to Singapore. [25] However, on 18 May Indonesian naval and air forces off Ambon Island shot down an AUREV B-26 and captured its CIA pilot, Allen Pope. [29] [30] The US immediately withdrew support for Permesta, whose rebellion rapidly diminished thereafter.

Subsequent History

Shell continued operating in the area until Indonesian state-owned Pertamina took it over in 1965. [17] Lacking technology, skilled manpower, and capital to explore the petroleum region, Pertamina sublet petroleum concession contracts to multinational companies in the 1970s.[ citation needed ]

With the only oil refinery site in the region, Balikpapan emerged as a revitalized center of petroleum production. Pertamina opened its East Borneo headquarters in the city, followed by branch offices established by other international oil companies. Hundreds of laborers from Indonesia, along with skilled expatriates who served as managers and engineers, flocked into the city.[ citation needed ]

Geography

Topography

Topography of Balikpapan is generally hilly (85%), with only small areas of flat land (15%), mostly along the coast and surrounding the hilly areas. The hills are less than 100 meters (330 feet) higher than the adjacent valleys. The altitude of Balikpapan ranges from 0 to 80 meters (260 feet) above sea level. The city proper itself is located on eastern side of Bay of Balikpapan.

Most of the soil in Balikpapan contains yellow-reddish podsolic soil and alluvial and quartz sand, making it extremely prone to erosion. [31]

Climate

Balikpapan features a tropical rainforest climate (Af) as there is no real dry season in Balikpapan. The city sees an average of 2,400 millimeters (94 inches) of rain per year. Balikpapan generally shows little variation in weather throughout the course of the year. The city does not have significantly wetter and drier periods of the year and average temperatures are nearly identical throughout the course of the year, averaging about 26 to 27 degrees Celsius (79–81 degrees Fahrenheit) throughout the year. [32]

Climate data for Balikpapan, elevation: 7 meters or 23 feet, extremes 1974–1980
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
32.2
(90.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30
(86)
31.1
(88.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
Average high °C (°F)29.9
(85.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
30.1
(86.2)
29.5
(85.1)
29.0
(84.2)
29.5
(85.1)
29.6
(85.3)
30.3
(86.5)
30.2
(86.4)
30.1
(86.2)
29.9
(85.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.6
(79.9)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
26.5
(79.7)
26.1
(79.0)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
Average low °C (°F)23.1
(73.6)
23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.4
(74.1)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.4
(74.1)
23.3
(73.9)
23.4
(74.1)
Record low °C (°F)21.1
(70.0)
21.7
(71.1)
21.1
(70.0)
21.1
(70.0)
18
(64)
15.6
(60.1)
20
(68)
20.6
(69.1)
19.4
(66.9)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70.0)
21.1
(70.0)
15.6
(60.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)187
(7.4)
172
(6.8)
249
(9.8)
196
(7.7)
223
(8.8)
265
(10.4)
244
(9.6)
230
(9.1)
221
(8.7)
140
(5.5)
177
(7.0)
235
(9.3)
2,539
(100.1)
Average precipitation days151518171717171415151419193
Average relative humidity (%)74727274767575727071737073
Mean daily sunshine hours 4.05.06.07.07.07.07.08.07.07.07.05.06.4
Percent possible sunshine 33425058585858675858584253
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (average temperature) [33] and Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System (extreme temperature) [34] [35]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (precipitation and humidity) [36] Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [37]
Climate data for Balikpapan
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °C (°F)29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
28.0
(82.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
28.9
(83.8)
Mean daily daylight hours12.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.0
Average Ultraviolet index 11+11+11+11+11+111111+11+11+11+11+11
Source: Weather Atlas [37]

Ecology

Sun bear is an endangered animal and official mascot of Balikpapan Sun Bear 7.jpg
Sun bear is an endangered animal and official mascot of Balikpapan

In Wain River Protection Forest, which is the main water catchment area and habitat for endangered species of Borneo, the community begins to encroach on how to burn it so that during the dry season some areas become barren and damage 40%. [38] The area of Wain River forest reaches 10,000 hectares (25,000 acres), slowly but surely continues to decrease, leaving 9,000 hectares (22,000 acres) with forest conditions that are still good at only 63 percents. [39] Residents around looked for wood to cook in the forest even though the surrounding area had been lined with wire. [39] Previously between 2000 and 2001, illegal logging occurred in 10 to 15 points in the Wain River forest, [40] and in 2009 this forest was hit by a fire along with the Manggar River forest which made 15 hectares (37 acres) of forest area engulfed in fire. [39] The threat of coal mining from the surrounding area which provides mining permits such as Paser and Kutai Kartanegara also disrupts the border ecosystem of Wain River forest. [40]

The urban forest in Telagasari, which was inaugurated in 1996 with an area of 29.4 hectares (73 acres), has now shrunk to just around 8 hectares (20 acres). [41] The forest in the middle of this city has been surrounded by residential areas. [41] The protected forest of the Manggar River also suffered considerable damage, which is around 60%. [42] The reservoirs in this forest are also threatened because coal mining fields and brick mills were set up so close that there was siltation of reservoir water. [43] The majority of those who founded it were even known to be immigrant communities. [43] In addition, the construction of the Samarinda-Balikpapan toll road planned by the East Kalimantan government which divides the forest for 8 kilometers across the reservoir [44] could damage the quality of the clean water reserve in Balikpapan. [45]

Forest damage resulted in Balikpapan being easily hit by floods and landslides when it was hit by heavy rains. [46] Clean water supply is also decreasing [46] because water absorption is narrowing, [46] erosion is easily to occur [45] and sediment from mining sites that flow into the river worsens [47] and lowers reservoirs, [43] coupled with Balikpapan conditions has few rivers [47] and less fertile land. [48] The population of the Balikpapan's mascot, the sun bear is fewer and only 50 are left. [49] This is due to coal mining which narrows the habitat of sun bears, so its are reluctant to reproduce. [50] In addition to sun bears, other Balikpapan animals that are declared endangered are proboscis monkeys, borneo gibbon, bornean orangutans, pangolin and otter civet. [51] Whereas extinct animals in Balikpapan are Bornean Banteng (Bos javanicus lowi). [51]

Administrative divisions

Balikpapan is bordered by Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the North, by the Makassar Strait to the South and East, and by Penajam North Paser Regency to the West. The city is divided into 6 districts (kecamatan) and 34 subdistricts (kelurahan) tabulated below with their 2010 [52] and 2020 Census population. [53]

Map of Balikpapan Balikpapan Administration Division Districts.jpg
Map of Balikpapan
#Districts

(Kecamatan)

Urban villages

(Kelurahan)

Population
(2010)
Population
(2020)
Area

(km2)

1 East Balikpapan

(Balikpapan Timur)

Manggar60,66490,24335,255
Manggar Baru3,836
Lamaru48,555
Teritip49,512
2West Balikpapan

(Balikpapan Barat)

Baru Ilir83,41294,1230,589
Baru Tengah0,570
Baru Ulu0,955
Margomulyo1,845
Margasari0,665
Kariangau175,328
3North Balikpapan

(Balikpapan Utara)

Gunung Samarinda123,214169,1592,703
Gunung Samarinda Baru3,035
Muara Rapak3,527
Batu Ampar10,553
Karang Joang93,090
Graha Indah19,254
4Central Balikpapan

(Balikpapan Tengah)

Gunung Sari Ilir98,552106,9521,141
Gunung Sari Ulu1,825
Mekar Sari1,287
Karang Rejo1,205
Sumber Rejo2,205
Karang Jati3,411
5South Balikpapan

(Balikpapan Selatan)

Gunung Bahagia191,737145,0073,735
Sepinggan7,812
Damai Baru2,149
Damai Bahagia3,708
Sepinggan Raya6,588
Sepinggan Baru10,618
Sungai Nangka3,204
6Balikpapan Town

(Balikpapan Kota)

Prapatanincluded
in figure
for South
Balikpapan
82,8433,141
Telaga Sari2,538
Klandasan Ulu0,890
Klandasan Ilir1,435
Damai2,221

Demographics

During the Suharto dictatorship Balikpapan achieved unprecedented economic growth by attracting foreign investments, particularly in the exploitation of natural and mineral resources. The policy was heavily criticized for uncontrolled environmental damage and corrupt bureaucrats and politicians, but it significantly boosted urban development in resource-rich cities. In the 1970s Balikpapan experienced 7% population growth annually, while exports of timber and petroleum increased dramatically. [17]

The indigenous tribe of Balikpapan is the Balik ethnic group which is a minority. [54] Based on its origin, migrants come from neighbouring islands such as Java, Madura and Sulawesi. Residents mainly from ethnic migrants who have long settled in Balikpapan, namely from the ethnic Banjar, Bugis, Makassar, and Javanese. Other migrants including ethnic Minahasan, Gorontaloan, Madurese, and Sundanese. [55] At the beginning of June 2014, the population reached 684,339 people with the number of arrivals during 2012 of 21,486 people, the highest number in the past three years. [56] The number of migrants was able to exceed the number of newcomers who entered in Singapore in the same year which was as many as 20,693 inhabitants. The highest number of arrivals came from Java, which was 30%, then followed by Banjar and Bugis each by 20%, Toraja by 11%, Madura by 8%, Buton by 7% and Betawi by 4%. [57]

Indonesian Most Liveable City

Based on Indonesian Most Liveable City Index which measured 27 indicators in every 2 years, Balikpapan is the best city for living in 2013 and toppled Yogyakarta as the best in 2011 and 2009. Balikpapan mainly maintained city management aspects and environment wellbeing. [58] As part of the Earth Hour City Challenge, the city of Balikpapan, Indonesia was recognized as the Most Loveable City for 2015. In 2016, Balikpapan was nominated for the second time as the most lovable and sustainable city, pending final judgement.

Economy

Balikpapan oil refinery in 1988 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Luchtfoto olieraffinaderij TMnr 20017995.jpg
Balikpapan oil refinery in 1988

Some multinational corporations operate in East Borneo. Companies including Baker Hughes (US), ChevronTexaco (US), Halliburton (US), Pertamina (Indonesia), Schlumberger (France), Thiess (Australia), Total S.A. (France) and Weatherford International (US) use Balikpapan as their base of operations in the region. Governmental public services including Bank Indonesia, the Finance Department, Angkasa Pura 1, [59] the Port of Semayang, and several others also attract many people to work in this area.

Balikpapan has been chosen as the site of some important governmental agencies such as Komando Daerah Militer VI Tanjungpura and Kepolisian Daerah Kaltim. [60]

Balikpapan oil refinery is on the shore of Balikpapan Bay and covers an area of 2.5 square kilometers (0.97 square miles). Founded in 1922, it is the oldest refinery in the area. The Allies destroyed it in the Second World War and Shell re-built it in 1950. The refinery has two subunits, Balikpapan I and Balikpapan II.

Balikpapan I has two raw oil refinery units that produce naphtha, kerosene, gasoline, diesel fuel, and residue and one high-vacuum unit that produces 100 metric tons (110 short tons) of paraffin oil distillate (POD), used as raw material for wax factories. The wax itself has various grades and is sold domestically and internationally.

Opened on 1 November 1983, Balikpapan II has a hydro-skimming and hydro-cracking refinery and produces petrol, LPG, naphtha, kerosene, and diesel fuel.

Indonesian government and their Pertamina planning as for 2017 expanding the oil refinery including the area of Persiba Balikpapan FC (old) stadium and Pertamina residents near the refinery. Balikpapan's former mayor Rizal Effendi ask for primarily using Balikpapan peoples as worker that Pertamina needed up to 20.000 new employers.

Tourism

As a coastal city, Balikpapan has many beaches, including Manggar Beach, Segara Beach, Monument Beach, Kemala Beach, and Brigade Mobile Beach near the police academy. Melawai Beach is the most popular for local citizens. [61]

Balikpapan is a departure point for nature tourism. Wain River Protected Forest, a Balikpapan natural reserve covering 10,000 hectares and also the habitat to a number of endangered animals, like the Beruang Madu (honey bear) which are sun bears endemic to the area, Orangutans and Proboscis monkeys or Bekantan. Wain river reserve, moreover, houses a number of endangered plants. Near Balikpapan is also a crocodile farm called Teritip, in Lamaru. [62]

There is also a well-known forest site which has been developed for visitors at Bukit Bangkirai rainforest, about 45 minutes by car from Balikpapan. [63]

A mangrove forest at Kariangau is a worthwhile tourist attraction at Balikpapan. There are still some Japanese artillery sites from World War II, and there is a military monument at Kampung Baru. [64]

2018-09-08 Balikpapan Kemala Beach Panorama.jpg
Panorama of Kemala Beach.

Balikpapan Botanical Garden

It is the first Botanical Garden in Kalimantan as a part of Hutan Lindung Sungai Wain (Wain River Conservation Forest) with total area 10,000 hectares (25,000 acres) and still has orangutan, sunbear, deer, and some endemic species of Kalimantan birds. [65] Balikpapan Botanical Garden, which is located at kilometer 15 on Jalan Soekarno Hatta, was officially opened on 20 August 2014. It has 1,200 types of lowland hardwood trees, covers 309.22 hectares (764.1 acres) and is known as the "green open space" of the city. [66] At the opening ceremony, Forestry Minister Zulkifli Hasan expressed the hope that the Botanical Garden would rival Gardens by the Bay in Singapore. [67]

Shopping

As one of the fastest developing cities in the nation, Balikpapan has been supported by the rise of shopping centers. There are six major shopping malls in town which are Plaza Balikpapan, Balikpapan Superblock, Pentacity Mall Balikpapan, Balcony City, Mall Fantasy in Balikpapan Baru, and Plaza Kebun Sayur. [68]

Transport

Airport

Sepinggan Airport, one of the busiest airports in Indonesia Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman International Airport.jpg
Sepinggan Airport, one of the busiest airports in Indonesia

Balikpapan is served by Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport, which was previously known as Sepinggan airport. The airport has capacity to serve 10 million passengers per year, as well as hospitality (immigration, passenger convenience, company reps offices, restaurants, shopping, lodging, and many others). The airport is equipped with 11 aerobridges, a transit hotel, and four-level parking garages. [69] [70]

Seaports

There are several public and private sea ports located at Balikpapan Bay. Semayang seaport serves commercial boats to many destinations to Indonesia including Jakarta, Makassar, Manado, Pare Pare and Surabaya. In the 1990s maritime transport was very popular. Today, due to more affordable and efficient airplane travel, more people choose to fly. Taking the ferry is a main choice for traveling to Penajam. Kariangau Seaport was built to serve containers and all other industrial needs. It is located in km.13, as part of Kariangau Industrial Estate. [71] The large coal loading port of Tanjung Bara (TBCT) lies about 180 kilometers (110 miles) to the north of Balikpapan. [72]

Public transports

There are various kinds of local transport, including angkot, ojek, taxicabs and shuttle bus service. Go-Jek, Grab, Maxim and inDriver are also available.

Terminal bus

There is main bus terminal is Terminal Batu Ampar (located in Batu Ampar, Balikpapan Utara) and one of major destination rute is Samarinda.

Samarinda-Balikpapan Expressway

Balikpapan is connected by Trans-Kalimantan Highway Southern Route. From Balikpapan to Samarinda, the highway runs in parallel with the first controlled-access expressway in Borneo, the Samarinda-Balikpapan Expressway was operational by the beginning of 2020 in section 2-4, and opened in section 1 and 5 on May 2021. [73]

Notes

  1. Banyaknya Pemeluk Agama Menurut Golongan Agama dan Kabupaten/Kota 2015 - Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Kalimantan Timur <https://kaltim.bps.go.id/statictable/2015/03/17/321/banyaknya-pemeluk-agama-menurut-golongan-agama-dan-kabupaten-kota-2015.html>
  2. Postal Code, Indonesia. "Kode Pos Kota Balikpapan - Kalimantan Timur". carikodepos.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  3. Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Kota Balikpapan, Badan Pusat Statistik, 2018
  4. Media, Kompas Cyber (22 March 2014). "Balikpapan Menuju Kota Metropolitan - Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  5. "Balikpapan Jadi Salah Satu Kandidat Kuat Ibu Kota Baru - Katadata News" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  6. "Ibu Kota Negara Jadi Pindah ke Kaltim, Begini Respons Wali Kota Balikpapan".
  7. Badan Pusat Statistik (2017). Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia 2012-2016. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  8. https://balikpapankota.bps.go.id/statictable/2019/05/16/69/jumlah-penduduk-menurut-kecamatan-dan-jenis-kelamin-di-kota-balikpapan-tahun-2018.html
  9. https://nasional.okezone.com/read/2018/03/19/337/1874943/ini-7-kota-layak-huni-di-indonesia-nomor-4-favorit-para-turis
  10. "Balikpapan, Kota Paling Layak Huni di Indonesia". 12 August 2014.
  11. 1 2 Magenda, Burhan Djabier (2010). East Kalimantan: The Decline of a Commercial Aristocracy. Equinox Publishing. ISBN   9786028397216.
  12. Maula, Amiruddin (1994). Cerita rakyat dari Kalimantan Timur (in Indonesian). Grasindo. ISBN   9789795533962.
  13. 1 2 3 "Etymology of Balikpapan". ceritarakyatnusantara.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  14. Wikanjati, Argo (2010). Kumpulan Kisah Nyata Hantu di 13 Kota (in Indonesian). Penerbit Narasi. ISBN   9789791682145.
  15. "Balikpapan motto and seal". balikpapan.go.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  16. Tranujaya, Herry (August 2014). "Minyak dan Revolusi". Vidya Karunia: 34.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. 1 2 3 Wood, William B (April 1986). "Intermediate Cities on a Resource Frontier". Geographical Review . American Geographical Society. 76 (2): 149–159. doi:10.2307/214621. JSTOR   214621.
  18. Muir, Dan (1999–2000). "The Balikpapan Raid". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  19. L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Balikpapan, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  20. L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Balikpapan Massacre, February 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  21. Bunnell, John G. "Knockout Blow? The Army Air Force's Operations against Ploesti and Balikpapan" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  22. Grant, Peter. "Weekend Wings #28: The Balikpapan Raid". Bayou Renaissance Man. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  23. Conboy & Morrison 1999, p. 88.
  24. Lettens, Jan (6 January 2011). "SS San Flaviano [+1958]". The Wreck Site. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  25. 1 2 David Ormsby-Gore, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs (11 June 1958). "INDONESIA (BRITISH VESSELS". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . United Kingdom: Commons. col. 202–203. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  26. "INDONESIA: The Mystery Pilots". Time . 12 May 1958. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  27. 1 2 3 4 Conboy & Morrison 1999, p. 116.
  28. Conboy & Morrison 1999, p. 115.
  29. Conboy & Morrison 1999, pp. 138, 139, 141.
  30. Kahin & Kahin 1997, p. 179.
  31. "Pemerintah Kota Balikpapan | Pemerintah Kota Balikpapan". balikpapan.go.id. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  32. "Daylight Hours in Balikpapan, Borneo, Indonesia Daylength". www.balikpapan.climatemps.com. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  33. "Climate: Balikpapan". Climat-Data.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  34. "INDONESIA - BALIKPAPAN". www.globalbioclimatics.org. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  35. "INDONESIA - BALIKPAPAN (google web cache)". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  36. "STATIONSNUMMER 96633" (PDF). Danish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  37. 1 2 "Balikpapan, Indonesia - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  38. Darussalam (6 September 2001). "Penduduk Bertambah, Perambahan Hutan di Balikpapan Marak". Liputan 6. Jakarta: Liputan6.com. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  39. 1 2 3 "Ironis, Kawasan HLSW Tersisa 63 Persen, Akibat Penjarahan Warga dan Pihak Tertentu". Sungaiwain.org. 14 January 2010. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  40. 1 2 "Hutan Lindung Sungai Wain Terus Diintai". Sungaiwain.org. 2 January 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  41. 1 2 Syarifuddin, Amir (2 August 2010). "Hutan Kota di Balikpapan Menyusut Drastis". Seputar Indonesia. Jakarta: Seputar-indonesia.com. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  42. Debi (1 May 2012). "Bappeda Dukung Pengelola DAS Manggar". SmartFM. Balikpapan: Radiosmartfm.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  43. 1 2 3 "HLSM, Jantung Balikpapan". Sungaiwain.org. 14 June 2012. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  44. Utama (22 January 2013). "Rp 4,2 T Masih di Awang-Awang". Kaltim Post. Balikpapan: Kaltimpost.co.id. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  45. 1 2 "Jalan Tol Ancam Sumber Air Bersih". Sungaiwain.org. 18 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  46. 1 2 3 "Warga Khawatir Kondisi Hutan kota". Balikpapan Post. Balikpapan: Balikpapanpos.co.id. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  47. 1 2 "Kaltim Bergantung Air Permukaan". Indonesia Business Links. Jakarta: Ibl.or.id. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  48. "Geologi". Balikpapan.go.id. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  49. Daud, Basir (10 February 2011). "Populasi Beruang Madu Tinggal 50 Ekor". TribunKaltim. Balikpapan: Tribunnews.com. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  50. Prasetya, Lukas Adi (23 February 2011). "Tidak Gampang Beruang Madu Bereproduksi". Kompas. Jakarta: Kompas.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  51. 1 2 "Beruang Madu Terancam Punah". Sungaiwain.org. 9 April 2010. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  52. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  53. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  54. http://www.portalkbr.com/nusantara/kalimantan/3118372_4266.html
  55. Dinas Kependudukan. "Statistik Penduduk". Balikpapan.go.id. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  56. Kotwani, Monica (25 February 2013). "More than 20,000 Singapore Citizenship applications approved in 2012". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore: Channelnewsasia.com. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  57. Wita Dahliyani. "Manajemen Pengendalian Penduduk Pendatang Dalam Upaya Perbaikan Lingkungan kota Balikpapan". Ipb.ac.id. Retrieved 22 August 2019.[ permanent dead link ]
  58. Titis Jati Permata (12 August 2014). "Malang, Masuk Deretan Kota Paling Nyaman dan Layak Huni".
  59. Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport. "Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport - Balikpapan".
  60. "Kepolisian Daerah Kalimantan Timur".
  61. "15 Best Places to Visit in Kalimantan (Indonesia)". The Crazy Tourist. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  62. "Balikpapan - Wonderful Indonesia". www.indonesia.travel. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  63. "9 Tempat Wisata di Balikpapan Paling Rekomended untuk Traveler". GoTravelly (in Indonesian). 6 August 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  64. "| Hutan Mangrove Center Kariangau Graha Indah". disporapar.balikpapan.go.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  65. S.G. Wibisono. "Kebun Raya Pertama di Kalimantan Diresmikan" . Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  66. "Kebun Raya Balikpapan Bertemakan Tumbuhan Kayu". 20 August 2014.
  67. "Menhut Mimpi KRB seperti Garden By di Singapura". 20 August 2014.
  68. "5 Mall Terbaik di Balikpapan". Gotomalls Blog. 24 April 2018. Archived from the original on 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  69. PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero). "Topping-Off Bandara Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman - Angkasa Pura - Airports".
  70. "Balikpapan Pos - PROKAL.co". balikpapan.prokal.co.
  71. ".::Kamar Dagang dan Industri Propinsi Kalimantan Timur::. » Blog Archive » 350 MW Listrik Dari Kawasan Industri Kariangau (KIK)".
  72. Admiralty sailing directions - Indonesia (10th ed.). Taunton: UK Hydrographic office. 15 July 2015.
  73. North Kalimantan Province Road Map - by the Road Preservation Directorate, Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing, Indonesia.

Related Research Articles

East Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

East Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo. It had a population of about 3.03 million at the 2010 Census, 3.42 million at the 2015 Census, and 3.766 million at the 2020 census. Its capital is the city of Samarinda.

Samarinda City and Capital of East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Samarinda is the capital city of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. The city lies on the banks of the Mahakam River with a land area of 718 km2 (277 sq mi). Samarinda ranks first on East Borneo Human Development Index and it is the most populous city on the entire Borneo island, with a population of 727,500 at the 2010 Census and 827,994 at the 2020 Census.

Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Sepinggan Airport Airport in Balikpapan, Indonesia

Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Sepinggan International Airport, also known as Sepinggan Airport, is an international airport serving the city of Balikpapan and adjacent areas of East Kalimantan, located in Kalimantan, Indonesia. The airport began its new operational phase on 6 August 1997, with new building and runway structure, replacing old structure on the same site. The airport is operated by PT. Angkasa Pura I, which has an area of 300 hectares.

Persiba Balikpapan Association football team in Indonesia

Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Balikpapan, commonly known as Persiba Balikpapan, is an professional football club based in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The club plays in Liga 2, after relegation from Liga 1 in 2017 season.

Bontang City in Indonesia

Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan. It occupies an area of 161.88 km2 (62.50 sq mi), and the population was 140,787 at the 2010 Census, and 178,917 at the 2020 Census. It is also the third most densely populated place in the province after Balikpapan and Samarinda.

Tarakan City in North Kalimantan, Indonesia

Tarakan is an island and the largest city of the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. The island city is located in northern Borneo, midway along the coast of the province. The city boundaries are co-extensive with the island. Once a major oil-producing region during the colonial period, Tarakan had great strategic importance during the Pacific War and was among the first Japanese targets early in the conflict. It is the sole city within the newly established Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. According to Statistics Indonesia, the city had a population of 193,370 at the 2010 Census and 242,786 inhabitants at the 2020 Census.

Kutai Kartanegara Regency Regency in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Kutai Kartanegara Regency is a regency of East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. It has a land area of 27,263.10 km2 and a water area of 4,097 km2, geographically located between 1°18′40″S and 116°31′36″E. The population of the regency was 626,286 at the 2010 Census and 729,382 at the 2020 Census. The town of Tenggarong is the capital of the regency.

Aji Pangeran Tumenggung Pranoto International Airport A civil airport on the district of Sungai Siring, Samarinda

Aji Pangeran Tumenggung Pranoto International Airport, also known as APT Pranoto Airport or Samarinda Airport, is the main airport in Samarinda, the capital city of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is in the district of Sungai Siring. The airport is also colloquially known as Sungai Siring Airport, to distinguish it from its predecessor, the now-closed Temindung Airport. The airport is named after Aji Pangeran Tumenggung Pranoto, the first governor of East Kalimantan who was in office from 1957 to 1961.

East Kutai Regency Regency in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

East Kutai Regency is a regency of East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. It has an area of 35,747.50 km² and had a population of 253,904 at the 2010 Census and 434,459 at the 2020 Census. The town of Sangatta is the capital of the regency.

Balikpapan Bay

Balikpapan Bay, is a bay in Indonesia, near Borneo island close to the city of Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Indonesian company Pertamina has its largest oil refinery on the eastern side of the bay.

Paser Regency Regency in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Paser Regency is a Regency (kabupaten) within East Kalimantan province in Indonesia, it is the southernmost regency of the East Kalimantan province. Its administrative centre is Tana Paser. It covers an area of 11,603.94 km2, and it had a population of 230,316 at the 2010 Census and 275,452 at the 2020 Census. Before 2007, this regency was formerly named Pasir Regency.

Penajam North Paser Regency Regency in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Penajam North Paser Regency is a regency (kabupaten) located in East Kalimantan province in Indonesia. Its administrative centre is the town of Penajam. The area which now forms Penajam North Paser was part of Paser Regency until its separation in the year 2002. It covers an area of 3,333.06 km2 and it had 142,922 inhabitants at the 2010 Census and 178,681 at the 2020 Census. Penajam North Paser Regency has the smallest area among the seven regencies in East Kalimantan province.

Mulawarman University

The Universitas Mulawarman is a public university located in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was established on September 27, 1962, making it the oldest tertiary education institution in East Kalimantan. With more than 35,000 students, Universitas Mulawarman is the university with the most students in Kalimantan. Its main campus is in Gunung Kelua, while other campuses are in Pahlawan Road, Banggeris Street and Flores Street of Samarinda.

North Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

North Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northernmost of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. North Kalimantan borders the Malaysian states of Sabah to the north and Sarawak to the west, and by the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan to the south. Tanjung Selor serves as the capital of the province, while Tarakan is the largest city and the financial centre.

Sintang Regency Regency in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Sintang Regency is a regency of West Kalimantan province of Indonesia. It covers an area of 21,638.2 km2, and had a population of 364,759 at the 2010 Census, 395,890 at the 2015 Census and 421,306 at the 2020 Census. The principal town lies at Sintang.

Balikpapan–Samarinda Toll Road or Balsam Toll Road is an expressway which is constructed to connect Balikpapan with Samarinda of East Kalimantan, Indonesia as well as proposed new capital city of the country. This is the first expressway in Borneo island, including its Indonesian part. The toll road is 99.3 kilometers (325,787 ft) long. Samboja-Samarinda section of the toll road is inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on 17 December 2019. The toll road is expected to be totally completed by April 2020.

<i>Amplang</i> Indonesian fish snacker snack

Amplang, also known as kerupuk kuku macan, is an Indonesian traditional savoury fish cracker snack commonly found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Amplang crackers are commonly made of ikan tenggiri (wahoo) or any type of Spanish mackerel, mixed with starch and other materials, and then fried.

West Balikpapan District in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

West Balikpapan is a district in the city of Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The area is 37.49 km² in water and on land an area of 179.952 km² or about 35.75% of Balikpapan area. West Balikpapan is bordered by Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the North, by North Balikpapan to the North-East, by Central Balikpapan to the East-South, and Balikpapan Bay to the South-West.

Fachrul Baraqbah (1925–1980) was an Indonesian politician who was a member of the Kutai Sultanate royal family and was a mid-level leader of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) until his arrest in 1965 during the anti-communist repression preceding the Transition to the New Order. As an aristocrat, he was considered an anomaly for supporting the Indonesian National Revolution, renouncing his royal title, and joining the PKI.

References