Tropical rainforest climate

Last updated
Worldwide zones of Tropical rainforest climate (Af). Koppen-Geiger Map Af present.svg
Worldwide zones of Tropical rainforest climate (Af).

A tropical rainforest climate or equatorial climate is a tropical climate usually found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator. They experience high mean annual temperatures, small temperature ranges, and rain that falls throughout the year. Regions with this climate are typically designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is typically hot, very humid, and wet.

Contents

Description

Tropical rain forests have a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season—all months have an average precipitation value of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). There are no distinct wet or dry seasons as rainfall is high throughout the months. One day in a tropical rainforest climate can be very similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. [1]

Equatorial climates and tropical trade-wind climates

When tropical rainforest climates are more dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) than the trade winds (and with no or rare cyclones), so usually located near the equator, they are also called equatorial climates. Otherwise, when they are more dominated by the trade winds than the ITCZ, they are called tropical trade-wind climates. In pure equatorial climates, the atmospheric pressure is low, almost constant so the (horizontal) pressure gradient is low. Consequently, the winds are rare and usually weak (except sea and land breezes in coastal areas) while in tropical trade-wind climates, often located at higher latitudes than the equatorial climates, wind is almost permanent which incidentally explains why rainforest formations are impoverished compared to those of equatorial climates due to their necessary resistance to strong winds accompanying tropical disturbances. [2] [3]

Cities with tropical rainforest climates

Paramaribo, Suriname
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
200
 
 
30
22
 
 
140
 
 
30
22
 
 
150
 
 
30
22
 
 
210
 
 
31
22
 
 
290
 
 
30
23
 
 
290
 
 
31
22
 
 
230
 
 
31
22
 
 
170
 
 
32
23
 
 
90
 
 
32
23
 
 
90
 
 
33
23
 
 
120
 
 
32
23
 
 
180
 
 
30
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source:
Mbandaka, DR Congo
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
80
 
 
31
19
 
 
100
 
 
32
20
 
 
150
 
 
32
20
 
 
140
 
 
31
20
 
 
130
 
 
31
20
 
 
110
 
 
30
19
 
 
100
 
 
30
17
 
 
100
 
 
29
17
 
 
200
 
 
30
19
 
 
210
 
 
30
19
 
 
190
 
 
30
19
 
 
120
 
 
30
19
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source:
Pontianak, Indonesia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
260
 
 
32
23
 
 
215
 
 
33
23
 
 
254
 
 
33
23
 
 
292
 
 
33
23
 
 
256
 
 
33
23
 
 
212
 
 
33
23
 
 
201
 
 
33
22
 
 
180
 
 
33
23
 
 
295
 
 
33
23
 
 
329
 
 
33
23
 
 
400
 
 
32
23
 
 
302
 
 
32
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source:
Kuching, Malaysia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
466
 
 
30
23
 
 
445
 
 
29
23
 
 
465
 
 
30
23
 
 
251
 
 
32
23
 
 
347
 
 
33
24
 
 
310
 
 
32
23
 
 
184
 
 
31
23
 
 
326
 
 
32
23
 
 
208
 
 
32
23
 
 
307
 
 
32
23
 
 
482
 
 
32
24
 
 
516
 
 
30
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Monthly Statistical Bulletin Sarawak
Davao, Philippines
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
140
 
 
31
23
 
 
109
 
 
31
23
 
 
108
 
 
32
24
 
 
125
 
 
33
24
 
 
159
 
 
33
25
 
 
187
 
 
32
24
 
 
165
 
 
32
24
 
 
170
 
 
32
24
 
 
170
 
 
32
24
 
 
175
 
 
32
24
 
 
138
 
 
32
24
 
 
113
 
 
31
24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source:
Quibdó, Colombia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
579
 
 
30
23
 
 
505
 
 
30
23
 
 
526
 
 
30
23
 
 
655
 
 
31
23
 
 
776
 
 
31
23
 
 
762
 
 
31
23
 
 
803
 
 
31
23
 
 
852
 
 
31
23
 
 
702
 
 
31
23
 
 
654
 
 
30
23
 
 
728
 
 
30
23
 
 
589
 
 
30
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source:

See also

Related Research Articles

Temperate climate Main climate class

In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small and usually only have precipitation changes.

Tropics Region of Earth surrounding the Equator

The tropics are the regions of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are defined in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′10.9″ (or 23.43637°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′10.9″ (or 23.43637°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone. The tropics also includes everywhere on Earth which is a subsolar point at least once during the solar year. Thus the maximum latitudes of the tropics have the same value positive and negative. Likewise, they approximate the angle of the Earth's axial tilt. The "angle" itself is not perfectly fixed due chiefly to the influence of the moon, but the limits of tropics are a geographic convention, being an averaged form, and the variance is very small.

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forest, is a tropical and subtropical forest habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature.

Mediterranean climate Type of climate

A Mediterranean climate, also called dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends toward that hemisphere's pole during the summer and migrates toward the equator during the winter due to the seasonal poleward-equatorward variations of temperatures.

Subtropics Geographic and climate zone

The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical and climate zones located to the north and south of the Tropics. Geographically part of the North and South temperate zones, they cover the latitudes from 23°26′10.9″ (or 23.43637°) to approximately 35° in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The horse latitudes lie within this range.

Intertropical Convergence Zone Meteorological phenomenon


The Intertropical Convergence Zone, known by sailors as the doldrums or the calms because of its monotonous windless weather, is the area where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge. It encircles Earth near the thermal equator though its specific position varies seasonally. When it lies near the geographic Equator, it is called the near-equatorial trough. Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonial circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage that is more common in Australia and parts of Asia.

Tropical climate One of the five major climate groups in the Köppen climate classification

Tropical climate is the first of the five major climate groups in the Köppen climate classification. Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher and feature hot temperatures all year-round. Annual precipitation is often abundant in tropical climates, and shows a seasonal rhythm but may have seasonal dryness to varying degrees. There are normally only two seasons in tropical climates, a wet season and a dry season. The annual temperature range in tropical climates is normally very small. Sunlight is intense in these climates.

Köppen climate classification Climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894–1981) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Dry season Yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics

The dry season was a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which moves from the northern to the southern tropics and back over the course of the year.

Rainfall and the tropical climate dominate the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year, roughly following the solar equator. The tropical rain belt is an area of active rain that is positioned mostly around the tropics.

Convergence zone

A convergence zone in meteorology is a region in the atmosphere where two prevailing flows meet and interact, usually resulting in distinctive weather conditions. This causes a mass accumulation that eventually leads to a vertical movement and to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Large-scale convergence, called synoptic-scale convergence, is associated with weather systems such as baroclinic troughs, low-pressure areas, and cyclones. The large-scale convergence zone formed over the equator, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, has condensed and intensified as a result of the global increase in temperature. Small-scale convergence will give phenomena from isolated cumulus clouds to large areas of thunderstorms.

Geography of South America Overview of the geography of South America

The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. Geographically, South America is generally considered a continent forming the southern portion of the landmass of the Americas, south and east of the Colombia–Panama border by most authorities, or south and east of the Panama Canal by some. South and North America are sometimes considered a single continent or supercontinent, while constituent regions are infrequently considered subcontinents.

Hadley cell Equatorial atmospheric phenomenon

The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global-scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the Equator, flowing poleward at a height of 10 to 15 kilometers above the earth's surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface. This circulation creates the trade winds, tropical rain-belts and hurricanes, subtropical deserts and the jet streams. Hadley cells are the low-altitude overturning circulation that have air sinking at roughly zero to 30 degree latitude.

A tropical marine climate is a tropical climate that is primarily influenced by the ocean. It is usually experienced by islands and coastal areas 10° to 20° north and south of the equator. There are two main seasons in a tropical marine climate: the wet season and the dry season. The annual rainfall is 1000 to over 1500 mm. The temperature ranges from 20 °C to 35 °C. The trade winds blow all year round and are moist, as they pass over warm seas. These climatic conditions are found, for example, across the Caribbean; the eastern coasts of Brazil, Madagascar and Queensland; and many islands in tropical waters.

Climate classification Systems that categorize the worlds climates

Climate classifications are systems that categorize the world's climates. A climate classification may correlate closely with a biome classification, as climate is a major influence on life in a region. One of the most used is the Köppen climate classification scheme.

Climate of the United States Varies due to changes in latitude, and a range of geographic features

The climate of the United States varies due to changes in latitude, and a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts. Generally, on the mainland, the climate of the U.S. becomes warmer the further south one travels, and drier the further west, until one reaches the West Coast.

Climate of Los Angeles Overview of the climate of Los Angeles

The climate of Los Angeles is mild to hot year-round, and mostly dry. It is classified as a Mediterranean climate, which is a type of dry subtropical climate. It is characterized by seasonal changes in rainfall—with a dry summer and a winter rainy season. Under the modified Köppen climate classification, the coastal areas are classified as Csb, and the inland areas as Csa.

Climate of Hawaii

The American state of Hawaii, which covers the Hawaiian Islands, is tropical but it experiences many different climates, depending on altitude and surroundings. The island of Hawaii for example hosts 4 climate groups on a surface as small as 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2) according to the Köppen climate types: tropical, arid, temperate and polar. When counting also the Köppen sub-categories – notably including the very rare cold-summer mediterranean climate – the island of Hawaii hosts 10 climate zones. The islands receive most rainfall from the trade winds on their north and east flanks as a result of orographic precipitation. Coastal areas are drier, especially the south and west side or leeward sides.

Tropical monsoon climate Climate subtype in the Köppen climate classification system

An area of tropical monsoon climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and a dry season. Tropical monsoon climates is the intermediate climate between the wet Af and the drier Aw.

Seasonal tropical forest Type of tropical forest

Seasonal tropical forest, also known as moist deciduous, semi-evergreen seasonal, tropical mixed or monsoon forests, typically contain a range of tree species: only some of which drop some or all of their leaves during the dry season. This tropical forest is classified under the Walter system as (ii) tropical climate with high overall rainfall concentrated in the summer wet season and dry season: representing a range of habitats influenced by monsoon (Am) or tropical wet savannah (Aw) climates. Drier forests in the Aw climate zone are typically deciduous and placed in the Tropical dry forest biome: with further transitional zones (ecotones) of savannah woodland then tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands.

References

  1. McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp.  205–8. ISBN   978-0-13-020263-5.
  2. Climatologie Pierre Estienne Alain Godard, pages 309 and 316
  3. Seidel, Dian J.; Fu, Qiang; Randel, William J.; Reichler, Thomas J. (January 2008). "Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate". Nature Geoscience. 1 (1): 21–24. Bibcode:2008NatGe...1...21S. doi:10.1038/ngeo.2007.38. ISSN   1752-0908.