Paramaribo

Last updated
Paramaribo
Waterkant seen from Suriname river.JPG
The street Waterkant in Paramaribo
Nickname(s): 
Par'bo
Parijs van Suriname  (Dutch)
(Paris of Suriname)
Suriname relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Paramaribo
Location in Suriname and South America
South America laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Paramaribo
Paramaribo (South America)
Coordinates: 5°51′8″N55°12′14″W / 5.85222°N 55.20389°W / 5.85222; -55.20389 Coordinates: 5°51′8″N55°12′14″W / 5.85222°N 55.20389°W / 5.85222; -55.20389
Country Suriname
District Paramaribo District
Founded1613
Area
  Total182 km2 (70 sq mi)
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
 (2012 census) [1]
  Total240,924
  Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zone UTC−3 (ART)

Paramaribo (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌpaːraːˈmaːriboː] ; nicknamed Par'bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District. Paramaribo has a population of roughly 241,000 people (2012 census), almost half of Suriname's population. [1] The historic inner city of Paramaribo has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002. [2]

Contents

Name

The city is named for the Paramaribo tribe living at the mouth of the Suriname River; the name is from Tupi–Guarani para "large river" + maribo "inhabitants". [3]

History

1830s lithograph of the market Tropenmuseum Royal Tropical Institute Objectnumber 3728-375 Litho voorstellende een marktgezicht.jpg
1830s lithograph of the market

The name Paramaribo is probably a corruption of the name of an Indian village, spelled Parmurbo in the earliest Dutch sources. [4] This was the location of the first Dutch settlement, a trading post established by Nicolaes Baliestel and Dirck Claeszoon van Sanen in 1613. [4] English and French traders also tried to establish settlements in Suriname, including a French post established in 1644 near present-day Paramaribo.

All earlier settlements were abandoned some time before the arrival of English settlers in 1650 to found Surinam. They were sent by the English governor of Barbados, Lord Francis Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby of Parham, and established a town on the site of Paramaribo (though probably south of the current town center). The town was protected by a fort, called Fort Willoughby. In 1662, Governor Willoughby was granted the settlement and surrounding lands (extending into Suriname's interior) by King Charles II. Around 1665 the village of Paramaribo was expanded and quickly outranked the earlier settlement of Torarica. [5]

In 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Paramaribo was conquered by a squadron of ships under Abraham Crijnssen. The Treaty of Breda in 1667 confirmed Paramaribo as the leading town of the now Dutch colony of Suriname. The fort protecting Paramaribo was renamed Fort Zeelandia in honor of the Dutch province that had financed Crijnssen's fleet. (The town was also renamed New Middelburg but the name did not catch on with the inhabitants).

The population of Paramaribo has always been very diverse. Among the first British settlers were many Jews [6] and one of the oldest synagogues in the Americas is found in Paramaribo. [7] The population of the town was greatly increased after 1873, when former enslaved people (who had been freed in 1863) were allowed to stop working for their former masters and leave the sugar plantations.

Paramaribo has remained the capital of Suriname, from its colonial days through the independence of Suriname in 1975 to the present day. The old town has suffered many devastating fires over the years, notably in January 1821 (which destroyed over 400 buildings) and September 1832 (which destroyed nearly 50 buildings). [8] The slaves Kodjo, Mentor, and Present were found guilty of arson, and burnt alive. [9]

In May 1972, the Paramaribo Zoo opened. [10] In 1987 an administrative reorganization took place in Suriname and the city was divided into 12 administrative resorts (jurisdictions). [11]

Geography

View of Paramaribo from space Paramaribo, Suriname.JPG
View of Paramaribo from space

The city is located on the Suriname River, approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) inland from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Paramaribo district.

Climate

Paramaribo features a tropical rainforest climate (Af), under the Köppen climate classification. Because Paramaribo is more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and sees no tropical cyclones, its climate is classified as equatorial. The city has no true dry season; all 12 months of the year average more than 60 millimetres or 2.4 inches of rainfall, but the city does experience noticeably wetter and drier periods during the year. The northern hemisphereautumn” (September through November) is the driest period of the year in Paramaribo, and the heaviest rainfall occurs from April to July. Common to many cities with this climate, temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures of 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of 22 degrees Celsius. Paramaribo on average receives roughly 2,200 millimetres or 87 inches of rainfall each year.

Climate data for Paramaribo
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)33
(91)
34
(93)
35
(95)
37
(99)
37
(99)
36
(97)
37
(99)
37
(99)
36
(97)
37
(99)
36
(97)
36
(97)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F)30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
30
(86)
31
(88)
Daily mean °C (°F)26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
27
(81)
Average low °C (°F)22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
Record low °C (°F)17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
18
(64)
19
(66)
20
(68)
20
(68)
15
(59)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
18
(64)
15
(59)
Average rainfall mm (inches)200
(7.9)
140
(5.5)
150
(5.9)
210
(8.3)
290
(11.4)
290
(11.4)
230
(9.1)
170
(6.7)
90
(3.5)
90
(3.5)
120
(4.7)
180
(7.1)
2,160
(85)
Source: Weatherbase [12]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
179018,000    
183115,265−0.40%
185316,031+0.22%
1980167,798+1.87%
1995228,551+2.08%
2004242,946+0.68%
2012240,924−0.10%
Historic Inner City of Paramaribo
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Paramaribowaterkant.jpg
Colonial style houses, Waterkant, Paramaribo
Criteria Cultural: ii, iv
Reference 940
Inscription2002 (26th session)
Area30 ha
Buffer zone60 ha

Paramaribo has a population of 240,924 people (2012 census). While the population number is stagnating in recent years, many towns in the surrounding Wanica District are increasing in population. [1]

The city is famed for its diverse ethnic makeup, including Creoles (African or mixed African-European descent) 27%, Indian (East Indian descent) 23%, Multiracials 18%, Maroons (descendants of escaped enslaved Africans) 16%, Javanese (Indonesian descent) 10%, Indigenous (descendants of native population) 2%, Chinese (descendants of 19th-century contract workers) 1.5%, and smaller numbers of Europeans (primarily of Dutch and Portuguese descent), Lebanese and Jews. In the past decades a significant number of Brazilians, Guyanese and new Chinese immigrants have settled in Paramaribo.

Economy

Paramaribo is the business and financial centre of Suriname. Even though the capital city does not produce significant goods itself, almost all revenues from the country's main export products gold, oil, bauxite, rice, and tropical wood are channeled through its institutions. All banks, insurance corporations and other financial and commercial companies are headquartered in Paramaribo. Around 75 percent of Suriname's GDP is consumed in Paramaribo.

Tourism is an increasingly important sector, with most visitors coming from the Netherlands. [13]

Government

Ressorten of the Paramaribo district. Resorts in Paramaribo, Suriname - 20061227.png
Ressorten of the Paramaribo district.

Administratively, Paramaribo forms its own district in Suriname. The resorts of Paramaribo district therefore correspond to boroughs of the city. There are twelve resorts in the Paramaribo district: [1]

Ressort/jurisdictionArea in square kmPopulation densityPopulation (2012) [1]
Blauwgrond 43661.331,483
Rainville 31930.722,747
Munder 141146.417,234
Centrum 93252.720,631
Beekhuizen 63297.217,185
Weg naar Zee 41321.316,037
Welgelegen 73387.019,304
Tammenga 62385.515,819
Flora 43836.519,538
Latour 64358.029,526
Pontbuiten 63246.223,211
Livorno 9931.88,209

Transport

Paramaribo is served by the Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport and Zorg en Hoop Airport for local flights. The Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge, which is part of the East-West Link, connects Paramaribo with Meerzorg on the other side of the Suriname River.

The Jules Sedney Harbour is the main harbour for cargo. [14] The former harbour of Waterkant is used by ferries. [15]

Most airlines like Gum Air, Caricom Airways and Blue Wing Airlines have their head offices on the grounds of Zorg en Hoop Airport in Paramaribo.

Education

Paramaribo's institution of higher learning is Anton de Kom University of Suriname, the country's only university.

Healthcare

Paramaribo is home to four hospitals, the Academic Hospital Paramaribo, 's Lands Hospitaal, Sint Vincentius Hospital and Diakonessenhuis.

Historic inner city of Paramaribo

The Dutch colonial town established in 17th and 18th centuries was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2002. [16] The historic inner city is located along the left bank of the Suriname River. The original architecture of buildings and street plan has largely remained intact and preserved.

Notable landmarks

Presidential Palace of Suriname Presidential palace, Paramaribo, Suriname.jpg
Presidential Palace of Suriname
Arya Dewaker temple P1060656a.jpg
Arya Dewaker temple
Paramaribo's Neveh Shalom Synagogue Paramaribo synogogue.jpg
Paramaribo's Neveh Shalom Synagogue
Helstone Monument Helstonemonument.jpg
Helstone Monument
The National Assembly of Suriname AssembleeSurinaam.jpg
The National Assembly of Suriname

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Paramaribo is twinned with:

See also

Flag of Suriname.svg   Surinameportal

Related Research Articles

Suriname Country in South America

Suriname, officially known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of approximately 575,990, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

Transport in Suriname

The Republic of Suriname has a number of forms of transport. Transportation emissions are an increasing part of Suriname's contributions to climate change, as part of the Nationally Determined Contributions for the Paris Agreement, Suriname has committed to emissions controls for vehicles and increased public transit investment.

Fort Zeelandia (Paramaribo)

Fort Zeelandia is a fortress in Paramaribo, Suriname. In 1640 the French built a wooden fort on the spot, which during the British colonial days was reinforced and became Fort Willoughby. It was taken by the Dutch in 1667 and renamed Fort Zeelandia.

Commewijne District District of Suriname

Commewijne is a district of Suriname, located on the right bank of the Suriname River. Commewijne's capital city is Nieuw Amsterdam. Tamanredjo is another major town, while Meerzorg is the most populated.

Para District District of Suriname

Para is a district of northern Suriname. Para's capital city is Onverwacht, with other towns including Paranam, and Zanderij. Para has a population of 24,700 and an area of 5,393 km2. The district is the mining and forestry centre of Suriname, with many large bauxite mining operations operating. The district is a mixture of forest and savannas.

Paramaribo District District of Suriname

Paramaribo is a district of Suriname, encompassing the capital city of Paramaribo and the surrounding area.

Totness, Suriname Resort and town in Coronie District, Suriname

Totness is a town in Suriname, located in the Coronie district, of which it is the capital. Totness is the oldest settlement in the district.

Fort Kyk-Over-Al

Fort Kyk-Over-Al was a Dutch fort in the colony of Essequibo, in what is now Guyana. It was constructed in 1616 at the intersection of the Essequibo, Cuyuni and Mazaruni rivers. It once served as the centre for the Dutch administration of the county, but now only ruins are left. The name Kyk-Over-Al derives from the Dutch for "See over all", a reference to the commanding view of the river from the fort.

Nieuw Amsterdam, Suriname Resort and town in Commewijne District, Suriname

Nieuw Amsterdam is the capital of the Commewijne District in Suriname. It is a small coastal town situated at the confluence of the Suriname River and Commewijne River, just across from Paramaribo, the country's capital. Its population at the 2012 census was 5,650, with around 1,200 people living in the main town, most of whom are of Javanese and East Indian origin. It is the location of the historical Fort Nieuw-Amsterdam, today an open-air museum. The town of Mariënburg with former sugarcane factory is located 3 km from Nieuw Amsterdam and part of the resort.

Suriname River

The Suriname River is 480 km long and flows through the country Suriname. Its sources are located in the Guiana Highlands on the border between the Wilhelmina Mountains and the Eilerts de Haan Mountains. The river flows below the reservoir along Brokopondo, Berg en Dal, the migrant communities Klaaskreek and Nieuw-Lombé, Jodensavanne, Carolina, Ornamibo and Domburg, before reaching the capital Paramaribo on the left bank and Meerzorg on the right bank. At Nieuw-Amsterdam it is joined by the Commewijne and immediately thereafter at the sandspit Braamspunt it flows into the Atlantic Ocean.

Tapanahony Resort in Sipaliwini District, Suriname

Tapanahoni is a resort in Suriname, located in the Sipaliwini District. Its population at the 2012 census was 13,808. Tapanahoni is a part of Sipaliwini which has no capital, but is directly governed from Paramaribo. Tapanahony is an enormous resort which encompasses a quarter of the country of Suriname. The most important town is Diitabiki which is the residence of the granman of the Ndyuka people since 1950, and the location of the oracle.

Fort Zeelandia (Guyana)

Fort Zeelandia is located on Fort Island, a fluvial island of the Essequibo River delta in the Essequibo Islands-West Demerara region of Guyana. Not to be confused with Fort Zeelandia in Paramaribo, Suriname, the current brick fort was built in 1743 for the Essequibo colony, replacing an earlier wooden fort built in 1726, and is among the oldest structures in Guyana. The fort replaced Fort Kyk-Over-Al as the capital of Essequibo in 1739.

Barbados–Suriname relations Diplomatic relations between Barbados and the Republic of Suriname

Barbadian–Surinamese relations are diplomatic relations between Barbados and Suriname. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 March 1978. Neither country has a resident ambassador. Barbados is accredited to Suriname from Bridgetown. Suriname is represented in Barbados through its embassy in Port of Spain,.

Abraham Crijnssen Dutch admiral

Abraham Crijnssen was a Dutch naval commander, notable for capturing the English colony in Suriname in 1667 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, resulting in the establishment of a long-term colony under Dutch control. The minesweeper HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen and the frigate HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen have been named after him.

Beekhuizen Resort in Paramaribo District, Suriname

Beekhuizen is a former sugarcane plantation and currently a resort in Suriname, located in the Paramaribo District. Its population at the 2012 census was 17,185.

Rainville, Suriname Resort in Paramaribo District, Suriname

Rainville is a resort in Suriname, located in the Paramaribo District. Its population at the 2012 census was 22,747.

Centrum, Paramaribo Resort in Paramaribo District, Suriname

Centrum is a resort in Suriname, located in the Paramaribo District. Its population at the 2012 census was 20,631. The historical centre of Paramaribo is located within the resort. The city centre is mainly in original condition, contains 291 listed monuments, and has of 2002 been designated a Unesco World Heritage Site.

Jules Sedney Surinamese politician

Jules Sedney was a Surinamese politician, and Prime Minister of Suriname from 20 November 1969 to 24 December 1973. In 1980, he became governor of the Central Bank of Suriname, but had to flee the country in 1983 after a dispute with Dési Bouterse. Sedney returned to Suriname in 1989.

Braamspunt Nature reserve and village in Commewijne District, Suriname

Braamspunt is a nature reserve, fishing village, and a former military outpost in the Johan & Margaretha resort of the Commewijne District of Suriname. Braamspunt is the most western point of the Commewijne District at the combined mouth of the Suriname and Commewijne River. The capital Paramaribo is located to the south of Braamspunt. The name is a corruption of Byam's Point which refers William Byam who was a quartermaster of Willoughby.

Waterkant Street in Paramaribo, Suriname

The Waterkant is the oldest and one of the most important streets of Paramaribo, Suriname. The street is located in the historic centre on the Suriname River, and was the location where ships used to arrive. The street starts at the Onafhankelijkheidsplein and extends to the Central Market. As of 2002, it has been designated a Unesco World Heritage Site.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "2012 Census Resorts Suriname" (PDF). Spang Staging. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  2. "Historic Inner City Paramaribo". Unesco.org. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  3. E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow: Russkie slovari, 1998), p. 322.
  4. 1 2 "Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap. Deel 35". Digital Library for Dutch Literature (in Dutch). 1914. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  5. "Paramaribo Suriname 2". Suriname.nu (in Dutch). Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  6. "Extract of the Dutch Map Representing the Colony of Surinam". World Digital Library . 1777. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
  7. Fox, Tamar (18 February 2011). "Discovering Suriname's Jewish past - and present". Travel. Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  8. "Paramaribo Suriname". Suriname.nu (in Dutch). Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  9. "Oog in oog met Paramaribo". De Lees Club van Alles (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  10. "Dieren in dierentuinen "Dieren worden niet meer gehouden voor slechts het plezier van de mens"". Dagblad Suriname (in Dutch). Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  11. "Paramaribo". Vakantie Arena (in Dutch). Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  12. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Paramaribo".
  13. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2013-10-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. "Dr. Jules Sedney Terminal". Havenbeheer (in Dutch). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  15. "DE GESCHIEDENIS VAN MEERZORG, ZOALS BESCHREVEN IN OUDE KRANTENBERICHTEN, DEEL 1 (1915-1940)". Plantage Justlust (in Dutch). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  16. "UNESCO Listing of Paramaribo Inner City" . Retrieved 31 Dec 2017.
  17. "Adhin jongste vicepresident Suriname". Suriname Herald (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  18. djr (2016-10-11). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". resources.huygens.knaw.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2016-12-18.
  19. Hoefte, Rosemarijn (6 March 2017). "Howard, Grace Ruth (1869-1968". Huygens ING (in Dutch). University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  20. Willemstad World Heritage City Archived 2010-02-09 at the Wayback Machine . Curacaomonuments.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.