La Paz

Last updated
La Paz
City
Nuestra Señora de La Paz
La Paz Skyline.jpg
Basilica de San Francisco La Paz.jpg
Linea Roja de Mi Teleferico en La Paz, Bolivia.jpg
Principios de la calle bolivar.JPG
Palacio del Congreso Nacional La Paz Bolivia.jpg
Top to bottom, left to right: La Paz Skyline with Mount Illimani in the background, Palace of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly, San Francisco Church, Mariscal Santa Cruz Avenue, Red Line of the La Paz-El Alto cable car transit system, Downtown La Paz.
Bandera de La Paz.svg
Flag
Escudo de La Paz.svg
Seal
Motto(s): 
[1] Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria ("The dissenters in harmony gathered together in peace and love, and a town of peace they founded, for perpetual memory.")
Bolivia physical map.svg
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La Paz
South America laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
La Paz
Coordinates: 16°30′S68°09′W / 16.500°S 68.150°W / -16.500; -68.150 Coordinates: 16°30′S68°09′W / 16.500°S 68.150°W / -16.500; -68.150
Country Bolivia
Department La Paz
Province Pedro Domingo Murillo
Founded
October 20, 1548 by Alonso de Mendoza
IndependenceJuly 16, 1809
El Alto incorporated20th century
Government
  Mayor Luis A. Revilla Herrero [2]
Area
  City472 km2 (182 sq mi)
  Urban
3,240 km2 (1,250 sq mi)
Elevation
3,640 m (11,942 ft)
Population
 (2012)
  City766,468 [3]
  Estimate 
(2020)
816,044 [4]
  Density1,861.2/km2 (4,820.6/sq mi)
   Urban
757,184
   Metro
2,187,223
Time zone UTC−4 (BOT)
Postal code
0201-0220
Area code(s) 2
HDI  (2016)0.827 (Very High) [5]
Website www.lapaz.bo

La Paz ( /lɑːˈpɑːz/ [6] ), officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz, is the seat of government of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. With an estimated 816,044 residents as of 2020, [7] La Paz is the third-most populous city in Bolivia. Its metropolitan area, which is formed by La Paz, El Alto, Achocalla, Viacha, and Mecapaca makes up the second most populous urban area in Bolivia, with a population of 2.0 million, after Santa Cruz de la Sierra with a population of 2.3 million. [7] It is also the capital of the La Paz Department.

Contents

The city, in west-central Bolivia 68 km (42 mi) southeast of Lake Titicaca, is set in a canyon created by the Choqueyapu River. It is in a bowl-like depression, part of the Amazon basin, surrounded by the high mountains of the Altiplano. Overlooking the city is the towering, triple-peaked Illimani. Its peaks are always snow-covered and can be seen from many parts of the city. At an elevation of roughly 3,650 m (11,975 ft) above sea level, La Paz is the highest capital city in the world. [8] [9] Due to its altitude, La Paz has an unusual subtropical highland climate, with rainy summers and dry winters.

La Paz was founded on October 20, 1548, by the Spanish conquistador Captain Alonso de Mendoza, who was born in Garrovillas de Alconétar (Cáceres), at the site of the Inca settlement of Laja as a connecting point between the commercial routes that led from Potosí and Oruro to Lima; the full name of the city was originally Nuestra Señora de La Paz (meaning Our Lady of Peace ) in commemoration of the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors against the first viceroy of Peru. The city was later moved to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago Marka. [10] La Paz was under Spanish colonial rule as part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, before Bolivia gained independence. Since its founding, the city was the site of numerous revolts. In 1781, the indigenous leader and independence activist Túpac Katari laid siege to the city for a total of six months, but was finally defeated. On July 16, 1809, the Bolivian patriot Pedro Domingo Murillo ignited a revolution for independence, marking the beginning of the Spanish American Wars of Independence, which gained the freedom of South American states in 1821. [11]

As the seat of the government of Bolivia, La Paz is the site of the Palacio Quemado, the presidential palace. It is also the seat of the Bolivian legislature, the Plurinational Legislative Assembly, and numerous government departments and agencies. The constitutional capital of Bolivia, Sucre, retains the judicial power. [12] The city hosts all the foreign embassies as well as international missions in the country. La Paz is an important political, administrative, economic, and sports center of Bolivia; it generates 24% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product and serves as the headquarters for numerous Bolivian companies and industries. [13]

La Paz is also an important cultural center of Latin America, as it hosts several landmarks belonging to the colonial times, such as the San Francisco Church, the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Plaza Murillo and Jaén Street. The city is renowned for its unique markets, particularly the Witches' Market, and for its vibrant nightlife. [14] [15] Its unusual topography offers unique views of the city and the surrounding mountains of the Cordillera Real from numerous natural viewing points. La Paz is also home to the largest urban cable car network in the world. [16] In May 2015, it was officially recognized as one of the New 7 Wonders Cities together with Beirut, Doha, Durban, Havana, Kuala Lumpur and Vigan. [17] La Paz is listed on the Global Cities Index 2015, and is considered a global city type "Gamma" by Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). [18]

History

Government Palace of Bolivia in downtown La Paz Palace of gov, la paz.jpg
Government Palace of Bolivia in downtown La Paz

This area had been the site of an Inca city on a major trading route.

Although the Spanish conquistadors entered the area in 1535, they did not found La Paz until 1548. Originally it was to be at the site of the Native American settlement, Laja, with the full name of the city being Nuestra Señora de La Paz (meaning Our Lady of Peace ). The name commemorated the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors four years earlier against Blasco Núñez Vela, the first viceroy of Peru. [19] The town site was moved a few days later to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago, which is more clement. [19]

Control over the former Inca lands had been entrusted to Pedro de la Gasca by the Spanish king (and Holy Roman Emperor) Emperor Charles V. Gasca commanded Alonso de Mendoza to found a new city commemorating the end of the civil wars in Peru; the city of La Paz was founded on October 20, 1548, by Alonzo de Mendoza, with Juan de Vargas appointed as its first mayor. [20]

In 1549, Juan Gutierrez Paniagua was commanded to design an urban plan that would designate sites for public areas, plazas, official buildings, and a cathedral. These were meant to express the ideals and relationships of Spanish colonial society. La Plaza de los Españoles, which is known today as the Plaza Murillo, was chosen as the location for government buildings as well as the Metropolitan Cathedral.

Spain controlled La Paz with a firm grip and the Spanish king had the last word in all matters political, but consultation was extended, taking months or longer by sea. Indigenous and other unrest was repeated around the turn of the nineteenth century. In 1781, for a total of six months, a group of Aymara people laid siege to La Paz. Under the leadership of Tupac Katari, they destroyed churches and government property. Thirty years later Indians conducted a two-month siege against La Paz. This incident was the setting for the origin of the legend of the Ekeko. In 1809 the struggle for independence from the Spanish rule brought uprisings against the royalist forces. On July 16, 1809 Pedro Domingo Murillo said that the Bolivian revolution was igniting a lamp that nobody would be able to turn off. This uprising formally marked the beginning of the liberation of South America from Spain. The first open rebellions against the Spanish Crown took place in La Paz and the city of Sucre simultaneously. This event is known as the Primer Grito Libertario de América.

Pedro Domingo Murillo was hanged at the Plaza de los Españoles that night. After Bolivia gained independence, La Paz named this plaza after him, to commemorate him always. He is remembered as the voice of revolution across South America.

In 1825, after the decisive victory of the republicans at Ayacucho over the Spanish army in the course of the Spanish American wars of independence, the city's full name was changed to La Paz de Ayacucho (meaning The Peace of Ayacucho).

Legislative Palace of Bolivia Palacio del Congreso Nacional La Paz Bolivia.jpg
Legislative Palace of Bolivia

In 1898, La Paz was made the de facto seat of the national government, with Sucre remaining the nominal historical as well as judiciary capital. This change reflected the shift of the Bolivian economy away from the largely exhausted silver mines of Potosí to the exploitation of tin near Oruro, and resulting shifts in the distribution of economic and political power among various national elites. [21]

Geography

The city in winter, with Illimani in the background. Amaneciendo en La Paz con el Illimani de fondo.jpg
The city in winter, with Illimani in the background.
Valle de la Luna ("moon valley") Valledelaluna-lapaz-bolivia.jpg
Valle de la Luna ("moon valley")

La Paz is built in a canyon created by the Choqueyapu River (now mostly built over), which runs northwest to southeast. The city's main thoroughfare, which roughly follows the river, changes names over its length, but the central tree-lined section running through the downtown core is called the Prado.

The geography of La Paz (in particular the altitude) is marked by social differences. The more affluent residents live in the lower, central areas of the city southwest of the Prado. Many middle-class residents live in high-rise condos near the center. Lower-income residents live in makeshift brick houses in the surrounding hills.

The satellite city of El Alto, where the airport is, is spread over a broad area to the west of the canyon, on the Altiplano. La Paz is renowned for its unique markets, unusual and dramatic topography, and traditional culture.

La Paz is in the valleys of the Andes, close to the Eastern split of the Altiplano region. It is closer to such notable mountains as the Illimani (guardian of La Paz), Huayna Potosi, Mururata, and Illampu. On the Western side of the Altiplano divide, about an hour to the west of the La Paz, is the Sajama Volcano, the tallest mountain in Bolivia and ninth-tallest mountain in the Andes.

An earthquake in July 1994 rated at 8.2 struck 200 miles (322 km) north of La Paz. It could be felt near La Paz and caused damage throughout the villages of the area.

Climate

La Paz (elevation 4,058 m)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
134
 
 
14
4
 
 
105
 
 
14
4
 
 
72
 
 
14
4
 
 
32
 
 
14
1
 
 
14
 
 
14
−2
 
 
5.1
 
 
14
−4
 
 
7.1
 
 
14
−4
 
 
15
 
 
14
−3
 
 
36
 
 
15
−1
 
 
38
 
 
15
2
 
 
51
 
 
17
2
 
 
95
 
 
16
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst

At more than 4,000 meters (13,000 ft) above sea level, higher parts of La Paz have an unusual subtropical highland climate (Cwc, according to the Köppen climate classification), with subpolar oceanic characteristics (less than 4 months have a mean temperature above 10 °C), bordering on a tundra climate (ET). The whole city has rainy summers and dry winters. Night-time temperatures range from cold to very cold. Snow flurries can occur in winter, especially at dawn and it usually melts before noon. At these high altitudes despite being located only 16 degrees from the equator, the city's average temperature is similar to that of cities such as Bergen, Norway or Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, located as far as 60 and 62 degrees from the equator respectively.

The temperatures in the central La Paz, at 3,600 meters (11,811 feet), and in the Zona Sur (Southern Zone), at 3,250 m (10,663 ft) above sea level, are warmer (subtropical highland climate Cwb, [22] according to the Köppen classification).

Owing to the altitude of the city, temperatures are consistently cool to mild throughout the year, though the diurnal temperature variation is typically large. The city has a relatively dry climate, with rainfall occurring mainly in the slightly warmer months of November to March.

In the highest part of the city, above 4,000 meters, the two cloudiest months are February and March, in late summer, when sunshine averages around 5 hours per day. The two sunniest months are June and July, in winter, when sunshine averages around 8 hours per day. [23]

Heavy precipitation typically occurs throughout summer, and often causes destructive mudslides. At an altitude of 3,250 meters, in the southern part of the city, the wettest month is January with a monthly average of 114 mm (4.5 in), and the driest is July with 8 mm (0.3 in).

The warmest temperature recorded was 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) and the coldest was −12.5 °C (9.5 °F).

Climate data for El Alto, Bolivia (El Alto International Airport, elevation 4,058 m)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)25.4
(77.7)
22.8
(73.0)
25.1
(77.2)
22.9
(73.2)
24.0
(75.2)
20.0
(68.0)
23.0
(73.4)
21.0
(69.8)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
24.2
(75.6)
22.0
(71.6)
25.4
(77.7)
Average high °C (°F)14.3
(57.7)
14.3
(57.7)
14.2
(57.6)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
14.0
(57.2)
13.5
(56.3)
13.7
(56.7)
15.3
(59.5)
15.3
(59.5)
17.0
(62.6)
15.7
(60.3)
15.0
(59.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)9.3
(48.7)
9.0
(48.2)
8.9
(48.0)
8.8
(47.8)
8.2
(46.8)
7.3
(45.1)
6.8
(44.2)
8.2
(46.8)
8.7
(47.7)
10.0
(50.0)
10.5
(50.9)
9.7
(49.5)
8.8
(47.8)
Average low °C (°F)4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
3.6
(38.5)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.9
(28.6)
−4.3
(24.3)
−4.4
(24.1)
−3
(27)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.5
(34.7)
2.1
(35.8)
3.6
(38.5)
0.5
(32.9)
Record low °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−10.3
(13.5)
−12.4
(9.7)
−11.9
(10.6)
−10
(14)
−10
(14)
−5.4
(22.3)
−5
(23)
−2.8
(27.0)
−12.4
(9.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)133.7
(5.26)
104.7
(4.12)
71.7
(2.82)
31.7
(1.25)
14.3
(0.56)
5.1
(0.20)
7.1
(0.28)
15.2
(0.60)
35.5
(1.40)
38.1
(1.50)
50.5
(1.99)
94.9
(3.74)
602.5
(23.72)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)20.715.814.29.83.62.82.85.18.210.411.515.5120.3
Average snowy days0.070.00.00.030.00.030.130.670.370.170.170.031.67
Average relative humidity (%)66726759484243424849516054
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.8155.4148.8165.0229.4240.0235.6226.3192.0179.8171.0180.02,303.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.85.54.85.57.48.07.67.36.45.85.76.06.3
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst, [24] Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología de Bolivia (snowy days 1981–2010) [25]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (extremes 1942–present) [26]
Climate data for La Paz (Laikakota Park), elevation: 3,650 m, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1945–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)26.5
(79.7)
25.5
(77.9)
26.0
(78.8)
25.0
(77.0)
25.0
(77.0)
23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
24.3
(75.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.5
(79.7)
27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
Average high °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
18.7
(65.7)
18.9
(66.0)
19.2
(66.6)
19.1
(66.4)
17.8
(64.0)
17.4
(63.3)
18.4
(65.1)
19.0
(66.2)
19.8
(67.6)
20.4
(68.7)
20.0
(68.0)
18.9
(66.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)12.9
(55.2)
13.0
(55.4)
13.0
(55.4)
12.7
(54.9)
11.8
(53.2)
10.5
(50.9)
10.1
(50.2)
11.0
(51.8)
11.9
(53.4)
13.0
(55.4)
13.7
(56.7)
13.7
(56.7)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
7.3
(45.1)
7.2
(45.0)
6.3
(43.3)
4.6
(40.3)
3.3
(37.9)
2.8
(37.0)
3.7
(38.7)
4.8
(40.6)
6.2
(43.2)
7.0
(44.6)
7.5
(45.5)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F)1.5
(34.7)
2.0
(35.6)
1.1
(34.0)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.0
(28.4)
−6.0
(21.2)
−2.8
(27.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
0.0
(32.0)
0.5
(32.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−6.0
(21.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)125.5
(4.94)
81.0
(3.19)
67.5
(2.66)
27.1
(1.07)
8.9
(0.35)
7.9
(0.31)
5.3
(0.21)
12.1
(0.48)
24.5
(0.96)
37.8
(1.49)
43.9
(1.73)
82.3
(3.24)
523.8
(20.62)
Average precipitation days21.317.015.48.63.52.22.13.96.710.711.416.1119.0
Average relative humidity (%)72.072.270.566.254.848.350.452.058.156.558.864.360.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.4158.4167.9187.6245.7238.3240.9250.1232.0215.5181.5171.22,434.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.05.95.96.68.28.28.88.58.27.46.86.07.1
Source: Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología de Bolivia [25]

Districts and neighborhoods

La Paz's districts
Urban areas of La Paz LA PAZ.png
Urban areas of La Paz
#DistrictPopulationArea (km2)TypeMap
1Mallasa5,08232,68Urbano MACRODISTRITO 1.png
2Zona Sur127,22864,15Urbano MACRODISTRITO 2.png
3San Antonio115,65922,59Urbano MACRODISTRITO 3.png
4Periférica159,12326,05Urbano MACRODISTRITO 4.png
5Max Paredes164,56613,31Urbano MACRODISTRITO 5.png
6Centro64,2725,22Urbano MACRODISTRITO 6.png
7Cotahuma153,65516,10Urbano MACRODISTRITO 7.png
23ZongoRural MACRODISTRITO 23.png
22HampaturiRural MACRODISTRITO 22.png
La Paz's neighborhoods
#DistrictMapNeighborhoodsMain streets
1Mallasa MACRODISTRITO 1.png Amor de Dios • Mallasa • Muela del Diablo • Mallasilla • JupapinaCarretera principal Rio abajo
2Zona Sur MACRODISTRITO 2.png Obrajes • Bella Vista • Bolonia • Irpavi • Calacoto • Cota Cota • Achumani • Ovejuyo • Koani • La Florida • Seguencoma • San MiguelAvenida Ballivián
3San Antonio MACRODISTRITO 3.png San Antonio • Villa Copacabana • Pampahasi • Valle Hermoso • Kupini • Villa Armonía • Callapa, •San IsidroAvenida cd del niño
4Periférica MACRODISTRITO 4.png Achachicala • Chuquiaguillo • Villa Fátima • Vino Tinto •5 Dedos • Santiago de Lacaya • RosasaniAvenida Grl Juan Jose Torres
5 Max Paredes MACRODISTRITO 5.png Munaypata • La Portada • El Tejar • Gran Poder • Obispo Indaburu • Chamoco Chico • Munaypata • Pura Pura • Ciudadela FerroviariaAvenida Naciones Unidas
6Zona Centro MACRODISTRITO 6.png Casco Urbano Central • San Jorge • Miraflores • Barrio Gráfico • San Sebastián • Santa Bárbara • Parque Urbano CentralAvenida Arce • Avenida 16 de Julio
7Cotahuma MACRODISTRITO 7.png Sopocachi • Alto Sopocachi • Pasankeri • Tembladerani • Alpacoma • Belén • Tacagua • San Pedro • Bajo LlojetaAvenida Buenos Aires

Main neighborhoods and zones

Buildings in San Jorge, on the 1st District (Cotahuma). SAN JORGE La Paz BOLIVIA.jpg
Buildings in San Jorge, on the 1st District (Cotahuma).
San Jorge, a bustling and modern neighborhood, has the highest HDI of the country. Barrio San Jorge en La Paz, Bolivia.png
San Jorge, a bustling and modern neighborhood, has the highest HDI of the country.
La Paz skyline from the "Via Balcon". Panlapaz 2010.jpg
La Paz skyline from the "Via Balcón".
San Jorge
Located in the district known as Cotahuma and near Sopocachi, is one of the main residential and diplomatic areas of the city. San Jorge is one of the most exclusive neighborhoods of La Paz and the financial center of the metropolis, housing international firms like Deloitte, Bank of America, Ernst & Young, BBVA and the famous Ritz Hotel. It is now home of Bolivia's tallest building known as Torre Girasoles, and the only intelligent building of the country, known as Torre Azul. The neighborhood is also populated with expensive offices, renowned restaurants, museums and bookstores. Its Avenida Arce, one of the main streets of the city, is the highest-priced street in the country and the one with the most upscale boutiques in Bolivia. San Jorge is home to the embassies of the United States, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Japan, Germany and Spain. The offices of the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the CAF – Development Bank of Latin America, the Goethe Institut, the Alliance Française and the Dante Alighieri Society are also located in this modern neighborhood.
Sopocachi
Located in the 1st District (Cotahuma), Sopocachi is probably one of the oldest residential neighborhoods, 10 minutes from the center of the city. Despite the expansion and development of the area, this quarter maintained its residential property. In the last years, there has been an important commercial expansion, mainly on the surroundings of Abaroa Square, one of the many squares and parks of the zone.
San Pedro
Located in the 1st District (Cotahuma), on the right bank of the Choqueyapu River and built around the "Plaza de San Pedro" (official name: Plaza Sucre, Sucre Square), is home to numerous shops, businesses and small enterprises, especially printing, spare parts and auto maintenance and repair shops. San Pedro's "Rodriguez Market" remains as one of the most popular middle-class and oldest of the city. The San Pedro prison is here.
Centro
The city's downtown area, in the 7th District, comprising the center of La Paz and principal roads of the city, like Arce Avenue, July 16 Avenue (also known as "Prado Avenue"), Mariscal Santa Cruz Avenue and Camacho Avenue – the last one being the home of the headquarters of the principal banks and companies of the country.
Casco Viejo
Located in the 7th District, is the historic and ancient center of La Paz. It now houses museums, hotels, shops and buildings as the Mayor City of La Paz and the Central Bank of Bolivia. In the Old Quarter is the Plaza Murillo, which is home to the Government Palace and the National Congress.
The Southern District is one of the most affluent neighborhoods in La Paz. Calacoto La Paz, Bolivia.jpg
The Southern District is one of the most affluent neighborhoods in La Paz.
Miraflores
In the 7th District, Miraflores district is separated from downtown by a long barrel (Parque Urbano Central, "Central Urban Park") and connected by the Bridge of the Americas and two avenues. Originally a residential zone, its growth has led it to become a major recreational center. It houses universities (including the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés's faculty of medicine), hospitals and the Estadio Hernando Siles (capacity of 45,000 people).
Northern District
Located in the 2nd and 3rd districts, it has a significant industrial activity (mainly food), being the Cervecería Boliviana Nacional (Bolivian National Brewery) the most significant industry founded by Germans, and one of the city's biggest companies in the country. It connects La Paz with the city of El Alto by the autopista (highway).
Southern District
In the 5th district; has less height than the rest of La Paz (3,200 to 2,800 meters). This area houses some of the most affluent and exclusive neighborhoods of the city, like Obrajes, Irpavi, Calacoto, La Florida and Achumani, among others. It has been benefited from steady economic growth and is now the second commercial and financial center of the city, housing international firms like Moody's, Citibank, Aon Corporation, Huawei, Millicom International Cellular, Nissan Motor Corporation, Samsung Electronics, Pan American Silver Corporation, a Sumitomo Corporation branch, Ernst & Young, and the "MegaCenter", La Paz's biggest shopping mall.

Cityscape

La Paz Panoramic View from Killi Killi Lookout.jpg
View of La Paz at sunset, from the "Killi Killi" lookout.

Colonial architecture

The city of La Paz has a consistently decreasing volume of colonial buildings, mostly centered around the vicinity of the Plaza Murillo. Due to a lack of funds and the inability of property owners to pay for restorations to colonial buildings, many have been torn down, or are in a dilapidated state. As historic buildings are more expensive to keep, land owners find it less of a burden to construct more modern buildings as opposed to keeping the old ones. Although there has been an increasing number of projects and propositions to restore some of the city's colonial buildings, the future of these historic edifices remains uncertain.

Economy

Central Bank building Banco Central de Bolivia.png
Central Bank building

The economy of La Paz has improved greatly in recent years,[ when? ] mainly as a result of improved political stability. Due to the long period of high inflation and economic struggle faced by Bolivians in the 1980s and early 1990s, a large informal economy developed. Evidence of this is provided by the markets found all around the city. While there are stable markets, almost every street in the downtown area and surrounding neighborhoods has at least one vendor on it.

La Paz remains the principal center of manufacturing enterprises that produce finished-product goods for the country, with about two-thirds of Bolivia's manufacturing located nearby. Historically, industry in Bolivia has been dominated by mineral processing and the preparation of agricultural products. However, in the urban center of La Paz, small plants carry out a large portion of the industry. Food, tobacco products, clothing, various consumer goods, building materials, and agricultural tools are produced. "The tin quotations from London are watched in La Paz with close interest as an index of the country's prosperity; a third of the national revenue and more than half of the total customs in 1925 were derived from tin; in short, that humble but indispensable metal is the hub around which Bolivia's economic life revolves. The tin deposits of Bolivia, second largest in the world, ... invite development."

Sports

La Paz is the home of some of the biggest football teams in Bolivia.

Estadio Hernando Siles Estadio Hernando Siles, Barrio Miraflores.jpg
Estadio Hernando Siles

The city is host to several other teams that play in the first and second divisions such as:

With the exception of Deportivo Municipal and Unión Maestranza, all the other teams play the majority of their games in the city stadium, the Estadio Hernando Siles, which also hosts the national football team and international games. Always Ready frequently play at the Estadio Rafael Mendoza which belongs to The Strongest, who rarely use the stadium due to its relatively small capacity.

Education

The city hosts some of the most important universities of the country:

FoundationUniversityWorld Ranking 2012 (CSIC Webometrics) [27] Latin American Ranking 2012 (CSIC Webometrics) [28] Academic Production(Ranking Scimago Lab)National Ranking [27] LogoWeb
1830-10-25 Universidad Mayor de San Andrés UMSAEstatal22661822 UMSA
1994-03-21 Universidad Católica Boliviana San Pablo UCBPrivada34493083 UCB
Universidad Central de BoliviaUNICENPrivada49194895 UNICEN
Universidad Privada del ValleUPVPrivada76867578 UPV
UP BolivianaUPBPrivada82068229 Universidad Privada Boliviana
1950Escuela Militar de IngenieríaEMIEstatal10670110313 EMI
Universidad Salesiana de BoliviaPrivada11280117416 Salesiana
Universidad Nur BoliviaPrivada12461133318 NUR
Universidad LoyolaPrivada13398149920 Loyola
Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar BoliviaUASBEstatal13418150621 UASB

Tourism

Tiwanaku Square in front of the football stadium Monolitos Miraflores La Paz Bolivia.jpg
Tiwanaku Square in front of the football stadium

La Paz is an important cultural center of Bolivia. The city hosts several cathedrals belonging to the colonial times, such as the San Francisco Cathedral and the Metropolitan Cathedral, this last one located on Murillo Square, which is also home of the political and administrative power of the country. Hundreds of different museums can be found across the city, the most notable ones on Jaén Street, which street design has been preserved from the Spanish days and is home of 10 different museums.

The home of the Bolivian government is located on Murillo Square and is known as "Palacio Quemado" (Burnt Palace) as it has been on fire several times. The palace has been restored many times since, but the name has remained untouched.

Principal attractions

Museums and cultural centers

Small effigy of a Tiwanacan Puma, National Museum of Archeology Tiwanacan Puma, Bolivia.jpeg
Small effigy of a Tiwanacan Puma, National Museum of Archeology
  • The former home of Pedro Domingo Murillo, martyr of the independence revolution of 1809, has been preserved and is now a museum. The house displays a collection of furniture, textiles, and art from colonial times.
  • Museo Costumbrista: Displays ceramic dolls wearing traditional customs that show how was life in the early 19th century. Also on display are photos of old La Paz.
  • Museo Nacional de Arqueología (National Museum of Archeology): Depicts a collection of artifacts of the Tiawanaku culture.
  • Museo del Litoral (Museum of the Litoral Coastal Region): Displays objects from the 1879 war in which Bolivia lost its sea coast to Chile.
  • Museo del Oro (Gold Museum): Depicts pre-Conquest works made of gold, silver and copper.
  • Museo de Etnografía y Folklore (Ethnography and Folkolore Museum): Located in a house built during the late 18th century, it exhibits customs and art of two ethnic groups: Chipayas and Ayoreos.
  • Museo del Charango (Museum of Charango): Located in Calle Linares, the museum displays an important variety of charangos. Other native instruments are displayed as well.
  • Museo de Historia Natural (Natural History Museum): Exhibits on Bolivian paleontology, geology, zoology and botanical elements of interest.
  • Casa Museo Marina Nuñez del Prado (Marina Nuñez del Prado House Museum): Displays Quechua and Aymara-theme sculptures by Bolivian artist Marina Nuñez del Prado.
  • Museo Nacional de Arte (National Art Museum): Located in Calle Comercio, on a former palace built in 1775, displays works by Melchor Perez de Holguín and Marina Nuñez del Prado, among others.
  • Mercado de Brujas (Witches' Market): Merchandise sold here includes herbs, remedies as well as other ingredients used in Aymara traditions.
  • Feria de Alasitas: This fair is celebrated for two weeks each year, beginning January 24. The central figure is a little god of abundance known as Ekeko, which means dwarf in Aymara.
  • Museo San Francisco Cultural Center

Churches and cathedrals

Metropolitan Cathedral Catedral Metropolitana de La Paz.JPG
Metropolitan Cathedral
San Francisco Church San-Francisco Bolivia.jpg
San Francisco Church

Other attractions

Food

Popular food from La Paz includes:

Local festivals

Transportation

Avenida Kantutani. Avenida Kantutani.jpg
Avenida Kantutani.

Automobiles and public transportation are the main means to get into the city. In March 2012, more than 1.5 million vehicles were registered. [29] Heavy traffic is common in the city center and traffic jams occur on peak hours.

Highways

El Alto International Airport El Alto International Airport, New Terminal.jpeg
El Alto International Airport

The La Paz-El Alto Highway is a toll road that connects the city of La Paz with the neighboring city of El Alto. It is the city's main highway. It allows easy access to El Alto International Airport. The highway runs 11,7 km and crosses the city of El Alto:

The Southern District, one of La Paz's most affluent and commercial neighborhoods, is relatively separated from the rest of the city, including the CBD. The Avenida Costanera and Avenida Kantutani (Costanera and Kantutani Avenues) connect the southern district with the rest of the metropolitan area.

Air

Mariscal Santa Cruz Avenue, La Paz Avenida Mariscal Santa Cruz.jpg
Mariscal Santa Cruz Avenue, La Paz

El Alto International Airport (IATA code: LPB) is La Paz's national and international airport and a principal hub for Línea Aérea Amaszonas and Transporte Aéreo Militar. It also serves as a focus city for Boliviana de Aviación, Bolivia's flag-carrier and largest airline. The airport is located in the city of El Alto and is (13 km) south-west of La Paz's city center. At an elevation of 4,061 meters (13,323 feet), it is the highest international airport and fifth highest commercial airport in the world. [30] The runway has a length of 4,000 meters (2.5 mi). It is one of Bolivia's three main international gateways, along with Jorge Wilstermann International Airport and Viru Viru International Airport.

International carriers serving El Alto International Airport include Avianca and LATAM Airlines, which offer direct flights from La Paz to cities such as Bogotá, Lima, Santiago and Cusco. However, most international traffic, including flights to Europe, operated out of Viru Viru International Airport in Santa Cruz de la Sierra which is at a much lower altitude and is capable of handling larger aircraft.

Airport facilities include ATMs, cafés and restaurants, car rentals, duty-free shops, and free Wi-Fi internet. Additionally, the airport supplies travelers with oxygen for those who suffer from altitude sickness.

Bus

Bus Station Terminal de Autobuses (4).JPG
Bus Station

La Paz Bus Station, originally a bus and train station, was built by the French architect Gustave Eiffel. It is the main gateway for inter-city buses with several daily departures to all the main Bolivian cities, and routes to Chile and Peru. The city is connected by road with the city of Oruro from where there are routes to Sucre, Potosí and the south of the country. Another highway branches off before Oruro to reach Cochabamba and Santa Cruz. Roads to the west go to Copacabana and Tiwanaku, near Lake Titicaca, and continue to Cuzco, Peru via the border town of Desaguadero. There are also roads north to get to Yungas crossing the Andes Mountains.

Departures to smaller cities and towns within the department use informal stations located in Villa Fátima (departures to Los Yungas, Beni and Pando), Upper San Pedro (for Apolo) and near the General Cemetery (for Copacabana, Lake Titicaca, or via Tiwanaku to Desaguadero on the Peruvian border).

Cable car system

A system of urban transit aerial cable cars called Mi Teleférico ("My Cable Car") was opened in 2014. Eight lines are in operation, and three more lines are in the planning stage. The initial three lines were built by the Austrian company Doppelmayr. The first two lines (Red and Yellow) connected La Paz with El Alto. All stations have both a Spanish name and an Aymara name.

Cable car system La Paz
LineLengthTravel timeStationsopened
Red Line2.4 km10 min3May 2014
Yellow Line3.9 km13.5 min4September 2014
Green Line3.7 km16.6 min4December 2014
Blue Line4.7 km17 min5March 2017
Orange Line2.6 km10 min4September 2017
White Line2.9 km13.1 min4March 2018
Sky Blue Line2.6 km11.8 min4July 2018
Purple Line4.3 km16.2 min3September 2018

Communications and media

Water supply

The water supply of La Paz is threatened by the impact of climate change through the melting of glaciers. The city receives its drinking water from three water systems: El Alto, Achachicala and Pampahasi. La Paz shares the first and largest of these systems with its sister city El Alto. All three systems are fed by glaciers and rivers in the Cordillera mountain range. 20-28 % of its water is fed by glaciers, the remainder coming from rainfall and snowmelt. The glaciers recede as a result of climate change, initially increasing water availability during the dry season, but ultimately threatening a substantial decrease in dry season run-off when they completely disappear. A small glacier, the Chacaltaya near El Alto, already disappeared in 2008. The El Alto system receives its water from the Tuni Dam and two water channels. These channels divert water that flows from the Zongo Glacier on the slopes of Huayna Potosi and from Condoriri North of El Alto. [31] The 2.9 km long Zongo glacier retreats at a rate of about 18 meters per year. [32] The Tuni and Condoriri glaciers have lost 39% of their area between 1983 and 2006. According to a study by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), the El Alto system is the least resilient against the impact of climate change among the three systems. The study says that reducing water distribution losses is the most effective short-term strategy to deal with water scarcity. [31] [33] New water sources further to the North in the Cordillera include the Khara Kota and Taypicacha, but they are expensive to develop and their water supply is also affected by glacier melt.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

La Paz is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities [34] from October 12, 1982, establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Additionally, agreement was reached by Twin Cities with:

La Paz is also a member of Merco Ciudades, a group of 180 cities within Mercosur, [40] since 1999.

Notable people

Daniel Nunez del Prado 1865 DanielNunezdelPrado1.JPG
Daniel Nuñez del Prado 1865

See also

Related Research Articles

Bolivia Country in South America

Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and executive capital is La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales, a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

Sucre Legal capital of Bolivia

Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia. Located in the south-central part of the country, Sucre lies at an elevation of 2,810 meters. This relatively high altitude gives the city a subtropical highland climate with cool temperatures year-round.

Oruro, Bolivia City in Oruro Department, Bolivia

Oruro or Uru Uru is a city in Bolivia with a population of 264,683, about halfway between La Paz and Sucre in the Altiplano, approximately 3,709 meters (12,169 ft) above sea level.

Chuquisaca Department Department of Bolivia

Chuquisaca is a department of Bolivia located in the center south. It borders on the departments of Cochabamba, Tarija, Potosí, and Santa Cruz. The departmental capital is Sucre, which is also the constitutional capital of Bolivia.

El Alto City and municipality in La Paz Department, Bolivia

El Alto is the second-largest city in Bolivia, located adjacent to La Paz in Pedro Domingo Murillo Province on the Altiplano highlands. El Alto is today one of Bolivia's fastest-growing urban centers, with an estimated population of 943,558 in 2020. It is also the highest major city in the world, with an average elevation of 4,000 m (13,123 ft).

Catholic Church in Bolivia

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Bolivian Air Force Air warfare branch of Bolivias military forces

The Bolivian Air Force is part of the Military of Bolivia.

Pedro Nuñez de Villavicencio Spanish painter

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History of La Paz

La Paz was founded in 1548 by the Spanish conquistadors at the site of the Native American settlement Laja; the full name of the city was originally Nuestra Señora de La Paz. The name commemorated the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors four years earlier against Blasco Núñez Vela, the first viceroy of Peru. The city was later moved to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago Marka.

Districts of La Paz

The city of La Paz, Bolivia is divided into seven main districts, called "Macro Distritos", which at the same time are divided into 21 small districts or zones. The city is commonly divided by the people into three main zones: South Zone, Central Zone and North Zone.

Wila Quta or Wilaquta may refer to:

Janqu Quta (El Alto)

Janq'u Quta is a lake in Bolivia located in the La Paz Department, Pedro Domingo Murillo Province, El Alto Municipality. It is situated south of the mountain Wayna Potosí and north-east of Milluni Lake at a height of about 4,664 metres (15,302 ft). The little lake north-east of Janq'u Quta is named Pata Quta (Pata Khota).

Pukara means a ruin of the fortifications made by the natives of the central Andean cultures.

Mi Teleférico

Mi Teleférico, also known as Teleférico La Paz–El Alto, is an aerial cable car urban transit system serving the La Paz–El Alto metropolitan area in Bolivia. As of October 2019, the system consists of 26 stations along ten lines: Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, Orange, White, Sky Blue, Purple, Brown, and Silver. Further lines and extensions are in planning or construction.

Hector Borda Leaño

Héctor Borda Leaño, is a Bolivian politician, anthropologist and poet. He was born into an intellectual family of landowner gentry from Sucre and joined the Falange Socialista Boliviana (FSB), a radical right wing party, as a teenager in the early 1940s. Eventually he was elected for this party to the national congress 1966-1969. In the early 1970s he broke out from the FSB together with Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz and Walter Vasquez Michel and turned left wing. After the military coup led by Hugo Banzer in 1971 Borda was forced into exile, first to Argentina and again in 1977 to Sweden. He returned to Bolivia in 1982 as elected senator for the newly formed Partido Socialista (PS-1).

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