Traffic congestion

Last updated

A traffic jam in Istanbul, and an opportunity for two simit vendors to sell food to drivers Istanbul Otoyol 2 Richtung FSM 2.jpg
A traffic jam in Istanbul, and an opportunity for two simit vendors to sell food to drivers

Traffic congestion is a condition in transport that is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. Traffic congestion on urban road networks has increased substantially since the 1950s. [1] When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the traffic stream, this results in congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads.

Contents

As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is known as a traffic jam [2] [3] or (informally) a traffic snarl-up [4] [5] or a tailback. [6]

Drivers can become frustrated and engage in road rage. Drivers and driver-focused road planning departments commonly propose to alleviate congestion by adding another lane to the road. This is ineffective: increasing road capacity induces more demand for driving.

Mathematically, traffic is modeled as a flow through a fixed point on the route, analogously to fluid dynamics.

Causes

Speed-flow diagram for a highway, scales omitted. When the volume of vehicles per hour reaches 75%-100% of the road capacity, traffic flow shifts from free-flowing (green) to congested (gray) and both volume and speeds are reduced. The red ellipse represents rush-hour traffic. Speed-flow horseshoe diagram traffic congestion.svg
Speed-flow diagram for a highway, scales omitted. When the volume of vehicles per hour reaches 75%-100% of the road capacity, traffic flow shifts from free-flowing (green) to congested (gray) and both volume and speeds are reduced. The red ellipse represents rush-hour traffic.

Causes of traffic congestion: [10]

   Bottlenecks (40%)
   Work zones (10%)
  Bad weather (15%)
  Poor signal timing (5%)
  Special events / other (5%)
Traffic jam - traffic on the Cairo-Assiut highway is blocked due to fog. Traffic Jam in Egypt.jpg
Traffic jam - traffic on the Cairo-Assiut highway is blocked due to fog.
Traffic congestion on Marginal Pinheiros, near downtown Sao Paulo. According to Time magazine, Sao Paulo has the world's worst traffic jams. Drivers are informed through variable message signs that display the prevailing queue length. Traffic jam Marginal Pinheiros 6122 SAO 07 2009.jpg
Traffic congestion on Marginal Pinheiros, near downtown São Paulo. According to Time magazine, São Paulo has the world's worst traffic jams. Drivers are informed through variable message signs that display the prevailing queue length.
Time lapse video of traffic congestion near HaShalom interchange in Highway 20, Israel

Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic generates demand for space greater than the available street capacity; this point is commonly termed saturation. Several specific circumstances can cause or aggravate congestion; most of them reduce the capacity of a road at a given point or over a certain length, or increase the number of vehicles required for a given volume of people or goods. About half of U.S. traffic congestion is recurring, and is attributed to sheer weight of traffic; most of the rest is attributed to traffic incidents, road work and weather events. [12] [13] In terms of traffic operation, rainfall reduces traffic capacity and operating speeds, thereby resulting in greater congestion and road network productivity loss.

Traffic research still cannot fully predict under which conditions a "traffic jam" (as opposed to heavy, but smoothly flowing traffic) may suddenly occur. It has been found that individual incidents (such as crashes or even a single car braking heavily in a previously smooth flow) may cause ripple effects (a cascading failure) which then spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when, otherwise, the normal flow might have continued for some time longer. [14]

Separation of work and residential areas

People often work and live in different parts of the city. Many workplaces are located in a central business district away from residential areas, resulting in workers commuting. According to a 2011 report published by the United States Census Bureau, a total of 132.3 million people in the United States commute between their work and residential areas daily. [15]

Movement to obtain or provide goods and services

People may need to move about within the city to obtain goods and services, for instance to purchase goods or attend classes in a different part of the city. Brussels, a Belgian city with a strong service economy, has one of the worst traffic congestion in the world, wasting 74 hours in traffic in 2014.

Mathematical theories

Congestion on a street in Taipei consisting primarily of motorcycles Motorcycles on Civic Boulevard 20080918.jpg
Congestion on a street in Taipei consisting primarily of motorcycles

Some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe. Congestion simulations and real-time observations have shown that in heavy but free flowing traffic, jams can arise spontaneously, triggered by minor events ("butterfly effects"), such as an abrupt steering maneuver by a single motorist. Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of supercooled fluid. [16]

However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is often affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic. Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerner's three-phase traffic theory (see also spatiotemporal reconstruction of traffic congestion).

Because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models. Their working traffic models typically use a combination of macro-, micro- and mesoscopic features, and may add matrix entropy effects, by "platooning" groups of vehicles and by randomizing the flow patterns within individual segments of the network. These models are then typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network, and the baseline flows are adjusted accordingly.

A team of MIT mathematicians has developed a model that describes the formation of "phantom jams", in which small disturbances (a driver hitting the brake too hard, or getting too close to another car) in heavy traffic can become amplified into a full-blown, self-sustaining traffic jam. Key to the study is the realization that the mathematics of such jams, which the researchers call "jamitons", are strikingly similar to the equations that describe detonation waves produced by explosions, says Aslan Kasimov, lecturer in MIT's Department of Mathematics. That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic-jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s. [17]

Economic theories

India's economic growth has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles on its roads overwhelming the transport infrastructure. Shown here is a traffic jam in Delhi. Trafficjamdelhi.jpg
India's economic growth has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles on its roads overwhelming the transport infrastructure. Shown here is a traffic jam in Delhi.

Congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons. Because roads in most places are free at the point of usage, there is little financial incentive for drivers not to over-use them, up to the point where traffic collapses into a jam, when demand becomes limited by opportunity cost. Privatization of highways and road pricing have both been proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives [ citation needed ]. Congestion can also happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, which may reduce the road's capacity below normal levels.

Rapid economic growth in China has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles in its major cities. Shown here is a traffic jam in downtown Haikou, Hainan Province, China. Traffic jam in Haikou, Hainan, China 01.jpg
Rapid economic growth in China has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles in its major cities. Shown here is a traffic jam in downtown Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

Economist Anthony Downs argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of the benefits of having a relatively standard work day [ citation needed ]. In a capitalist economy, goods can be allocated either by pricing (ability to pay) or by queueing (first-come first-served); congestion is an example of the latter. Instead of the traditional solution of making the "pipe" large enough to accommodate the total demand for peak-hour vehicle travel (a supply-side solution), either by widening roadways or increasing "flow pressure" via automated highway systems, Downs advocates greater use of road pricing to reduce congestion (a demand-side solution, effectively rationing demand), in turn plowing the revenues generated therefrom into public transportation projects.

A 2011 study in The American Economic Review indicates that there may be a "fundamental law of road congestion." The researchers, from the University of Toronto and the London School of Economics, analyzed data from the U.S. Highway Performance and Monitoring System for 1983, 1993 and 2003, as well as information on population, employment, geography, transit, and political factors. They determined that the number of vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT) increases in direct proportion to the available lane-kilometers of roadways. The implication is that building new roads and widening existing ones only results in additional traffic that continues to rise until peak congestion returns to the previous level. [18] [19]

Classification

Qualitative classification of traffic is often done in the form of a six-letter A-F level of service (LOS) scale defined in the Highway Capacity Manual, a US document used (or used as a basis for national guidelines) worldwide. These levels are used by transportation engineers as a shorthand and to describe traffic levels to the lay public. While this system generally uses delay as the basis for its measurements, the particular measurements and statistical methods vary depending on the facility being described. For instance, while the percent time spent following a slower-moving vehicle figures into the LOS for a rural two-lane road, the LOS at an urban intersection incorporates such measurements as the number of drivers forced to wait through more than one signal cycle. [20]

Traffic congestion occurs in time and space, i.e., it is a spatiotemporal process. Therefore, another classification schema of traffic congestion is associated with some common spatiotemporal features of traffic congestion found in measured traffic data. Common spatiotemporal empirical features of traffic congestion are those features, which are qualitatively the same for different highways in different countries measured during years of traffic observations. Common features of traffic congestion are independent on weather, road conditions and road infrastructure, vehicular technology, driver characteristics, day time, etc. Examples of common features of traffic congestion are the features [J] and [S] for, respectively, the wide moving jam and synchronized flow traffic phases found in Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. The common features of traffic congestion can be reconstructed in space and time with the use of the ASDA and FOTO models.

Negative impacts

Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects:

Road rage

Road rage is aggressive or angry behavior by a driver of an automobile or other motor vehicle. Such behavior might include rude gestures, verbal insults, deliberately driving in an unsafe or threatening manner, or making threats. Road rage can lead to altercations, assaults, and collisions which result in injuries and even deaths. It can be thought of as an extreme case of aggressive driving.

An example of the traffic situation in Accra, Ghana, increasing carbon emission in the air Female Street Sellers Accra 12.jpg
An example of the traffic situation in Accra, Ghana, increasing carbon emission in the air

The term originated in the United States in 1987–1988 (specifically, from Newscasters at KTLA, a local television station), when a rash of freeway shootings occurred on the 405, 110 and 10 freeways in Los Angeles, California. These shooting sprees even spawned a response from the AAA Motor Club to its members on how to respond to drivers with road rage or aggressive maneuvers and gestures. [21]

Economic loss

Costs of congestion and parking search Costs of Congestion and Parking Search.png
Costs of congestion and parking search
AreaLoss in billionsNote
US $305 [22] [23]
UK $52.01 [24]
NYC $33.7
LA $19.2 [25]
Manila $18.615 [26]
Bangladesh $11.4 [27]
SF $10.6
Atlanta $7.1
Jakarta $5 [28]
Dhaka $4.463 [29]
GTHA $3.3 [30]

Positive effects

Houses in this street in Royal Tunbridge Wells were built when cars were few. With no provision for garages or off-street parking, on-street parking has formed a choke point likely to cause traffic congestion. Silverdale Rd. - geograph.org.uk - 1047019.jpg
Houses in this street in Royal Tunbridge Wells were built when cars were few. With no provision for garages or off-street parking, on-street parking has formed a choke point likely to cause traffic congestion.

Congestion has the benefit of encouraging motorists to retime their trips so that expensive road space is in full use for more hours per day. It may also encourage travellers to pick alternate modes with a lower environmental impact, such as public transport or bicycles. [31]

It has been argued that traffic congestion, by reducing road speeds in cities, could reduce the frequency and severity of road crashes. [32] More recent research suggests that a U-curve exists between the number of accidents and the flow of traffic, implying that more accidents happen not only at high congestion levels, but also when there are very few vehicles on the road. [33]

Countermeasures

Improving Road infrastructure

Metered ramp on I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S. The queue of cars waiting at the red light can be seen on the upper portion of the picture. Grnfld Ramp.jpg
Metered ramp on I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S. The queue of cars waiting at the red light can be seen on the upper portion of the picture.
The A38M Aston Expressway in Aston, towards central Birmingham - the lanes are controlled via the overhead gantries, which reverse the flow of one lane (making 4 in one direction, 2 in the other and a central buffer lane) during peak times accordingly. A38(M) Aston Expressway.jpg
The A38M Aston Expressway in Aston, towards central Birmingham - the lanes are controlled via the overhead gantries, which reverse the flow of one lane (making 4 in one direction, 2 in the other and a central buffer lane) during peak times accordingly.
The HOV lanes in Highway 404 in Southern Ontario are separated by a stripped buffer zone that breaks occasionally to allow vehicles to enter and exit the HOV lane. 404HOV lane.png
The HOV lanes in Highway 404 in Southern Ontario are separated by a stripped buffer zone that breaks occasionally to allow vehicles to enter and exit the HOV lane.

Urban planning and design

City planning and urban design practices can have a huge impact on levels of future traffic congestion, though they are of limited relevance for short-term change.

Supply and demand

Widening works under way on the M25 motorway surrounding London, England to increase the number of lanes Autoroute M25.jpg
Widening works under way on the M25 motorway surrounding London, England to increase the number of lanes
During rush hour, right turns onto the side street shown here are prohibited in order to prevent rat running. Noratrun.jpg
During rush hour, right turns onto the side street shown here are prohibited in order to prevent rat running.

Congestion can be reduced by either increasing road capacity (supply), or by reducing traffic (demand). Capacity can be increased in a number of ways, but needs to take account of latent demand otherwise it may be used more strongly than anticipated. Critics of the approach of adding capacity have compared it to "fighting obesity by letting out your belt" (inducing demand that did not exist before). For example, when new lanes are created, households with a second car that used to be parked most of the time may begin to use this second car for commuting. [39] [40] Reducing road capacity has in turn been attacked as removing free choice as well as increasing travel costs and times, placing an especially high burden on the low income residents who must commute to work.[ citation needed ]

Increased supply can include:

Reduction of demand can include:

Bike lane constructed in areas of low space to encourage use of human-sized transportation TrafficJamBikeLane.jpg
Bike lane constructed in areas of low space to encourage use of human-sized transportation

Traffic management

Traffic congestion detector in Germany SES Staumelder A5.JPG
Traffic congestion detector in Germany

Use of so-called intelligent transportation systems, which guide traffic:

Other associated

Different modes of transport require different amounts of road space. Road Space Requirements.png
Different modes of transport require different amounts of road space.

By country

Australia

External videos
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Traffic Jam Problem In Australia (1965)
Traffic jam in Warringah Freeway Warringah Freeway2.jpg
Traffic jam in Warringah Freeway

Traffic during peak hours in major Australian cities, such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth, is usually very congested and can cause considerable delay for motorists. Australians rely mainly on radio and television to obtain current traffic information. GPS, webcams, and online resources are increasingly being used to monitor and relay traffic conditions to motorists.[ citation needed ]

Bangladesh

Traffic jam in Dhaka Kazi Nazrul Islam Ave Road, Dhaka. .jpg
Traffic jam in Dhaka

Traffic jams have become intolerable in Dhaka. Some other major reasons are the total absence of a rapid transit system; the lack of an integrated urban planning scheme for over 30 years; [66] poorly maintained road surfaces, with potholes rapidly eroded further by frequent flooding and poor or non-existent drainage; [67] haphazard stopping and parking; [68] poor driving standards; [69] total lack of alternative routes, with several narrow and (nominally) one-way roads. [70] [71]

Brazil

Typical traffic jam in Sao Paulo downtown, despite road space rationing by plate number. Rua da Consolacao, Sao Paulo, Brazil Traffic jam Sao Paulo 09 2006 30.JPG
Typical traffic jam in São Paulo downtown, despite road space rationing by plate number. Rua da Consolação, São Paulo, Brazil

According to Time magazine, São Paulo has the world's worst daily traffic jams. [11] Based on reports from the Companhia de Engenharia de Tráfego, the city's traffic management agency, the historical congestion record was set on May 23, 2014, with 344 kilometres (214 mi) of cumulative queues around the city during the evening rush hour. [72] The previous record occurred on November 14, 2013, with 309 kilometres (192 mi) of cumulative queues. [72]

Despite implementation since 1997 of road space rationing by the last digit of the plate number during rush hours every weekday, traffic in this 20-million-strong city still experiences severe congestion. According to experts, this is due to the accelerated rate of motorization occurring since 2003 and the limited capacity of public transport. In São Paulo, traffic is growing at a rate of 7.5% per year, with almost 1,000 new cars bought in the city every day. [73] The subway has only 61 kilometres (38 mi) of lines, though 35 further kilometers are under construction or planned by 2010. Every day, many citizens spend between three up to four hours behind the wheel. In order to mitigate the aggravating congestion problem, since June 30, 2008, the road space rationing program was expanded to include and restrict trucks and light commercial vehicles. [74] [75]

Canada

Highway 401 in Ontario, which passes through Toronto, suffers chronic traffic congestion despite its width of up to 18 lanes. 401 Gridlock.jpg
Highway 401 in Ontario, which passes through Toronto, suffers chronic traffic congestion despite its width of up to 18 lanes.

According to the Toronto Board of Trade, in 2010, Toronto is ranked as the most congested city of 19 surveyed cities, with an average commute time of 80 minutes. [78]

China

Traffic jam in Beijing Chang'an avenue in Beijing.jpg
Traffic jam in Beijing

The Chinese city of Beijing started a license plate rationing since the 2008 Summer Olympics whereby each car is banned from the urban core one workday per week, depending on the last digit of its license plate. As of 2016, 11 major Chinese cities have implemented similar policies. [79] Towards the end of 2010, Beijing announced a series of drastic measures to tackle the city's chronic traffic congestion, such as limiting the number of new plates issued to passenger cars to 20,000 a month, barring vehicles with non-Beijing plates from entering areas within the Fifth Ring Road during rush hours and expanding its subway system. [80] The government aims to cap the number of locally registered cars in Beijing to below 6.3 million by the end of 2020. [81] In addition, more than nine major Chinese cities including Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hangzhou started limiting the number of new plates issued to passenger cars in an attempt to curb the growth of car ownership. [82] [83] In response to the increased demand to public transit caused by these policies, aggressive programs to rapidly expand public transport systems in many Chinese cities are currently underway. [84]

A unique Chinese phenomenon of severe traffic congestion occurs during Chunyun Period or Spring Festival travel season. [85] It is a long-held tradition for most Chinese people to reunite with their families during Chinese New Year. People return to their hometown to have a reunion dinner with their families on Chinese New Year. It has been described as the largest annual human migration in the world. [86] [87] Since the economic boom and rapid urbanization of China since the late 1970s, many people work and study a considerable distance from their hometowns. Traffic flow is typically directional, with large amounts of the population working in more developed coastal provinces needing travel to their hometowns in the less developed interior. The process reverses near the end of Chunyun. With almost 3 billion trips [88] made in 40 days of the 2016 Chunyun Period, the Chinese intercity transportation network is extremely strained during this period.

The August 2010 China National Highway 110 traffic jam in Hebei province caught media attention for its severity, stretching more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from August 14 to 26, including at least 11 days of total gridlock. [89] [90] [91] The event was caused by a combination of road works and thousands of coal trucks from Inner Mongolia's coalfields that travel daily to Beijing. The New York Times has called this event the "Great Chinese Gridlock of 2010." [91] [92] The congestion is regarded as the worst in history by duration, and is one of the longest in length after the 175 kilometres (109 mi) long Lyon-Paris traffic jam in France on February 16, 1980.

Recently, in Hangzhou City Brain has become active, reducing traffic congestion somewhat. [93]

A 2021 study of subway constructions in China found that in the first year of a new subway line, road congestion declined. [94]

Greece

Athens inner Daktylios limits OpenStreetMap Daktulios 88432808.png
Athens inner Daktylios limits

Since the 70s, the traffic on the streets of Athens has increased dramatically, with the existing road network unable to serve the ever-increasing demand. In addition, it has also caused an environmental burden, such as the photochemical smog. To deal with it, the Daktylios has been enforced.

India

Traffic jam in New Delhi Ratan Lal Market, Kaseru Walan, Paharganj, New Delhi, Delhi, India - panoramio (1).jpg
Traffic jam in New Delhi

The number of vehicles in India is quickly increasing as a growing middle class can now afford to buy cars. India's road conditions have not kept up with the exponential growth in number of vehicles.

Various causes for this include:

Indonesia

Traffic congestion in Jakarta, West Java BNN Temporary Transjakarta Stop at Rush Hour, 2023.jpg
Traffic congestion in Jakarta, West Java

According to a 2015 study by motor oil company Castrol, Jakarta is found to be the worst city in the world for traffic congestion. Relying on information from TomTom navigation devices in 78 countries, the index found that drivers are stopping and starting their cars 33,240 times per year on the road. After Jakarta, the worst cities for traffic are Istanbul, Mexico City, Surabaya, and St. Petersburg. [95]

Daily congestion in Jakarta is not a recent problem. The expansion of commercial area without road expansion shows worsening daily congestion even in main roads such as Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jalan M.H. Thamrin, and Jalan Gajah Mada in the mid-1970s. [96]

In 2016, 22 people died as a result of traffic congestion in Java. They were among those stuck in a three-day traffic jam at a toll exit in Brebes, Central Java called Brebes Exit or 'Brexit'. The traffic block stretched for 21 km here and thousands of cars clogged the highway. Many people died because of carbon monoxide poisoning, fatigue or heat. [97]

New Zealand

Busy traffic in Auckland, New Zealand Auckland traffic - copyright-free photo released to public domain.jpg
Busy traffic in Auckland, New Zealand

New Zealand has followed strongly car-oriented transport policies since after World War II (especially in Auckland, where one third of the country's population lives, is New Zealand's most traffic congested city, and has been labeled worse than New York for traffic congestion with commuters sitting in traffic congestion for 95 hours per year), [98] and currently has one of the highest car-ownership rates per capita in the world, after the United States. [99] Traffic congestion in New Zealand is increasing with drivers on New Zealand's motorways reported to be struggling to exceed 20 km/h on an average commute, sometimes crawling along at 8 km/h for more than half an hour.

Philippines

Traffic along Commonwealth Avenue in Quezon City on July 5, 2022 Traffic along Commonwealth Avenue in Quezon City on July 5, 2022 (55339).jpg
Traffic along Commonwealth Avenue in Quezon City on July 5, 2022
Traffic jam at EDSA-Tramo in Pasay, Metro Manila Heavy traffic sa EDSA-Tramo (Pasay)(2017-08-04).jpg
Traffic jam at EDSA-Tramo in Pasay, Metro Manila

According to a survey by Waze, traffic congestion in Metro Manila is called the "worst" in the world, after Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Jakarta. [100] It is worsened by violations of traffic laws, like illegal parking, loading and unloading, beating the red light, and wrong-way driving. [101] Traffic congestion in Metro Manila is caused by the large number of registered vehicles, lack of roads, and overpopulation, especially in the cities of Manila and Caloocan, as well as the municipality of Pateros. [102]

Traffic caused losses of ₱137,500,000,000 on the economy in 2011, and unbuilt roads and railway projects also causes worsening congestion. [103] The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) feared that daily economic losses will reach Php 6,000,000,000 by 2030 if traffic congestion cannot be controlled. [104]

Turkey

Traffic congestion in Istanbul Istanbul Otoyol 2 Richtung FSM 1.jpg
Traffic congestion in Istanbul

In recent years, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality has made huge investments on intelligent transportation systems and public transportation. Despite that, traffic is a significant problem in Istanbul. Istanbul has chosen the second most congested [105] and the most sudden-stopping traffic in the world. [106] Travel times in Turkey's largest city take on average 55 percent longer than they should, even in relatively less busy hours. [107]

United Kingdom

Congestion on A64 road which heading towards to York Traffic Jam - geograph.org.uk - 391642.jpg
Congestion on A64 road which heading towards to York

In the United Kingdom the inevitability of congestion in some urban road networks has been officially recognized since the Department for Transport set down policies based on the report Traffic in Towns in 1963:

Even when everything that it is possibly to do by way of building new roads and expanding public transport has been done, there would still be, in the absence of deliberate limitation, more cars trying to move into, or within our cities than could possibly be accommodated. [108]

A solution to traffic congestion using Northern Ireland Railways from Moira to Belfast Great Victoria Street Railway bridge near Moira - geograph.org.uk - 307866.jpg
A solution to traffic congestion using Northern Ireland Railways from Moira to Belfast Great Victoria Street

The Department for Transport sees growing congestion as one of the most serious transport problems facing the UK. [109] On December 1, 2006, Rod Eddington published a UK government-sponsored report into the future of Britain's transport infrastructure. The Eddington Transport Study set out the case for action to improve road and rail networks, as a "crucial enabler of sustained productivity and competitiveness". Eddington has estimated that congestion may cost the economy of England £22 bn a year in lost time by 2025. He warned that roads were in serious danger of becoming so congested that the economy would suffer. [110] At the launch of the report Eddington told journalists and transport industry representatives introducing road pricing to encourage drivers to drive less was an "economic no-brainer". There was, he said "no attractive alternative". It would allegedly cut congestion by half by 2025, and bring benefits to the British economy totaling £28 bn a year. [111]

A congestion charge for driving in central London was introduced in 2003. In 2013, ten years later, Transport for London reported that the scheme resulted in a 10% reduction in traffic volumes from baseline conditions, and an overall reduction of 11% in vehicle kilometers in London. Despite these gains, traffic speeds in central London became progressively slower.

United States

Traffic jam in Los Angeles, 1953 Traffic Jam,1953.jpg
Traffic jam in Los Angeles, 1953
On Fridays in California, Interstate 5 is often congested as Los Angeles residents travel north for the weekend. Trafficjamoninterstate5atpyramidlake.jpg
On Fridays in California, Interstate 5 is often congested as Los Angeles residents travel north for the weekend.
Rush hour traffic in Interstate 95 in Miami Miami traffic jam, I-95 North rush hour.jpg
Rush hour traffic in Interstate 95 in Miami
Congestion during lunch hour on U.S. Route 11E in Morristown, Tennessee Traffic congestion - US 11E - Morristown, TN.jpg
Congestion during lunch hour on U.S. Route 11E in Morristown, Tennessee

The Texas Transportation Institute estimated that, in 2000, the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion U.S. gallons (21.6 billion liters) in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity, or about 0.7% of the nation's GDP. It also estimated that the annual cost of congestion for each driver was approximately $1,000 in very large cities and $200 in small cities. Traffic congestion is increasing in major cities and delays are becoming more frequent in smaller cities and rural areas.

30% of traffic is cars looking for parking. [112]

According to traffic analysis firm INRIX in 2019, [113] the top 31 worst US traffic congested cities (measured in average hours wasted per vehicle for the year) were:

CityHours wasted per vehicleCost of congestion per driver
1Boston, Massachusetts149 hours$2,205
2Chicago, Illinois145 hours$2,146
3Philadelphia, Pennsylvania142 hours$2,102
4New York City, New York140 hours$2,072
5Washington, D.C.124 hours$1,835
6Los Angeles, California103 hours$1,524
7San Francisco, California97 hours$1,436
8Portland, Oregon89 hours$1,317
9Baltimore, Maryland84 hours$1,243
10Atlanta, Georgia82 hours$1,214
11Houston, Texas81 hours$1,199
12Miami, Florida81 hours$1,199
13New Orleans, Louisiana79 hours$1,169
14Seattle, Washington74 hours$1,095
15Stamford, Connecticut74 hours$1,095
16Providence, Rhode Island70 hours$1,036
17San Diego, California70 hours$1,036
18Austin, Texas69 hours$1,021
19Sacramento, California64 hours$947
20Dallas, Texas63 hours$932
21Denver, Colorado63 hours$932
22Hartford, Connecticut61 hours$903
23Minneapolis, Minnesota52 hours$770
24Charlotte, North Carolina49 hours$725
25San Juan, Puerto Rico46 hours$681
26Cleveland, Ohio44 hours$651
27Columbus, Ohio43 hours$636
28Milwaukee, Wisconsin41 hours$607
29Detroit, Michigan39 hours$577
30San Antonio, Texas39 hours$577
31Boulder, Colorado37 hours$548

The most congested highway in the United States, according to a 2010 study of freight congestion (truck speed and travel time), is Chicago's Interstate 290 at the Circle Interchange. The average truck speed was just 29 mph (47 km/h). [114]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Traffic</span> Phenomenon of movement by humans on foot or using vehicles

Traffic comprises pedestrians, vehicles, ridden or herded animals, trains, and other conveyances that use public ways (roads/sidewalks) for travel and transportation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Highway</span> Public road or other public way on land

A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks. In the United States, it is used as an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for Autobahn, autostrada, autoroute, etc.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport economics</span> Branch of economics

Transport economics is a branch of economics founded in 1959 by American economist John R. Meyer that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector. It has strong links to civil engineering. Transport economics differs from some other branches of economics in that the assumption of a spaceless, instantaneous economy does not hold. People and goods flow over networks at certain speeds. Demands peak. Advance ticket purchase is often induced by lower fares. The networks themselves may or may not be competitive. A single trip may require the bundling of services provided by several firms, agencies and modes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">High-occupancy vehicle lane</span> Restricted traffic lane

A high-occupancy vehicle lane is a restricted traffic lane reserved for the exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and at least one passenger, including carpools, vanpools, and transit buses. These restrictions may be only imposed during peak travel times or may apply at all times. There are different types of lanes: temporary or permanent lanes with concrete barriers, two-directional or reversible lanes, and exclusive, concurrent, or contraflow lanes working in peak periods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ramp meter</span> Traffic management system

A ramp meter, ramp signal, or metering light is a device, usually a basic traffic light or a two-section signal light together with a signal controller, that regulates the flow of traffic entering freeways according to current traffic conditions. Ramp meters are used at freeway on-ramps to manage the rate of automobiles entering the freeway. Ramp metering systems have proved to be successful in decreasing traffic congestion and improving driver safety.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Road pricing</span> Revenue generation for road infrastructure

Road pricing are direct charges levied for the use of roads, including road tolls, distance or time-based fees, congestion charges and charges designed to discourage the use of certain classes of vehicle, fuel sources or more polluting vehicles. These charges may be used primarily for revenue generation, usually for road infrastructure financing, or as a transportation demand management tool to reduce peak hour travel and the associated traffic congestion or other social and environmental negative externalities associated with road travel such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, visual intrusion, noise pollution and road traffic collisions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Congestion pricing</span> System of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion

Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excess demand, such as through higher peak charges for use of bus services, electricity, metros, railways, telephones, and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion; airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times. Advocates claim this pricing strategy regulates demand, making it possible to manage congestion without increasing supply.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Electronic toll collection</span> Wireless system to automatically collect the usage fee or toll charged to vehicles

Electronic toll collection (ETC) is a wireless system to automatically collect the usage fee or toll charged to vehicles using toll roads, HOV lanes, toll bridges, and toll tunnels. It is a faster alternative which is replacing toll booths, where vehicles must stop and the driver manually pays the toll with cash or a card. In most systems, vehicles using the system are equipped with an automated radio transponder device. When the vehicle passes a roadside toll reader device, a radio signal from the reader triggers the transponder, which transmits back an identifying number which registers the vehicle's use of the road, and an electronic payment system charges the user the toll.

In economics, induced demand – related to latent demand and generated demand – is the phenomenon whereby an increase in supply results in a decline in price and an increase in consumption. In other words, as a good or service becomes more readily available and mass produced, its price goes down and consumers are more likely to buy it, meaning that the quantity demanded subsequently increases. This is consistent with the economic model of supply and demand.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rush hour</span> Time of day with peak traffic congestion

A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice every weekday: once in the morning and once in the afternoon or evening, the times during which most people commute. The term is often used for a period of peak congestion that may last for more than one hour.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shoulder (road)</span> Reserve lane by the verge of a roadway

A shoulder, hard shoulder (British) or breakdown lane is an emergency stopping lane by the verge on the outer side of a road or motorway. Many wider freeways, or expressways elsewhere have shoulders on both sides of each directional carriageway — in the median, as well as at the outer edges of the road, for additional safety. Shoulders are not intended for use by through traffic, although there are exceptions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Park and ride</span> Car park with public transport connections

A park and ride, also known as incentive parking or a commuter lot, is a parking lot with public transport connections that allows commuters and other people heading to city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system, or carpool for the remainder of the journey. The vehicle is left in the parking lot during the day and retrieved when the owner returns. Park and rides are generally located in the suburbs of metropolitan areas or on the outer edges of large cities. A park and ride that only offers parking for meeting a carpool and not connections to public transport may also be called a park and pool.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bus lane</span> Road lane intended for buses and other transits only

A bus lane or bus-only lane is a lane restricted to buses, often on certain days and times, and generally used to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion. The related term busway describes a roadway completely dedicated for use by buses, whilst bus gate describes a short bus lane often used as a short cut for public transport. Bus lanes are a key component of a high-quality bus rapid transit (BRT) network, improving bus travel speeds and reliability by reducing delay caused by other traffic.

In transportation engineering, traffic flow is the study of interactions between travellers and infrastructure, with the aim of understanding and developing an optimal transport network with efficient movement of traffic and minimal traffic congestion problems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transportation demand management</span> Policies to reduce transportation demands

Transportation demand management or travel demand management (TDM) is the application of strategies and policies to increase the efficiency of transportation systems, that reduce travel demand, or to redistribute this demand in space or in time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Three-phase traffic theory</span> Theory of traffic flow

Three-phase traffic theory is a theory of traffic flow developed by Boris Kerner between 1996 and 2002. It focuses mainly on the explanation of the physics of traffic breakdown and resulting congested traffic on highways. Kerner describes three phases of traffic, while the classical theories based on the fundamental diagram of traffic flow have two phases: free flow and congested traffic. Kerner’s theory divides congested traffic into two distinct phases, synchronized flow and wide moving jam, bringing the total number of phases to three:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lane splitting</span> Riding between lanes of traffic

Lane splitting is riding a bicycle or motorcycle between lanes or rows of slow moving or stopped traffic moving in the same direction. It is sometimes called whitelining, or stripe-riding. This allows riders to save time, bypassing traffic congestion, and may also be safer than stopping behind stationary vehicles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Bangkok</span>

Bangkok has 9.7 million automobiles and motorbikes, a number the government says is eight times more than can be properly accommodated on existing roads. And those numbers are increasing by 700 additional cars and 400 motorbikes every day. Charoen Krung Road, the first road to be built by Western techniques, was completed in 1864. Since then, the road network has expanded to accommodate the sprawling city's needs. Besides roads, Bangkok is served by several other transport systems. Bangkok's canals and ferries historically served as a major mode of transport, but they have long since been eclipsed by land traffic. A complex elevated expressway network and Tollway helps bring traffic into and out of the city centre, but Bangkok's rapid growth has put a large strain on infrastructure. By the late-1970s, Bangkok became known as "the city of traffic disaster". Although rail transport was introduced in 1893 and electric trams served the city from 1894 to 1968, it was only in 1999 that Bangkok's first rapid transit system began operation. Older public transport systems include an extensive bus network and boat services which still operate on the Chao Phraya and two canals. Taxis appear in the form of cars, motorcycles, and tuk-tuks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Glossary of road transport terms</span>

Terminology related to road transport—the transport of passengers or goods on paved routes between places—is diverse, with variation between dialects of English. There may also be regional differences within a single country, and some terms differ based on the side of the road traffic drives on. This glossary is an alphabetical listing of road transport terms.

The impact of self-driving cars is anticipated to be wide-ranging in many areas of daily life. Self-driving cars have been the subject of significant research on their environmental, practical, and lifestyle consequences and their impacts remain debated.

References

  1. Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. p. 141.
  2. Treiber, Martin; Kesting, Arne (October 11, 2012). Traffic Flow Dynamics: Data, Models and Simulation. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN   978-3-642-32459-8. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  3. May, Adolf Darlington (1990). Traffic Flow Fundamentals. Prentice Hall. ISBN   9780139260728. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  4. Hotelier & Caterer: Official Magazine of FEDHASA. Ramsay Son & Parker. July 1993. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  5. Eve: The Essence of Africa's New Woman. Oakland Media Services Limited. 2004. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  6. "TAILBACK". Cambridge Dictionary.
  7. Asaf Hazut (April 2019), "Speed-volume curve for the Arlozorov-Hashalom section of the Ayalon Highway on weekdays, May 2017", Annual convention of the Israeli Society for Transportation Research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  8. Joe Cortright (April 22, 2020), "What Covid-19 teaches us about how to fix freeways", City Observatory
  9. SH1 Northbound at Green Lane – What happens here?, Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency, 2016
  10. "An Initial Assessment of Freight Bottlenecks on Highways" (PDF). Federal Highway Administration. Cambridge Systematics, Inc. October 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 1, 2023. Retrieved June 9, 2023.
  11. 1 2 Andrew Downie (April 21, 2008). "The World's Worst Traffic Jams". Time. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  12. "Congestion: A National Issue". August 29, 2008. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
  13. Essien, Aniekan; Petrounias, Ilias; Sampaio, Pedro; Sampaio, Sandra (2018), The Impact of Rainfall and Temperature on Peak and Off-Peak Urban Traffic, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11030, Springer International Publishing, pp. 399–407, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-98812-2_36, ISBN   9783319988115, S2CID   52046271, archived from the original on January 26, 2020, retrieved December 1, 2019
  14. "Science Hobbyist: Traffic Waves". Archived from the original on October 8, 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2003.
  15. "Transportation Report By USCB". Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  16. Critical MassBall, Philip, ISBN   0-09-945786-5
  17. "Mathematicians Take Aim At 'Phantom' Traffic Jams". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  18. "Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from U.S. Cities". journalistsresource.org. November 17, 2014. Archived from the original on February 21, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  19. Duranton, Gilles; Turner, Matthew A. (2011). "The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from U.S. Cities" (PDF). American Economic Review. 101 (6): 2616–52. doi:10.1257/aer.101.6.2616. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 13, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  20. Traffic Engineering, Third Edition. Roger P. Roess, Elana S. Prassas, and William R. McShane. ISBN   0-13-142471-8
  21. ""Road rage" meaning and origin, Phrases.org.uk". Archived from the original on June 21, 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  22. "Gridlock woes: Traffic congestion by the numbers". Smart Cities Dive. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  23. Rahim, Zamira. "Here's How Much Sitting In Traffic Is Costing You". Money.com. Archived from the original on August 24, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  24. "Home". newburghgazette.com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  25. "Here's How Much Traffic Congestion Costs the World's Biggest Cities". February 11, 2018. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  26. Isla, Rouselle (May 26, 2016). "Find Out What's The Cost of Traffic In Metro Manila". iMoney.ph. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  27. "Traffic jam: The ugly side of Dhaka's development". The Daily Star. May 13, 2018. Archived from the original on May 15, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  28. "Jakarta foots US$5b annual bill for traffic jams: Minister". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  29. "Colossal loss". The Daily Star. March 25, 2018. Archived from the original on March 27, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  30. "Costs of Congestion". www.metrolinx.com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  31. "Congestion - Friend or Foe? - W R Blunden 1983". Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  32. "Maximum fares for metropolitan and outer metropolitan buses from January 2014 - Draft Report, p. 37, citing work by LECG "Value of Sydney bus externalities and optimal Government subsidy - Final report", September 2009, p. 17" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  33. Kumar, Nishant; Raubal, Martin (2021). "Applications of deep learning in congestion detection, prediction and alleviation: A survey". Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 133: 103432. doi: 10.1016/j.trc.2021.103432 . hdl: 10230/42143 . S2CID   240420107.
  34. Schneider, Benjamin (September 6, 2018). "CityLab University: Induced Demand". Bloomberg News . Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  35. Downs 1962, p. 393.
  36. Mueller, N (2018). "Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities" (PDF). Preventive Medicine. 109: 62–70. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.12.011. hdl: 10230/42143 . PMID   29330030. S2CID   3774985. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021.
  37. British to help China build 'eco-cities' Archived April 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine The Observer , November 6, 2005
  38. McGray, Douglas (April 24, 2007). "Wired, Pop-Up Cities: China Builds a Bright Green Metropolis, 04.24.07". Wired. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  39. Dreaming of a Clean Car? Archived May 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Kay, Jane Holtz, journalist and author
  40. 2005 Mayors Luncheon Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (from the NAIOP website, Tampa Bay, United States)
  41. Hermann Knoflacher (2006). "A new way to organize parking: the key to a successful sustainable transport system for the future". Environment and Urbanization. 18 (2): 387–400. Bibcode:2006EnUrb..18..387K. doi: 10.1177/0956247806069621 . S2CID   153752634.
  42. Shoup, Donald C. (2005). The High Cost of Free Parking. American Planning Association. ISBN   978-1-884829-98-7.
  43. Knoflacher, Hermann (January 2001) [2001]. Stehzeuge. Der Stau ist kein Verkehrsproblem (in German). Vienna: Böhlau. ISBN   978-3-205-98988-2.
  44. Goddard, Haynes (July 1997). "Using Tradeable Permits to Achieve Sustainability in the World's Large Cities". Environmental and Resource Economics. 10 (1): 63–99. doi:10.1023/A:1026444113237. S2CID   154186781.
  45. The high cost of motoring in Singapore – Toh, Rex S., Business Horizons, Mar-April 1994
  46. "LEDA Measure: License plate based traffic restrictions, Athens, Greece". LEDA database. Archived from the original on February 27, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008.
  47. 1 2 "Regulatory restrictions". KonSULT, the Knowledgebase on Sustainable Urban Land use and Transport. Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. Archived from the original on August 25, 2004.
  48. Henley, Jon (March 15, 2005). "Paris drive to cut traffic in centre by 75%". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on September 18, 2014.
  49. Simon, Hermann; Robert J Dolan. "Price Customization". Marketing Management. 7 (3). American Marketing Association.
  50. Andersen, Bjørn (January 1993). "A survey of the Swiss public transport system and policy". Transport Reviews. 13 (1): 61–81. doi:10.1080/01441649308716835.
  51. May, Adrian (March 16, 2007). "The philosophy and practice of Taktfahrplan: a case-study of the East Coast Main Line" (Working Paper). Working Paper 579. Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Archived from the original on December 10, 2007.
  52. Ogilvie, David; Egan, Matt; Val Hamilton; Mark Petticrew (September 22, 2004). "Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars: systematic review". British Medical Journal . 329 (7469): 763. doi:10.1136/bmj.38216.714560.55. PMC   520994 . PMID   15385407.
  53. Rietveld, Piet; Daniel, Vanessa (August 2004). "Determinants of bicycle use: do municipal policies matter?". Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 38 (7): 531–550. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2004.05.003 .
  54. "Cycling in the Netherlands" (PDF). Rijkswaterstaat (Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008.
  55. Marinelli, P. A. Cleary, N. Worthington Eyre, H. and Doonan, K. 2010. Flexible Workplaces: Achieving the worker's paradise and transport planner's dream in Brisbane, Proceedings of the 33rd Australasian Transport Research Forum, September 29-October 1, 2010, Canberra.
  56. Matt Rosenberg (September 26, 2007). "Slow But Steady "Telework Revolution" Eyed". Cascadia Prospectus. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2007.
  57. "Motoring Towards 2050 – Roads and Reality". RAC foundation. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009.
  58. "Smarter Choices – Changing the way we travel". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
  59. "Reducing delay due to traffic congestion". Social Impact Open Repository. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  60. Highways Agency (October 25, 2007). "M42 Active Traffic Management Results – First Six Months" (PDF). Department for Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  61. "Glossary". National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety. US Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Motorcycle Safety Foundation. Archived from the original on April 6, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
  62. "Define:Lane Splitting". Motorcycle Glossary.com. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
  63. "Gridlock and Traffic Congestion in Cities – Is This the Solution?". Go Supply Chain. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  64. "Ten common myths about bike lanes – and why they're wrong". TheGuardian.com . July 3, 2019. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  65. Corruption in Plan Permission Process in RAJUK: A Study of Violations and Proposals Archived April 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine August 2007
  66. "The Financial Express | Financial Online Newspaper". Thefinancialexpress-bd.com. Archived from the original on July 26, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  67. "Haphazard parking causes more traffic jams in Dhaka". Demotix. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  68. Two important behaviour changes for road safety: Tolerance and patience Archived May 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Ridwan Quaium. The Financial Express VOL 20 NO 207 REGD NO DA 1589 | Dhaka, Thursday July 26, 2012
  69. "Traffic Jam at Dhaka". Teletalk Bangladesh. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2020.
  70. Md. Mirazul Islam (August 14, 2011). "Traffic jam". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  71. 1 2 EFE (May 23, 2014). "São Paulo sofre engarrafamento recorde de 344 quilômetros" [São Paulo suffers record traffic jam of 344 kilometers] (in Portuguese). UOL Economia. Archived from the original on May 26, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  72. Shankowsky, Josh. "Largest Traffic Jams in History". Community Couch. Snap SEO. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  73. "Kassab restringe carga e descarga em SP e inclui caminhões no rodízio" (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo Online. April 1, 2008. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  74. Folha de S.Paulo (June 18, 2008). "Kassab cria rodízio para caminhão no centro" (in Portuguese). INTELOG. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  75. Kalinowski, Tess (January 7, 2010). "GTA commuter crawl gets slower". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  76. Kennedy, Brendan (January 7, 2010). "GTA's worst routes: Highway 401". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  77. John Spears; Tess Kalinowski (March 30, 2010). "Toronto commuting times worst of 19 major cities, study says". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  78. "The great crawl". The Economist. Archived from the original on January 7, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  79. "To Tackle Traffic Jam, Beijing Sets New Car Plate Quota, Limits Out-of-Towners". ChinaAutoWeb.com. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
  80. 相镔. "Beijing takes aim at congestion, pollution with new car limits- China.org.cn". www.china.org.cn. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  81. "China's Nanjing city considers limiting issuance of car plates". Reuters. July 26, 2016. Archived from the original on January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  82. "4 Lessons from Beijing and Shanghai Show How China's Cities Can Curb Car Congestion | World Resources Institute". www.wri.org. April 10, 2015. Archived from the original on January 20, 2018. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  83. "In response to growth, Chinese cities choose metros". The Transport Politic. January 17, 2018. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  84. "When all of China goes on vacation at once". CNN Travel. January 13, 2017. Archived from the original on January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  85. "China's holiday rush begins early". 2009. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  86. "Earth's biggest human migration on a map". CNN Travel. February 18, 2015. Archived from the original on January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  87. "2017年春运发送旅客近30亿人次". Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  88. Leo Hickman (August 23, 2010). "Welcome to the world's worst traffic jam". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  89. "The great crawl of China". The Economist. August 26, 2010. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  90. 1 2 Michael Wines (August 27, 2010). "China's Growth Leads to Problems Down the Road". The New York Times . Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  91. Jonathan Watts (August 24, 2010). "Gridlock is a way of life for Chinese". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  92. "Alibaba's 'City Brain' is slashing congestion in its hometown". January 15, 2019. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  93. Gu, Yizhen; Jiang, Chang; Zhang, Junfu; Zou, Ben (2021). "Subways and Road Congestion". American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 13 (2): 83–115. doi:10.1257/app.20190024. ISSN   1945-7782. S2CID   233521120. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
  94. Pantazi, Chloe (February 2, 2015). "The Worst Traffic In The World Is In..." Thrillist. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  95. Merrillees, Scott (2015). Jakarta: Portraits of a Capital 1950-1980. Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. pp. 116–7. ISBN   9786028397308. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  96. "Twelve people die in traffic jam in Indonesia at junction called 'Brexit'". The Guardian . Agence France-Presse. July 8, 2016. Archived from the original on July 9, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  97. Backtracking Auckland: Bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning Archived April 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine – Mees, Paul; Dodson, Jago; Urban Research Program Issues Paper 5, Griffith University, April 2006
  98. Modern Society Archived March 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (from Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Accessed April 25, 2008.)
  99. Tan, Lara (October 2, 2015). "Metro Manila has 'worst traffic on earth', longest commute - Waze". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  100. Liquicia, Chi. "Manila traffic: the agony, without the ecstasy". Latitude News. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  101. "10 Alarming Facts about Traffic in Metro Manila that You Should Know". FAQ.ph. Archived from the original on January 18, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  102. Visconti, Katherine (September 26, 2012). "Traffic and infrastructure delays cost the Philippines". Rappler. Archived from the original on December 29, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  103. Dela Cruz, Chrisee (August 2, 2016). "DPWH chief Villar: Metro traffic jam 'can be solved in 2-3 years". Rappler. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
  104. "TomTom European Traffic Index" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  105. "'Dur-kalk'ta dünya lideri İstanbul". sabah.com.tr. October 2, 2013. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  106. "Istanbul drowning in traffic chaos, report announces - LOCAL". Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  107. Traffic in Towns. Penguin Books in association with HMSO. 1963–1964. Para 30.
  108. "Tackling congestion on our roads". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008.
  109. "Delivering choice and reliability". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on November 22, 2008.
  110. Rod Eddington (December 2006). "The Eddington Transport Study". UK Treasury. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008.
  111. "Cruising for Parking" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  112. Levin, Tim. "The 31 US cities that had the worst traffic in 2019 according to a study". Business Insider. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  113. "Table 3-9. Top 25 Freight Highway Locations by Freight Congestion Index Rating: 2010". U.S. Department of Transportation. 2011. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.

Bianchi Alves, B., & Darido, G. (February 7, 2016). Sustainable cities, two related challenges: high quality mobility on foot and efficient urban logistics (Part II). Retrieved November 2, 2019, from https://blogs.worldbank.org/transport/sustainable-cities-two-related-challenges-high-quality-mobility-foot-and-efficient-urban-logistics-1. 2019 Top 100 Truck Bottlenecks. (February 14, 2019). Retrieved November 3, 2019, from https://truckingresearch.org/2019/02/06/atri-2019-truck-bottlenecks/. Haag, M., & Hu, W. (October 27, 2019). 1.5 Million Packages a Day: The Internet Brings Chaos to N.Y. Streets. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/27/nyregion/nyc-amazon-delivery.html?searchResultPosition=1. Popovich, N., & Lu, D. (October 10, 2019). The Most Detailed Map of Auto Emissions in America. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/10/10/climate/driving-emissions-map.html?module=inline. Reed, S. (September 21, 2018). In London, Electric Trucks Are Helping UPS Make 'Eco-Friendly' Deliveries. Retrieved November 3, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/business/energy-environment/electric-ups-trucks-in-london.html?module=inline. Rooney, K. (April 3, 2019). Online shopping overtakes a major part of retail for the first time ever. Retrieved November 2, 2019, from https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/02/online-shopping-officially-overtakes-brick-and-mortar-retail-for-the-first-time-ever.html.

Further reading