Southern Ontario

Last updated
Southern Ontario
Primary region
Southern Ontario
Map of Ontario SOUTHERN.svg

██ Core area ██ Extended area
Coordinates: 44°00′N80°00′W / 44.000°N 80.000°W / 44.000; -80.000 Coordinates: 44°00′N80°00′W / 44.000°N 80.000°W / 44.000; -80.000
Country Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada
Province Flag of Ontario.svg  Ontario
  Total114,217 km2 (44,099 sq mi)
  Core area101,264 km2 (39,098 sq mi)
  Extended area12,953 km2 (5,001 sq mi)
  Density118.0/km2 (306/sq mi)
  Core area
  Extended area
Demonym(s) Southern Ontarian
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Postal code prefixes
K, L, M, N
Area code(s) 226, 249, 289, 343, 365, 416, 437, 519, 548, 613, 647, 705, 905

Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario. It is the most densely populated and southernmost region in Canada. The exact northern boundary of Southern Ontario is disputed; however, the core region is situated south of Algonquin Park, the latter being in an area of transition between coniferous forest north of the French and Mattawa Rivers and southern deciduous forest. It covers between 14 and 15% of the province, depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts which also lie in the transitional area between northern and southern forest regions. With approximately 13.5 million people, the region is home to approximately 36% of Canada's population of 37.0 million. [1]


Southern Ontario differs greatly from Northern Ontario, in that it has a much higher population density, a different climate, and a different culture than its northern counterpart. It is broken into smaller subregions, including Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, the Golden Horseshoe, and Southwestern Ontario.

The core area of Southern Ontario is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, which extends northeast into southern Quebec. The transitional northern area of this primary region extends north to the Mattawa River and occupies part of the Grenville Geological Province of the Canadian Shield which also extends northeast into southern Quebec; most of Northern Ontario lies within the Superior Geological Province.


Southern Ontario can be distinguished from Northern Ontario because it is far more densely populated and contains the majority of the province's cities, major roads, and institutions. Northern Ontario, in contrast, contains more natural resources and remote wilderness. Although it has no saltwater coastline, the region has an abundance of freshwater coastlines on three Great Lakes (Huron, Erie and Ontario), as well as smaller lakes such as Lake Simcoe and Lake St. Clair. It is a major vineyard region and producer of Canadian wines. [2]

While Southern Ontario has been a part of the province of Ontario since its establishment at Confederation in 1867, previously forming the colony of Upper Canada, a large portion of Northern Ontario did not become part of Ontario until 1912.


Underground Railroad monument, Windsor UndergroundRailroadmonumentWindsor.jpg
Underground Railroad monument, Windsor

Territorial Southern Ontario was explored and colonized by the French in the 17th century, who forged relations with the Wyandot Huron people, based around the Georgian Bay/Lake Simcoe area. Other Iroquoian speaking people to the south were the Petun and Neutral Nation, and further northeast, Algonquins inhabited the upper Ottawa River/Madawaska Valley areas and the Mississaugas moved south from northern Lake Huron, settling lands in both the Kawartha region and just west of Toronto.

Following the Seven Years' War, the British wrested control of Southern Ontario, and greater colonization efforts were spurred on by the arrival of United Empire Loyalists brought on by the American Revolution.

Southern Ontario was where a large portion of the battles took place during the War of 1812, [3] and was a major destination for escaping slaves using the underground railroad. [4]

Following the enactment of Prohibition in the United States in 1919, Southern Ontario immediately became a hotbed of smuggling alcohol (spirit) across the border.


Southern Ontario is home to over 94%, or 12.1 million, of Ontario's total population of 12.9 million people (and about 35% of Canada's total population), compared to approximately 750,000 in Northern Ontario. This is due to many factors, including the more arable land in the south, its more moderate climate, well-used transportation (water, land and air) routes, proximity to populated areas of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, as well as a long history of early European settlers and colonialism.

For thousands of years, Ontario has been home to indigenous aboriginal communities, with numerous nations with differing languages at the time of European contact. Over 200,000 aboriginal Canadians live in Southern Ontario today.

Southern Ontario was colonized by the French and the British. After the area began to be developed for European settlement, especially after the American Revolutionary War, other European immigrants arrived as well, with increased immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the late 20th century, many immigrants have come from Asia and other parts of the world. The region is one of the top destinations for immigrants worldwide, [5] particularly the Greater Toronto Area.

Toronto skyline tommythompsonpark.jpg
Toronto skyline in 2005


The area has a large manufacturing sector. Since the mid-2000s, Ontario has produced more vehicles per year than the state of Michigan. [6] In a cross-border definition, a swath of Southern Ontario could be considered a part of the Rust Belt. [7] Factory closings because of industry restructuring, globalization (corresponding movement of jobs overseas and to non-unionized labour markets in the United States) have for the past few decades taken their toll. This is most evident in the region's southern tier cities which have large automobile or associated industrial bases, such as Windsor, London, St. Thomas and St. Catharines. Still affected by these factors but to a lesser extent is Hamilton, the centre of steel production, and Sarnia, the centre of petrochemical production. The province's two largest cities, Toronto and Ottawa, have moved increasingly to a service and knowledge economy. Toronto, is home to the country's financial sector, including the major Canadian banks and Toronto Stock Exchange. Ottawa, the national capital, is home to the Government of Canada and most government departments and agencies, in addition to having a strong technology sector. [8] [9]

Some parts of Southern Ontario are heavily entwined with bordering cities in New York and Michigan in terms of industry and people. The focus areas are the Buffalo–Niagara, Sarnia and Detroit–Windsor. Many people work and live on opposite sides of the border. The NEXUS program for frequent travelers across the border [10] is increasing in popularity among bordering communities. Other areas with heavy trade traffic with Southern Ontario include Montreal and the province of Quebec, parts of northern Ohio, and western Pennsylvania.


Southern Ontario is well known for its attractions and tourism. Some popular tourist attractions include the CN Tower, Parliament Hill, Niagara Falls, National Gallery of Canada, Canada's Wonderland, CNE, Caesars Windsor, Canadian War Museum, Toronto Zoo, Hockey Hall of Fame, Ripley's Aquarium of Canada, Royal Canadian Mint, Marineland, The Rideau Canal, the Canadian Museum of History and the Royal Ontario Museum.

Niagara Falls is the 6th most visited attraction by domestic and international tourists in the world, with over 14 million tourists each year. In 2006, Toronto was the 14th most visited city by international tourists in the world, with over 4.1 million visitors in the year. [11] Ottawa is the most visited city in Canada by domestic tourists, hosting over 6.9 million Canadian visitors per year. [12]

Southern Ontario is home to several professional sports teams, including the Ottawa Senators and Toronto Maple Leafs in the NHL; the Toronto Blue Jays in Major League Baseball; the NBA's Toronto Raptors; soccer's Toronto FC in MLS and Atlético Ottawa in the Canadian Premier League; and three teams in the Canadian Football League—the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Ottawa Redblacks, and Toronto Argonauts. The region also hosts the Canadian Open in golf and Rogers Cup in tennis. [lower-alpha 1]

Niagara Falls in 2009 Niagara falls at Night.jpg
Niagara Falls in 2009

The area sponsors many internationally renowned festivals and events, including Toronto International Film Festival, Winterlude, Caribana, Bluesfest, Pride Week, Kitchener Oktoberfest, Havelock Jamboree, Toronto Indy, Sarnia Bayfest, Canada Day in Ottawa, International Freedom Festival in Windsor, Stratford Festival, Shaw Festival and Virgin Festival.

Several large legal gambling establishments have been built throughout the Province, [13] with Caesars Windsor and Fallsview Casino being the two flagship casinos. [14] [15] In addition to casinos, Ontario has many legal horseracing facilities with slot machines. Racetrack slots are located throughout the Province. All gaming in the Province is overseen by the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (OLG), and the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario. [16]

Southern Ontario has many natural attractions. Wasaga Beach, Grand Bend, Sauble Beach, and Sandbanks are beaches along the Great Lakes. The Niagara Escarpment offers hiking, skiing, and hundreds of waterfalls, including Niagara Falls. The Ottawa River has white-water rafting which attracts rafters and kayakers from all over the world. Ontario Parks governs all provincial parks, and Parks Canada governs all national parks.


Southern Ontario is home to both Canada's capital city (Ottawa), and Canada's largest city (Toronto).

Southern Ontario communities have 13 telephone area codes: 226, 249, 289, 343, 365, 416, 437, 519, 548, 613, 647, 705, and 905.

Statistics Canada's measure of a "metro area", the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), [17] [18] roughly bundles together population figures from the core municipality with those from "commuter" municipalities. [19] Note: A city's metropolitan area may actually be larger than its CMA. For example; Oshawa is part of the Greater Toronto Area; however, it is considered its own CMA.

Ottawa in 2005 Ottawa from McKenzie King Bridge.jpg
Ottawa in 2005
Southern Ontario Cities 20212016201120062001
Toronto CMA6,202,2255,928,0405,583,0645,113,1494,682,897
Ottawa CMA1,488,3071,323,7831,236,3241,130,7611,067,800
Hamilton CMA785,184747,545721,053692,911662,401
KitchenerCambridgeWaterloo CMA575,847523,894477,160451,235414,284
London CMA543,551494,069474,786457,720435,600
St. CatharinesNiagara CMA433,604406,074392,184390,317377,009
Windsor CMA422,630398,718319,246323,342307,877
Oshawa CMA415,311379,848356,177330,594296,298
Barrie CMA212,856197,059187,013177,061148,480
Kingston CMA172,546161,175159,561152,358146,838
Guelph CMA165,588151,984141,097127,009117,344
Brantford CMA144,162134,203135,501124,607118,086
Peterborough CMA128,624121,721118,975116,570110,876

Census divisions

The region is broken up into 40 census divisions, including 22 counties, eight regional municipalities, nine single-tier municipalities and depending on its inclusion, one district. The line between the counties and regions of the south and the districts of the north can be considered a boundary between Southern and Northern Ontario.

This is disputed however, as the demarcation line that is referenced in provincial documents is the Nipissing Passageway, originally an Indian trail between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River. The trail follows the French River from Georgian Bay to Lake Nipissing. At North Bay, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) of land separates Lake Nipissing from Trout Lake. From Trout Lake, the trail follows the Mattawa River to the Ottawa River. [20] [21]

1 Muskoka and Parry Sound are commonly regarded as a transitional region between Southern and Northern Ontario. Both divisions may be regarded as northern districts geographically, culturally and politically in some contexts.

The 2011 census revealed that the major urban divisions of York, Halton, Peel and Ottawa had the largest growth. While the heavy industrial divisions of Chatham, Lambton, and Essex, [22] as well as the mainly recreational divisions of Huron [23] and Prince Edward had a decrease in population.

Higher learning

Southern Ontario has long been an international destination for higher learning. It houses numerous internationally acclaimed public universities and colleges amongst its 13 universities and 20 colleges. It is also home to numerous private post-secondary institutions.


Many notable Canadians have been born in Southern Ontario, owing to its nature as Canada's largest concentration of population. Toronto is notable for its multiculturalism and cosmopolitan nature: it has been called the most diverse city in the world. [24] Southern Ontario also features in the literary genre of Southern Ontario Gothic, a major strand in Canadian literature.


Highway 401 at the Don Valley Parkway in Toronto 401atDVP.jpg
Highway 401 at the Don Valley Parkway in Toronto
Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway interchange in Ottawa Ottawa River Parkway interchange.jpg
Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway interchange in Ottawa

Southern Ontario has a highly developed transport system including many highways, airports, ports, trains and buses. The freeway system in Southern Ontario is referred to as the King's highways system, or the 400 series highways. The freeways are digitally monitored by the Ministry of Transportation (Ontario) using the COMPASS-Freeway Traffic Management System [25] With the long-awaited upgrade of Highway 406, all the freeways in Ontario are at least 4 lanes wide, fully controlled with interchanges and divided. The major freeways are 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407 (Toll), 409, 410, 412 (Toll), 416, 417, 418 (Toll), 420, 427, Don Valley Parkway, Gardiner Expressway, Queen Elizabeth Way, Queensway, Lincoln M. Alexander Parkway, Red Hill Valley Parkway, Conestoga Parkway, and the E. C. Row Expressway.

Southern Ontario also has several border crossings with the United States. The Ambassador Bridge, Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, and Blue Water Bridge connect the region with the U.S. state of Michigan, while the Peace Bridge, Rainbow Bridge, Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, Lewiston–Queenston Bridge, Thousand Islands Bridge, Ogdensburg–Prescott International Bridge, and Seaway International Bridge link Southern Ontario with the U.S. state of New York.

The region has a long history of marine transportation, with hundreds of millions of tonnes of cargo moving along the Great Lakes, and Saint Lawrence Seaway each year. The Welland Canal is a vital part of the Great Lakes Waterway allowing ships to avoid Niagara Falls. The St. Clair River and Detroit River are also well travelled rivers between Lake Huron and Lake Erie in the Windsor, Sarnia area. Major, regional ports include the Port of Hamilton and Port of Windsor with smaller ports in Oshawa, Toronto, Goderich and Sarnia. Southern Ontario also has thousands of other fresh water lakes and rivers, as well as the Trent-Severn Waterway and Rideau Canal.

An inter-city train service in the region is provided mainly by Via Rail. [26] The Greater Toronto area also has a commuter train system called the GO Train, which is supplemented by a network of bus services. [27]

There are several major international airports including the busiest airport in the country, Toronto Pearson International Airport (ranked 15th busiest worldwide by flights in 2014), Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport, John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport, London International Airport, and Region of Waterloo International Airport. Many Southern Ontarians living close to the Michigan or New York State borders use either Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, or Buffalo Niagara International Airport as their local airport.


Typical Great Lakes beach Waves on the Beach.jpg
Typical Great Lakes beach

Southern Ontario has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons. [28] The average highs in July for the region range between 25 °C (77 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F). The average high in January ranges from -6 °C (21 °F) to 0 °C (32 °F). The highest recorded temperature in Southern Ontario was 45 °C (113 °F) and 52 °C (125 °F) with the humidex. During cold snaps, winter temperatures can on occasion drop below -30 °C (-22 °F). The climate found over most of southern Ontario falls within the Dfb and Dfa climate subtype, much warmer or milder than the northern part of the province due to lower latitude, presence of bodies of water and intense urbanization. [29]

Harsh weather is not uncommon in the region, in the summer months Southern Ontario is susceptible to tornadoes [30] but far more often, straight line wind damage, hail and localized flooding from severe thunderstorms. Although the majority of tornadoes rarely cause excessive damage, the region is on the periphery of Tornado Alley and (F4) tornadoes touchdown every few decades causing widespread damage. Southern Ontario also gets hurricane remnants, floods, ice storms, heavy fog, hail, and blizzards.

Small earthquakes occur in the region. The Mw 5.8 Cornwall–Massena earthquake occurred in 1944 and had a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong).

Many tourists visit the area in the autumn months to look at the bright vibrant colours of fall foliage.

Southern Ontario has a very different climate from the rest of the country. It is the only area of Canada that has Carolinian forest. [31] Many trees, plants, and wildlife in Southern Ontario are not found anywhere else in Canada. Some rare trees to Canada in this region include the tulip tree, pawpaw fruit tree and the cucumber tree. The Carolinian forests of Southern Ontario have in large part been destroyed by development sprawl. Very few original growth areas remain.

The region has the most fresh water beaches in the nation. With relatively warm waters by mid-summer due to the very warm and humid summer months with significant coastlines of white sand, the major beaches in the region are visited by millions of tourists every summer. The most popular beaches are Wasaga Beach, Grand Bend, Sauble Beach, and Sandbanks.

See also


  1. "Rogers Cup" is the current sponsored name. The men's version, held in Toronto in even-numbered years, is generically known as the Canada Masters, and the women's version, held in Toronto in odd-numbered years, is generically known as the Canadian Open.

Related Research Articles

Ontario Province of Canada

Ontario is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province by total area. Ontario is Canada's fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto, which is also Ontario's provincial capital.

Windsor, Ontario City in Ontario, Canada

Windsor is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada, on the south bank of the Detroit River directly across from Detroit, Michigan, United States. Geographically located within but administratively independent of Essex County, it is the southernmost city in Canada and marks the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city's population was 229,660 at the 2021 census, making it the third-most populated city in Southwestern Ontario, after London and Kitchener. The Detroit–Windsor urban area is North America's most populous trans-border conurbation, and the Ambassador Bridge border crossing is the busiest commercial crossing on the Canada–United States border.

Sarnia City in Ontario, Canada

Sarnia is a city in Lambton County, Ontario, Canada. It had a 2016 population of 71,594, and is the largest city on Lake Huron. Sarnia is located on the eastern bank of the junction between the Upper and Lower Great Lakes where Lake Huron flows into the St. Clair River in the Southwestern Ontario region, which forms the Canada–United States border, directly across from Port Huron, Michigan. The site's natural harbour first attracted the French explorer La Salle. He named the site "The Rapids" on 23 August 1679, when he had horses and men pull his 45-ton barque Le Griffon north against the nearly four-knot current of the St. Clair River.

Niagara Falls, Ontario City in Ontario, Canada

Niagara Falls is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is on the western bank of the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario, with a population of 88,071 at the 2016 census. It is part of the St. Catharines - Niagara Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). Incorporated on 12 June 1903, the city is across the river from Niagara Falls, New York. The Niagara River flows over Niagara Falls at this location, creating a natural spectacle which attracts millions of tourists each year.

Golden Horseshoe Secondary region in Ontario, Canada

The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, Canada, which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Lake Scugog, Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron. It includes the Greater Toronto Area and adjacent upper-tier municipalities with substantial urban agglomerations. The region is the most densely populated and industrialized in Canada. With a population of 7,759,635 people in its core and 9,765,188 in its greater area, the Golden Horseshoe accounts for over 20 percent of the population of Canada and more than 54 percent of Ontario's population. It is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, itself part of the Great Lakes megalopolis.

Lambton County County in Ontario, Canada

Lambton County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is bordered on the north by Lake Huron, which is drained by the St. Clair River, the county's western border and part of the Canada-United States border. To the south is Lake Saint Clair and Chatham-Kent. Lambton County's northeastern border follows the Ausable River and Parkhill Creek north until it reaches Lake Huron at the beach community of Grand Bend. The county seat is in the Town of Plympton-Wyoming.

The Thumb is a region and a peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan, so named because the Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten. The Thumb area is generally considered to be in the Central Michigan region, east of the Tri-Cities and north of Metro Detroit. The region is also branded as the Blue Water Area.

Southwestern Ontario Secondary region in Ontario, Canada

Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. It occupies most of the Ontario Peninsula bounded by Lake Huron, including Georgian Bay, to the north and northwest; the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and Detroit River, to the west; and Lake Erie to the south. To the east, on land, Southwestern Ontario is bounded by Central Ontario and the Golden Horseshoe. The region had a population of 2,583,544 in 2016. It is sometimes further divided into "Midwestern Ontario" covering the eastern half of the area and the heart of Southwestern Ontario encompassing the western half of the region.

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Region in Canada

The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada. As its name suggests, the region extends between Quebec City in the northeast and Windsor, Ontario, in the southwest, spanning 1,150 kilometres (710 mi). With more than 18 million people, it contains about half of the country's population, three of Canada's four largest metropolitan areas and eight of Canada's twelve large metropolitan areas, all based on the 2016 census. Its relative importance to Canada's economic and political infrastructure renders it akin to the Northeast megalopolis in the United States. The name was first popularized by Via Rail, which runs frequent passenger rail service in the region in its service area known as "The Corridor".

Extreme weather has been known to hit Windsor, Ontario, and the city is home to several local, national, and international weather records. They are shown below, organized chronologically :

Geography of Ontario

Ontario is located in East/Central Canada. It is Canada's second largest province in total land area. Its physical features vary greatly from the Mixedwood Plains in the southeast to the boreal forests and tundra in the north. Ontario borders Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east, and the Great Lakes and the United States to the south. The province is named for Great Lake Ontario, an adaptation of the Iroquois word Onitariio, meaning "beautiful lake", or Kanadario, variously translated as "beautiful water". There are approximately 250,000 lakes and over 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi) of rivers in the province.

Detroit–Windsor Transborder agglomeration

The Detroit–Windsor region is an international transborder agglomeration comprising the American city of Detroit, Michigan, the Canadian city of Windsor, Ontario, and the Detroit River between them. The Detroit–Windsor area acts as a critical commercial link straddling the Canada–United States border and has a total population of 5,976,595. It is North America's largest cross-border conurbation.

The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, or simply St. Lawrence Lowlands, is a physiographic region of Eastern Canada that comprises a section of southern Ontario bounded on the north by the Canadian Shield and by three of the Great Lakes — Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario — and extends along the St. Lawrence River to the Strait of Belle Isle and the Atlantic Ocean. The lowlands comprise three sub-regions that were created by intrusions from adjacent physiographic regions — the West Lowland, Central Lowland and East Lowland. The West Lowland includes the Niagara Escarpment, extending from the Niagara River to the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island. The Central Lowland stretches between the Ottawa River and the St. Lawrence River. The East Lowland includes Anticosti Island, Îles de Mingan, and extends to the Strait of Belle Isle.

Great Lakes megalopolis Cities around the Great Lakes of North America

The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence River. It extends from the Midwestern United States in the south and west to western Pennsylvania and Western New York in the east and northward through Southern Ontario into southwestern Quebec in Canada. It is the most populated and largest megalopolis in North America.

Tourism in Ontario Tourism opportunities in Ontario, Canada

Ontario is Canada's largest province in population and second largest province in size, covering close to one million square kilometres. It borders the United States to the south, and the provinces of Quebec to the east and Manitoba to the west. Its southernmost point, Middle Island, off Pelee Island, has the same latitude as Rome, Italy. The northernmost point at Ontario-Manitoba border is close to that of London, England, and Warsaw, Poland. Around 250,000 lakes can be found in Ontario, making up approximately one-third of the world's fresh water.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in Canada

The effects of Hurricane Sandy in Canada included rainfall and high waves across much of eastern Canada.

Ontario Peninsula Peninsula and salient in Canada

The Ontario Peninsula is a peninsula and salient in Canada that comprises part of Southern Ontario, specifically Southwestern Ontario and most of the Golden Horseshoe. It includes Bruce Peninsula and Niagara Peninsula. It is connected to Central Ontario to the east and is surrounded on other sides by Georgian Bay, Lake Huron, St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Detroit River, Lake Erie, Niagara River, and Lake Ontario. While many of Southern Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Hamilton, and Mississauga, are in its eastern part, its western part also has some large cities, like London and Windsor.


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