Kayaking

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Kayakers off the coast of Raspberry Island (Alaska) Kayaking in Alaska P1010034.JPG
Kayakers off the coast of Raspberry Island (Alaska)
Kayaking in whitewater rapids Remic Rapids, Ottawa, ON (14018430256).jpg
Kayaking in whitewater rapids
Kayakers on the River Thames near Canary Wharf, London Kayakers in front of Canary Wharf.jpg
Kayakers on the River Thames near Canary Wharf, London

Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle to pull front-to-back on one side and then the other in rotation. [1] Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well. [2]

Kayak small boat propelled with a double-bladed paddle

A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is typically propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq.

Canoeing paddle sport in which you kneel or sit facing forward in an open or closed-decked canoe, and propel yourself with a single-bladed paddle, under your own power

Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to when the canoeing is the central purpose of the activity. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activities such as canoe camping, or where canoeing is merely a transportation method used to accomplish other activities. Most present-day canoeing is done as or as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe.

Contents

History

Kayaks [3] were created thousands of years ago by the Inuit, formerly known as Eskimos, of the northern Arctic regions. They used driftwood and sometimes the skeleton of whale, to construct the frame of the kayak, and animal skin, particularly seal skin was used to create the body. The main purpose for creating the kayak, which literally translates to "hunter's boat" was for hunting and fishing. [4] The kayak's stealth capabilities allowed for the hunter to sneak up behind animals on the shoreline and successfully catch their prey.

The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska. The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut family. Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut.

Eskimo Derogatory name used to describe Indigenous people from the circumpolar region

Eskimo or Eskimos are the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. The two main peoples known as "Eskimo" are: (1) the Alaskan Iñupiat peoples, Greenlandic Inuit, and the mass-grouping Inuit peoples of Canada, and (2) the Yupik of eastern Siberia and Alaska. The Yupik comprise speakers of four distinct Yupik languages: one used in the Russian Far East and the others among people of Western Alaska, Southcentral Alaska and along the Gulf of Alaska coast. A third northern group, the Aleut, is closely related to these two. They share a relatively recent common ancestor, and a language group (Eskimo-Aleut).

Arctic polar region on the Earths northern hemisphere

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.

In the 1740s, Russian explorers led by Vitus Bering came in contact with the Aleutians, who had taken the basic kayak concept and developed multiple designs specifically for hunting, transportation, and environmental conditions. They soon recognized the Aleutians were very skillful at hunting sea otters by kayak. Because otters were a popular commodity in Europe and Asia, they would exploit and even kidnap Aleutians and keep them aboard their ships to work and hunt. [5]

By the mid-1800s the kayak became increasingly popular and the Europeans became interested. German and French men began kayaking for sport. In 1931, Adolf Anderle was the first person to kayak down the Salzachöfen Gorge, which is believed to be the birthplace of modern-day white-water kayaking. [6] Kayak races were introduced in the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936.

In the 1950s, fiberglass kayaks were developed and commonly used, until 1980s when polyethylene plastic kayaks were introduced. Kayaking progressed as a fringe sport in the U.S. until the 1970s, when it became a mainstream popular sport. Now, more than 10 white water kayaking events are featured in the Olympics. [7] While kayaking represents a key international watersport, few academic studies have (to date) been conducted on the role kayaking plays in the lives and activities of the public [8]

Design

Kayaks can also be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made. Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, manoeuvrability, stability and paddling style. Kayaks can be made of metal, fibreglass, wood, plastic, fabrics, and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber, and more recently expensive but feather light carbon fiber. Each material also has its specific advantage, including strength, durability, portability, flexibility, resistance to ultraviolet and storage requirements. For example, wooden kayaks can be created from kits or built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame. Inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and easily transported and stored, and are considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats. [9] [10]

Ultraviolet Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays

Ultraviolet (UV) designates a band of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, and contributes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules.

Glowworm Kayaking at Waimarino Adventure Park Glow worms hig res 003.jpg
Glowworm Kayaking at Waimarino Adventure Park

Equipment

There are many types of kayaks used in flat water and whitewater kayaking. The sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on what type of water to be paddled on and also what the paddler would like to do. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the paddle blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water. These vary in length and also shape depending on the intended use, height of the paddler, and the paddler's preference. Kayaks should be equipped with one or more buoyancy aid (also called flotation) which creates air space that helps prevent a kayak from sinking when filled with water. A life jacket should be worn at all times (also called a personal flotation device or PFD), and a helmet is also often required for most kayaking and is mandatory for white water kayaking. [11] [12] Various other pieces of safety gear include a whistle for signaling for help; throwing ropes to help rescue other kayakers; and, a diving knife and appropriate water shoes should used depending upon the risks the water and terrain pose. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wetsuit or spray top also help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures. [13]

Types of kayaks

"Sit on top" kayaks place the paddler in an open, shallowly-concave deck above the water level. This style is usually used for non-white water activities as most find it harder to stay inside the kayak while also preventing them from "rolling" which allows the user to upright themselves if they flip over. There are some benefits to sit on tops such as the ability for a "dry hatch" these are a compartment, that usually runs the length of the kayak, which in addition to providing more buoyancy allows for the kayaker to store various equipment in. "Sit on top" kayaks often use "through holes" which allows any water that got in the boat to make it through the deck and dry hatch to drain. [14] "Cockpit style" involves sitting with the legs and hips inside the kayak hull with a spray deck or "spray skirt" that creates a water-resistant seal around the waist. There is a wide range of "cockpit style" boats which usually allow for more user control of the boat as they are able to push against the walls of the boat to tip in order to complete maneuvers. A common variant of "cockpit style" kayaks are "play boats" these are usually very short kayaks in which the user does tricks and maneuvers: "Inflatables" are a hybrid of the two previous configurations; these boats have an open deck, but the paddler sits below the level of the deck. These boats are often subject to more instability due to the way the boat sits higher in the water. They are often used in a more commercial setting, they are often affectionately called "Duckies". "Tandems" are configured for multiple paddlers, in contrast to the single person designs featured by most kayaks. Tandems can be used by two or even three paddlers [15] .

Activities involving kayaks

Sea kayaking at Wilson's Promontory in Victoria, Australia Sea Kayaking Wilsons Promontory.jpg
Sea kayaking at Wilson's Promontory in Victoria, Australia

Because of their range and adaptability, kayaks can be useful for other outdoor activities such as diving, fishing, wilderness exploration and search and rescue during floods. [16]

Diving

Kayak diving is a type of recreational diving where the divers paddle to a diving site in a kayak carrying all their gear to the place they want to dive. The range can be up to several kilometres along the coastline from the launching point to a place where access would be difficult from the shore, although the sea is sheltered. It is a considerably cheaper alternative to using a powered boat, as well as combining the experience of sea kayaking at the same time. Kayak diving gives the diver independence from dive boat operators, while allowing dives at sites which are too far to comfortably swim, but are sufficiently sheltered. [17]

Fishing

Kayak fishing is fishing from a kayak. The kayak has long been a means of transportation and a stealth means of approaching easily spooked fish, such as cobia and flounder. Kayak fishing has gained popularity in recent times due to its broad appeal as an environmentally friendly and healthy method of transportation, as well as its relatively low cost of entry compared to motorized boats. [18] [19] In addition, kayaks allow greater access by their ability to operate in shallow water, getting in and out along the shoreline, and having the ability to get away from the crowds to find a more solitary environment where boats may not have the ability to do so. [20]

Ecotourism

Ecotour guide stands on a kayak, spotting dolphins and manatees around Lido Key. 2017 Sarasota Adventure Kayak Guided Tour Cormorant among the Fleet 04 FRD 9405.jpg
Ecotour guide stands on a kayak, spotting dolphins and manatees around Lido Key.

Ecotourism based on kayak trips is gaining in popularity. In warm-water vacation destinations such as Sarasota Keys, guided kayak trips take kayakers on a tour of the local ecosystem. Kayakers can watch dolphins breach and manatees eat seagrass, in shallow bay water. [21]

Whitewater

One of the most common uses of kayaks for hobbyists is whitewater kayaking. Whitewater kayaking is when a kayaker traverses down a series of rapids. The difficulty of these rapid ranges from Class I to Class VI. The difficulty of rapids often changes with water level and debris in the river. Debris that inhibits a kayakers path are often called "strainers" as they "strain" out the kayakers like a colander. There are often training camps as well as man-made structures to help train kayakers. [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

Whitewater bubbly, or aerated and unstable current

Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a river's gradient increases enough to generate so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a bubbly or aerated and unstable current; the frothy water appears white. The term is also loosely used to refer to less turbulent, but still agitated, flows.

Sea kayak kayak developed for the sport of paddling on open waters of lakes, bays, and the ocean

A sea kayak or touring kayak is a kayak developed for the sport of paddling on open waters of lakes, bays, and the ocean. Sea kayaks are seaworthy small boats with a covered deck and the ability to incorporate a spray deck. They trade off the maneuverability of whitewater kayaks for higher cruising speed, cargo capacity, ease of straight-line paddling, and comfort for long journeys.

Whitewater kayaking type of sport

Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a whitewater river. Whitewater kayaking can range from active, moving water, to demanding, extreme whitewater.

Spray deck Flexible waterproof cover for a boat

A spraydeck is a flexible waterproof cover for a boat with holes for the passengers' waists. Spraydecks are used to prevent water from entering the boat while allowing passengers to paddle or row.

Inflatable boat type of lightweight boat

An inflatable boat is a lightweight boat constructed with its sides and bow made of flexible tubes containing pressurised gas. For smaller boats, the floor and hull is often flexible, while for boats longer than 3 metres (9.8 ft), the floor typically consists of three to five rigid plywood or aluminium sheets fixed between the tubes, but not joined rigidly together. Often the transom is rigid, providing a location and structure for mounting an outboard motor.

Canoe slalom discipline in sport of canoeing and kayaking, to navigate through a course of hanging gates on river rapids

Canoe slalom is a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, and is referred to by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as Canoe/Kayak Slalom. The other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint. Wildwater canoeing is a non-Olympic paddlesport.

Squirt boating is a form of whitewater kayaking or canoeing where the boat is designed to be as low in volume as possible while still allowing the paddler to float. Squirt boats are designed to use both surface and underwater currents to manoeuvre within the water. These manoeuvres can be used to effect navigational control or to perform tricks.

A surf ski is a long, narrow and lightweight craft similar to a kayak but with an open "sit-on-top" (SOT) cockpit and a self-bailer to eliminate water instead of the enclosed kayak-style cockpit which can be sealed against the elements with a sprayskirt or tuliq. Surfskis are primarily designed for speed, including fast runs on the open seas, and have a powerful, pedal-operated rudder to control the boat while surfing on wave fronts.

Surf kayaking

Surf kayaking is the sport, technique, and equipment, used in surfing ocean waves with kayaks. Surf kayaking has many similarities to surf board surfing, but with boats designed for use in surf zones, and with a paddle. A number of kayak designs are used, but all are aimed at better using the waves to propel the craft.

Canoe and kayak diving Recreational diving from a canoe or kayak

Canoe diving and Kayak diving are recreational diving where the divers paddle to a diving site in a canoe or kayak carrying all their gear in or on the boat to the place they want to dive. Canoe or kayak diving gives the diver independence from dive boat operators, while allowing dives at sites which are too far to comfortably swim, but are sufficiently sheltered.

Creeking

Creeking is a branch of canoeing and kayaking that involves descending very steep low-volume whitewater. It is usually performed in specialized canoes and kayaks specifically designed to withstand the extreme whitewater environment in which the activity occurs. In addition, the canoes and kayaks give the paddler improved performance and maneuverability needed to avoid river obstacles.

Kayak roll

A kayak roll is the act of righting a capsized kayak by use of body motion and/or a paddle. Typically this is done by lifting the torso towards the surface, flicking the hips to right the kayak, and applying a small force by means of the paddle to assist the torso back over the boat.

Packraft

Packraft and trail boat are colloquial terms for a small, portable inflatable boat designed for use in all bodies of water, including technical whitewater and ocean bays and fjords. A packraft is designed to be light enough to be carried for extended distances. Along with its propulsion system and safety equipment the entire package is designed to be light and compact enough for an individual to negotiate rough terrain while carrying the rafting equipment together with supplies, shelter, and other survival or backcountry equipment. Modern packrafts vary from inexpensive vinyl boats lacking durability to sturdy craft costing over US $1,000. Most weigh less than nine pounds (4 kg) and usually carry a single passenger. The most popular propulsion systems involve a kayak paddle that breaks down into two to five pieces. Most often they are paddled from a sitting position, although kneeling can be advantageous in some situations.

Paddling with regard to watercraft is the act of manually propelling a boat using a paddle. The paddle, which consists of one or two blades joined to a shaft, is also used to steer the vessel. The paddle is not connected to the boat.

Float tube

A float tube, also known as a belly boat or kick boat, is a small, lightweight inflatable fishing craft which anglers use to fish from. They were originally doughnut-shaped boats with an underwater seat in the "hole", but modern designs include a V-shape with pontoons on either side and the seat raised above the water allowing the legs of the angler to be the only part of the body to be submerged. Float tubes are used for many aspects of fishing, such as flyfishing for trout or lure fishing for largemouth bass, and enable the angler to fish areas otherwise not fishable from the bank.

Sprint kayak

Sprint kayak is a sport held on calm water. The paddler is seated, facing forward, and uses a double-bladed paddle pulling the blade through the water on alternate sides to propel the boat forward. Kayak sprint has been in every summer olympics since it debuted at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Racing is governed by the International Canoe Federation.

Whitewater canoeing

Whitewater canoeing is the sport of paddling a canoe on a moving body of water, typically a whitewater river. Whitewater canoeing can range from simple, carefree gently moving water, to demanding, dangerous whitewater. River rapids are graded like ski runs according to the difficulty, danger or severity of the rapid. Whitewater grades range from I or 1 to VI or 6. Grade/Class I can be described as slightly moving water with ripples. Grade/Class VI can be described as severe or almost unrunnable whitewater, such as Niagara Falls.

Outline of canoeing and kayaking Overview of and topical guide to canoeing and kayaking

The following outline is provided as an overview of canoeing and kayaking:

References

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  6. McWilliams, Sarah. "Origins: The History of Kayaking". Athletic Training Lifestyle. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
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  8. Parker, Christopher J.; May, Andrew; Mitchell, Val (2013). "The Role of VGI and PGI in Supporting Outdoor Activities". Applied Ergonomics. 44 (6): 886-94. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2012.04.013.
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  10. "Inflatable vs. Hardshell Kayaks". Kayak Guru.
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  15. "Kayaking News". Paddle Lake Erie. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  16. "Equipments". Wiltshire Search and Rescue. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  17. Francis, John (August 2003). "Kayak diving". How to Scuba Dive. Scuba Diving magazine. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  18. Routh, Cory (2008) Kayak Fishing : The Complete Guide No Nonsense Guides. ISBN   978-1-892469-19-9;
    Burnley, Ric (2007) The Complete Kayak Fisherman. Burford Books. ISBN   978-1-58080-147-8;
    Daubert, Ken (2001) Kayakfishing : The Revolution. Coelacanth Pubns. ISBN   978-0-9678098-2-3;
    Null, Scott and Mcbride, Joel (2009) Kayak Fishing: The Ultimate Guide 2nd Edition. Heliconia Press. ISBN   978-1-896980-43-0
  19. "Cost Effective Fishing" . Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  20. White, Jerry. "Why Fish From a Kayak". Paddling.com. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
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  22. "U.S National White Water Center".