Outrigger boat

Last updated

Single-outrigger canoes from Polynesia Outriggercanoe.jpg
Single-outrigger canoes from Polynesia
A double-outrigger canoe from the Philippines LONELY OUTRIGGER.jpg
A double-outrigger canoe from the Philippines
Model of a Fijian drua, an example of a double-canoe catamaran Fijian double canoe, model, Otago Museum, 2016-01-29.jpg
Model of a Fijian drua, an example of a double-canoe catamaran

Outrigger boats are various watercraft featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull. They can range from small dugout canoes to large plank-built vessels. Outrigger boats can also vary in their configuration, from the ancestral double-hull configuration (catamarans), to single-outrigger vessels prevalent in the Pacific Islands and Madagascar, to the double-outrigger vessels (trimarans) prevalent in Island Southeast Asia. They are traditionally fitted with Austronesian sails, like the crab claw sails and tanja sails, but in modern times are often fitted with petrol engines.

Contents

Unlike a single-hulled vessel, an outrigger or double-hull vessel generates stability as a result of the distance between its hulls rather than due to the shape of each individual hull. As such, the hulls of outrigger or double-hull boats are typically longer, narrower and more hydrodynamically efficient than those of single-hull vessels. Compared to other types of canoes, smaller outrigger canoes can be quite fast, yet are also capable of being paddled and sailed in rougher water. This paddling technique, however, differs greatly from kayaking or rowing. The paddle, or blade, used by the paddler is single sided, with either a straight or a double-bend shaft.

These vessels were the first true ocean-going ships, and are an important part of the Austronesian heritage. They were the vessels that enabled the Austronesian Expansion from Taiwan into the islands of both the Indian and Pacific Ocean from around 3000 BC. They comprise the bulk of traditional boats in Island Southeast Asia, Island Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar. They have spread to other cultures Austronesians came into contact with, notably in Sri Lanka and southern India as well as in the coast of East Africa. In modern times, outrigger vessels are used in the sport of sailing. Catamaran and trimaran configurations are also widely used for high speed craft.

History

Map showing the migration and expansion of the Austronesians Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific (per Benton et al, 2012, adapted from Bellwood, 2011).png
Map showing the migration and expansion of the Austronesians

Outrigger boats were originally developed by the Austronesian-speaking peoples of the islands of Southeast Asia for sea travel. It is believed that the use of outriggers may have been initially caused by the need for stability on small watercraft after the invention of crab claw sails some time around 1500 BCE. [1]

Outrigger boats were essential in the transportation of Austronesians both eastward to Polynesia and New Zealand and westward across the Indian Ocean as far as Madagascar during the Austronesian migration period. The Austronesian peoples (Malagasy, Maritime Southeast Asian, Micronesian, Melanesian, Native Taiwanese, and Polynesian peoples) continue to be the primary users of the outrigger boats.

Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat (Mahdi, 1999) Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat.png
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat (Mahdi, 1999)

The simplest form of all ancestral Austronesian boats had five parts. The bottom part consists of single piece of hollowed-out log. At the sides were two planks, and two horseshoe-shaped wood pieces formed the prow and stern. These were "sewn" together with dowels and lashings. They had no central rudders but were instead steered using an oar on one side. The ancestral rig was the mastless triangular crab claw sail which had two booms that could be tilted to the wind. These were built in the double-canoe configuration or had a single outrigger on the windward side. In Island Southeast Asia, these developed into double outriggers on each side that provided greater stability. The triangular crab claw sails also later developed into square or rectangular tanja sails, which like crab claw sails, had booms spanning the upper and lower edges. Fixed masts also developed later in both Southeast Asia (usually as bipod or tripod masts) and Oceania. [2]

Early researchers like Heine-Geldern (1932) and Hornell (1943) once believed that catamarans evolved from outrigger boats, but modern authors specializing in Austronesian cultures like Doran (1981) and Mahdi (1988) now believe it to be the opposite. [3] [4] [5]

Two canoes bound together developed directly from minimal raft technologies of two logs tied together. Over time, the double-hulled canoe form developed into the asymmetric double canoe, where one hull is smaller than the other. Eventually the smaller hull became the prototype outrigger, giving way to the single outrigger canoe, which diverged into the reversible single outrigger canoe in Oceania. Finally, the single outrigger types developed into the double outrigger canoe (or trimarans). [3] [4] [5]

17th-century depiction of a Visayan karakoa, a very large double-outrigger warship Joangan, or the Spanish-built Joanga.jpg
17th-century depiction of a Visayan karakoa , a very large double-outrigger warship

This would also explain why older Austronesian populations in Island Southeast Asia tend to favor double outrigger boats, as it keeps the boats stable when tacking. But they still have small regions where catamarans and single-outrigger boats are still used. In contrast, more distant outlying descendant populations in Micronesia, Polynesia, Madagascar, and the Comoros retained the double-hull and the single outrigger boat types, for the technology of double outriggers never reached them (exceptions being western Melanesia). To deal with the problem of the instability of the boat when the outrigger faces leeward when tacking, they instead developed the shunting technique in sailing, in conjunction with reversible single-outriggers. [3] [4] [5] [7] [8]

When Magellan's ships first encountered the Chamorros of the Mariana Islands in 1521, Antonio Pigafetta recorded that the Chamorros' sailboats far surpassed Magellan's in speed and maneuverability. Similarly, the Spanish priest Francisco Combés, describing the large karakoa outrigger warships of the Visayan Islands in the Philippines, remarked: [9]

"That care and attention, which govern their boat-building, cause their ships to sail like birds, while ours are like lead in this regard."

Francisco Combés, Historia de las islas de Mindanao, Iolo y sus adyacentes (1667)

Outrigger fishing canoes are also used among certain non-Austronesian groups, such as the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka, where they are known as oruwa, [10] as well as among some groups in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [11] They can also be found in East Africa (e.g., the ungalawa of Tanzania).

The acquisition of the catamaran and outrigger boat technology by the non-Austronesian peoples in Sri Lanka and southern India is the result of very early Austronesian contact with the region, including the Maldives and Laccadive Islands. This is estimated to have occurred around 1000 to 600 BCE and onwards. This may have possibly included limited colonization that have since been assimilated. This is still evident in Sri Lankan and South Indian languages. For example, Tamil paṭavu, Telugu paḍava, and Kannada paḍahu, all meaning "ship", are all derived from Proto-Hesperonesian *padaw, "sailboat", with Austronesian cognates like Javanese perahu , Kadazan padau, Maranao padaw, Cebuano paráw , Samoan folau, Hawaiian halau, and Māori wharau. [3]

The technology has persisted into the modern age. Outrigger boats can be quite large fishing or transport vessels. In the Philippines, outrigger boats (called bangka or paraw ) are often fitted with petrol engines. The links between seafaring and outrigger boats in the Philippines extend through to political life, in which the smallest political unit in the country is still called "barangay" after the historical balangay outrigger boats used in the original migrations of the first Austronesian peoples across the archipelago and beyond. The Polynesian Voyaging Society has two double-hull sailing catamarans, Hokulea and Hawaiiloa , and sails them between various islands in the Pacific using traditional Polynesian navigation methods without instruments. The Hikianalia and Alingano Maisu are other extant double-hulled voyaging canoes.

Hawaiiloa, a double-hull (catamaran) sailing canoe built as a replica of Polynesian voyaging canoes Polynesian canoe replica 1.jpg
Hawaiiloa , a double-hull (catamaran) sailing canoe built as a replica of Polynesian voyaging canoes

Terminology and linguistics

The German linguist Otto Dempwolff (1934-1938) originally reconstructed the Proto-Austronesian word for "boat" as *waŋkaŋ, and included the reflexes for both *baŋkaʔ and *waŋkaʔ as its descendants. [12] However modern linguists like Robert Blust generally reject this. [13] [14] Mahdi (2016) instead reconstructs four words for "boat" in the Austronesian languages, all ultimately derived from the monosyllabic protoforms *Cu and *baŋ. They are: [15] [16]

a) *qaCu - cognates include Squliq-Atayal qasuʔ, Pazeh ʔasuʔ, and Bunun hatoʔ
b) *qabaŋ - cognates include Kanakanavu abaŋɯ, Oponohu-Rukai havaŋu, Siraya avang, Gaddang ʔabaŋ, Tiruray ʔawaŋ, Iranun awaŋ, Mentawai abak, and Moken kabaŋ
c) *baŋkaʔ - cognates include Kavalan baŋka, Tagalog baŋkaʔ, Tausug baŋkaʔ, Mori and Muna baŋka, and Sumbawa baŋka
d) *waŋkaʔ' - cognates include Manggarai and Rembong waŋka, Tobati wăgě, Yabem waŋ, Suau waga, Fijian waqa, Tongan vaka, and Hawaiian waʻa; Tahitian and Samoan vaʻa

Instead of being cognates, the protoforms *baŋkaʔ and *waŋkaʔ are believed to be doublets. The protoforms *qabaŋ and *baŋkaʔ are composites with a common precursor, with the *qa- and -*ka positioned differently. Only *qaCu and *qabaŋ can be traced back to Proto-Austronesian, with the rest being later developments. [15]

The outrigger float is called the ama in many Polynesian languages (compare Hawaiian ama, Māori ama, and Samoan ama, all meaning 'outrigger float'), realisations of Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *saRman 'outrigger float'. [17] [18] Similar terms also exist in other Malayo-Polynesian languages, such as Pohnpeian dahm, Yapese thaam, Ambonese Malay semang, all meaning 'outrigger float', as well as Chamorro sakman meaning '[a] large canoe.' [18] The outrigger boom—spars connecting the ama to the main hull (or the two hulls in a double-hull canoe)—are called ʻiako in Hawaiian and kiato in Māori (with similar words in other Polynesian languages), ultimately from Proto-Oceanic *kiajo or its doublet *kayajo both meaning 'outrigger boom' (compare Loinu kiec, Kiribati kiaro, and Tongan kiato, as well as Seimat ayas and Gedaged ayad, all meaning 'outrigger boom'). [19] [20] In Philippine languages, the outrigger floats are called katig or kate, from Proto-Philippine *katiR. [21] [22]

Types

Double-outrigger boats are more prevalent in Southeast Asia, though single-outriggers and catamarans also exist. They have two outrigger floats connected to spars lashed across a single hull. They range in size from small vessels like the jukung , vinta , and the paraw ; to medium-sized trading and fishing vessels like the balangay and basnigan ; to very large warships like the karakoa and kora kora . In Philippine vessels, additional booms called batangan are usually added across the outrigger spars (tadik), in between the outrigger floats (katig) and the main hull (bangka). [22] [23] In modern terminology, especially in leisure or sport boating, double-outrigger ships are usually termed trimaran or triple-hull ships.

An unusual type of double-outrigger boat design, preserved in scale models in the Pitt Rivers Museum, forms a triangle shape. The front ends of the outriggers are attached directly to the hull, while the rear ends are splayed out. These boats were small and used exclusively as passenger ferries in the Pasig River of the Philippines. [24]

Catamarans and single-outrigger canoes are the traditional configurations in Polynesia, Micronesia, and Madagascar. In the Pacific Islands, a single outrigger float is called an ama. It is connected to the main hull by spars called ʻiako (Hawaiian), ʻiato (Tahitian), or kiato (Māori). The ama, which is usually rigged on the left side, provides stability. The paddlers need to be careful to avoid leaning too far on the opposite side of the ama, as that may cause the canoe to capsize (huli or lumaʻi). Double-outrigger configurations, a later innovation from Southeast Asian Austronesians, never reached Oceania.

Single-outrigger dugout canoes also survived until recent times in some parts of the Philippines. Examples include a specimen in the University of Southampton from Manila Bay collected in the 1940s, as well as boats from Lake Bulusan and Lake Buhi of the Bicol Region of southern Luzon from as recently as 2015. The single outrigger is used to provide lateral stability, while still allowing fishermen to work with fishing nets. These boats were paddled and were not equipped with sails. They have largely disappeared in modern times, partly due to the scarcity of suitable timber and partly due to the relative cheapness of fiberglass boats. [24]

List of traditional outrigger vessels by region

The following is an incomplete list of traditional Austronesian outrigger vessels. It also includes catamarans.

Island Southeast Asia

Indonesia

A jukung from Indonesia COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Vlerkprauw met gehesen zeil op het strand TMnr 20025613.jpg
A jukung from Indonesia

Malaysia

Philippines

The double-outrigger paraw in Boracay, Philippines Paraw sailboats in Boracay 2.jpg
The double-outrigger paraw in Boracay, Philippines
Large double-outrigger paraw in Palawan, Philippines Balatik, a paraw from the Tao Expedition, Philippines.jpg
Large double-outrigger paraw in Palawan, Philippines

Island Melanesia

A tepukei from Taumako, Solomon Islands Sudseeabteilung in Ethnological Museum Berlin 11d.jpg
A tepukei from Taumako, Solomon Islands
The traditional popao of Tonga Popao.jpg
The traditional pōpao of Tonga

Fiji

Papua New Guinea

Solomon Islands

Vanuatu

Tonga

Micronesia

A single-outrigger wa from Yap, Caroline Islands Yap Canoe01.jpg
A single-outrigger wa from Yap, Caroline Islands

Caroline Islands

Kiribati

Mashall Islands

Mariana Islands, incl. Guam

Palau

Yap

Polynesia

Illustration of a Fijian camakau (1846) Atlas pittoresque pl 096.jpg
Illustration of a Fijian camakau (1846)
Painting by John LaFarge showing Samoan girls carrying a va'a (1891) John LaFarge, La Farge John Girls Carrying A Canoe Vaiala In Samoa.jpg
Painting by John LaFarge showing Samoan girls carrying a va'a (1891)

Cook Islands

Hawaiʻi

Marquesas

New Zealand

Samoa

Society Islands

Tuvalu

Madagascar

A single-outrigger lakana from Madagascar Madagascar - Traditional fishing pirogue.jpg
A single-outrigger lakana from Madagascar

Non-Austronesian outrigger boats

The following are traditional outrigger boats acquired by other cultures from contact with Austronesian sailors.

Sri Lanka

East Africa

Modern sport

Outrigger canoe racing has become a popular canoeing sport, with numerous clubs located around the world. Outrigger Canoe Racing is the State sport of Hawaii and an interscholastic high school sport. In Hawaii, entire families participate in summer regattas with age groups from keiki (children as young as 6 with an adult steersperson) and age 12 through age 60+.

Major races in Hawaii include the Molokaʻi Hoe 43 mi (69 km) men's race from the island of Molokai to Oahu across the Kaiwi Channel, Na Wahine O Ke Kai (same race for women) and the Queen Liliʻuokalani Race held near Kona on the Island of Hawai.

Modern single-outrigger canoe in Hawaii, US Canoe Hawaii.jpg
Modern single-outrigger canoe in Hawaii, US

In modern sport outrigger canoeing, ships are classified according to the configuration and number of the hulls and the number of paddlers, including the OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4 and OC6 (with the respective number of paddlers using a single-hull outrigger canoe), and the DC12 or OC12 (with twelve paddlers using a double-hull outrigger canoe, two six-person canoes rigged together like a catamaran). Outriggers without a rudder are referred to as V1, V2, etc. (where V refers to vaʻa).

Six-person outrigger canoes (or OC6) are among the most commonly used for sport use; single-person outrigger canoes (or OC1) are also very common. Two and four-person outrigger canoes are also sometimes used, and two six-person outrigger canoes are sometimes rigged together like a catamaran to form a twelve-person double canoe.

A six-person outrigger canoe OutriggerRace.jpg
A six-person outrigger canoe

Modern OC6 hulls and amas are commonly made from glass-reinforced plastic. However, some canoes are made of more traditional materials. In Ancient Hawaii, canoes were carved from the trunks of very old koa trees. These canoes, although rare, are still very much in use today. The ʻiako are usually made of wood; the ʻiako-ama and ʻiako-hull connections are typically done with rope wrapped and tied in an interlocking fashion to reduce the risk of the connection coming completely apart if the rope breaks.

Modern OC1 hulls and amas are commonly made from glass-reinforced plastic, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, and/or Kevlar to produce a strong but light canoe. OC1 are often made with rudders operated by foot pedals. More traditional designs do not have rudders. OC1 commonly use ʻiako made of aluminium or carbon fiber, with a mechanism for quickly assembling and disassembling the canoe (snap buttons, large wing nuts, etc.).

Roles

In an outrigger canoe, the paddlers sit in line, facing toward the bow of the canoe (i.e., forward, in the direction of travel, unlike rowing). The seats are numbered from 1 (closest to the bow) to the number of seats in the canoe, usually 6. The steerer (or steersman or steersperson) sits in the last seat of the canoe (seat 6 in the common OC6) and, as the name indicates, is primarily responsible for steering. The paddler sitting in seat 1 is called the stroke (or stroker) and is responsible for setting the pace of the paddle strokes. The stroker should have a high level of endurance to keep the rate (the number of strokes taken in a given amount of time) manageable for whatever the situation may be. The first two positions may also be involved in certain steering manoeuvers. This usually involves the draw stroke. During a tight turn, the one seat might poke to make the canoe turn the opposite way. In the middle of the canoe (seats number 3 and 4) known as the powerhouse are the strong and powerful paddlers. Any of the 2 can be the 'caller' who directs when to switch over their blades, when to pick up or slow down the stroking pace, etc. Whoever is caller must have very good leadership skills and know how to think off the top of their heads in any situation. Every position has an important role to play in the canoe.

In an OC1, the single paddler must also steer the canoe. Some OC1s have rudders operated by foot pedals, while OC1s without rudders must be steered by drawing and paddling as needed for steering purposes while paddling to move the canoe forward.

Steersman

Racing outrigger canoes. The canoe in the front right, with a narrower hull and smaller body, is a single-person outrigger canoe, or OC1. The other canoes are six-person outrigger canoes or OC6. Racing outriggers.jpg
Racing outrigger canoes. The canoe in the front right, with a narrower hull and smaller body, is a single-person outrigger canoe, or OC1. The other canoes are six-person outrigger canoes or OC6.

A good steersman is able to maintain the straight attitude of the canoe throughout the course of a race, and also keep the boat and the crew safe in rough sea conditions. They may also take advantage of water conditions to gain extra speed by surfing. The steersman uses a single bladed steering paddle which has a larger blade than a standard outrigger paddle, is built stronger, and has less or no bend in its shaft. They steer by the following methods:

  • Poking: holding the paddle vertically against the side of the canoe, causing drag on that side to cause the canoe to turn that direction. (left to go left and right to go right)
  • Drawing: paddling at a 45 to 90-degree angle to pull water under the canoe, causing the canoe to turn the opposite direction.
  • Posting: holding the paddle in the water out to the side with the forward edge angled opposite to the desired turn direction, usually as a prelude to drawing.
  • Paddling: by applying power on one side of the canoe, the steersman can influence to a small degree which way the canoe will turn. Paddling also increases the total power moving the canoe forward compared to the other steering methods. The steersman should try and paddle as much as possible so he or she doesn't slow down the canoe by contributing to the amount of weight in the canoe.

A steersman also skippers the canoe and instructs all other paddlers as necessary. As an outrigger canoe is a long narrow canoe with the steersman placed at the very end, the steersman must give instructions sufficiently loudly and clearly for the entire crew to hear. From a water safety perspective the steersman should also be among the most experienced crew members, and be knowledgeable with the waterways and weather conditions, relevant maritime rules and other safety considerations such as the use of personal flotation devices, rigging of the canoe, placement of paddlers in the various seating positions, and recovery from a huli by righting the canoe and bailing out the water. The steersman should also be able to keep the ama down during rough water.

Paddlers

1907 paddler from New Guinea New-Guinean girl in outrigger canoe (AN00391749 007) l.jpg
1907 paddler from New Guinea

Paddlers use single-bladed paddles, usually with single or double bent shafts. The paddling stroke is similar to that of most other racing canoe paddling strokes, involving primarily core and lat strength. Generally, each paddler paddles on the opposite side from the paddler in directly front (for example, in an OC6, paddlers in seats 1, 3, and 5 paddle on one side, while paddlers in seats 2 and 4 paddle on the other side). All paddlers switch sides simultaneously on a call from one who is the designated caller. The steerer may paddle either side or switch sides as needed for steering purposes. The steersman will also switch sides to keep the ama from popping up and capsizing the canoe.

Stronger paddlers are typically placed in the middle of the canoe, while paddlers with the most endurance tend to be placed at the front, as the lead paddler sets the pace for the crew. All other paddlers synchronize their strokes to the paddler in front of them (whom they can directly see).

In rough water, it is often desirable to have a paddler with steering skill in seat 5 (of an OC6), to allow for the steerer to have that paddler also take steering strokes if needed in some situations. In conditions when the boat is surfing, the stern of the canoe will be so far out of the water that seat 5 will have to keep the boat on course. A seat 5 paddler with steering skill can also assist in preventing a huli by staying on the ama side during a particularly rough stretch of water.

In water rough enough to splash into the canoe, paddlers also need to pay attention to the water level in the canoe, report the situation to the steerer, and bail out the water as necessary. Paddlers also need to know how to recover from a huli under the steerer's direction.

In a quick turn situation, paddlers at the front may also be instructed to une (poke steer, causes the canoe to turn the opposite direction) or kahi (post and draw steer, pulls the canoe to the side where this is done) to help bring the canoe around a turn quickly.

Racing

Hawaiki Nui Va'a i race in French Polynesia Hawaiki Nui Va'a 4.jpg
Hawaiki Nui Va'a i race in French Polynesia

The length of a race ranges from short sprints (e.g., 250–500 metres for the OC1 and the OC12, 500–2000 metres (usually includes turns) for the OC6) to longer events, including marathons (e.g., 42 kilometres). A number of races are raced over distances that far exceed 42 kilometres, including the Molokaʻi Hoe that crosses the Kaiwi Channel between the islands of Molokai and Oahu in Hawaii. However, long-distance races of 20 to 30 kilometres are more common, with shorter 5 to 8 kilometre courses typically being offered to novice paddlers and those under 20 years of age.

Longer races involving the OC6 often involve paddler replacements, which involve exit and entry to the canoe directly from the water while the canoe is underway (this is called a water change). Typically, nine paddlers form a crew, with six paddling the OC6 and the other three resting, drinking, and/or eating on an escort boat. Replacement typically occurs at 20 to 30 minute intervals; the escort boat drops the relief paddlers into the water ahead of the OC6, which is steered toward them. The relief paddlers climb in on the ama side as those they are replacing roll out into the water on the opposite side. The escort boat then picks up the paddlers in the water so that they can rest, drink, and/or eat before they, in turn, relieve some of the paddlers in the OC6.

Outrigger canoe racing in Hudson River, New York Outrigger paddling on Hudson jeh.jpg
Outrigger canoe racing in Hudson River, New York

The longer races are typically conducted in the open ocean, e.g., between islands in the South Pacific. The Molokaʻi Hoe in Hawaii, The Hamilton Cup in Australia, [26] The Vaka Eiva in Rarotonga (Cook Islands), [27] The Motu2Motu in Aitutaki (Cook Islands) [28] and the Catalina Channel crossing in California [29] are four examples of races involving water changes.

Paddlers and crews are usually classified by gender and age. Gender classification is typically straightforward, with male, female, and coed classifications, with the latter being a crew with equal numbers of male and female paddlers (different rules may apply to nine-person coed crews doing a race with paddler replacements). Age classifications typically include youth divisions like 19-and-under, 16-and-under, etc., master divisions with minimum ages typically starting at 35 or 40 years of age, and an open division which allows paddlers of any age. A novice division for paddlers with less than a specified number of years of race experience (usually one or two) may also exist in a given association.

In some races, a particular type of outrigger canoe, usually a more traditional design for the region, may be given its own racing classification. For example, races in Hawaii have a koa division, while southern California has a Bradley OC6 division and northern California OC1 sprint races have a traditional (no rudder) division.

Organisations

The International Va'a Federation (IVF) oversees va'a racing worldwide, including the IVF World Championships [30] and at the Pacific Games. [31]

Outrigger racing organizations in the United States include the East Coast Outrigger Racing Association (ECORA), the Hawaiian Canoe Racing Association (HCRA), the Northern California Outrigger Canoe Association (NCOCA), the Southern California Outrigger Canoe Association (SCORA), and several more.

See also

Related Research Articles

Multihull Ship or boat with more than one hull

A multihull is a ship or boat with more than one hull, whereas a vessel with a single hull is a monohull.

Sail plan Diagram of the masts, spars, rigging, and sails of a sailing vessel

A sail plan is a description of the specific ways that a sailing craft is rigged. Also, the term “sail plan” is a graphic depiction of the arrangement of the sails for a given sailing craft.

Catamaran Watercraft with two parallel hulls of equal size

A catamaran is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size. It is a geometry-stabilized craft, deriving its stability from its wide beam, rather than from a ballasted keel as with a monohull boat. Catamarans typically have less hull volume, smaller displacement, and shallower draft (draught) than monohulls of comparable length. The two hulls combined also often have a smaller hydrodynamic resistance than comparable monohulls, requiring less propulsive power from either sails or motors. The catamaran's wider stance on the water can reduce both heeling and wave-induced motion, as compared with a monohull, and can give reduced wakes.

Trimaran multihull boat

A trimaran is a multihull boat that comprises a main hull and two smaller outrigger hulls which are attached to the main hull with lateral beams. Most modern trimarans are sailing yachts designed for recreation or racing; others are ferries or warships. They originated from the traditional double-outrigger hulls of the Austronesian cultures of Maritime Southeast Asia; particularly in the Philippines and Eastern Indonesia, where it remains the dominant hull design of traditional fishing boats. Double-outriggers are derived from the older catamaran and single-outrigger boat designs.

Dugout canoe

A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) is Greek -- mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) -- and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In German, they are called Einbaum. Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner.

Outrigger Projecting structure on a boat

An outrigger is a projecting structure on a boat, with specific meaning depending on types of vessel. Outriggers may also refer to legs on a wheeled vehicle that are folded out when it needs stabilization, for example on a crane that lifts heavy loads.

Proa Type of multihull sailboat

Proas are various types of multi-hull outrigger sailboats of the Austronesian peoples. The terms were used for native Austronesian ships in European records during the Colonial era indiscriminately, and thus can confusingly refer to the double-ended single-outrigger boats of Oceania, the double-outrigger boats of Island Southeast Asia, and sometimes ships with no outriggers or sails at all.

Waka (canoe) Māori watercraft, usually canoes

Waka are Māori watercraft, usually canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes used for fishing and river travel to large, decorated war canoes up to 40 metres (130 ft) long.

Tepukei

A tepukei, tepuke or TePuke is a Polynesian boat type, characterized by its elaborate decking, its submerged hulls and symmetrical "crab claw" sail slender foil or radically extended tips claw sail. Tepukei boats are produced primarily by the Polynesian-speaking inhabitants of Taumako, and have been occasionally borrowed by other Polynesian and Melanesian societies.

Canoe sailing refers to the practice of fitting an Austronesian outrigger or Western canoe with sails.

Crab claw sail Triangular sail with spars along upper and lower edges used by traditional Austronesians

The crab claw sail is a fore-and-aft triangular sail with spars along upper and lower edges. The crab claw sail was first developed by the Austronesian peoples some time around 1500 BC. It is used in many traditional Austronesian cultures in Island Southeast Asia, Micronesia, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar. Due to its extraordinary performance and ease-of-operation, it has also become very popular in modern sport sailing. It is sometimes known as the Oceanic lateen or the Oceanic sprit, even though it is not restricted to Oceania, is neither a lateen sail nor a spritsail, and has an independent older origin.

Drua

Drua, also known as Na Drua, N'drua, Ndrua or Waqa Tabu, is a double-hull sailing boat that originated in the south-western Pacific islands. Druas do not tack but rather shunt. Both ends of each hull are identical, but the hulls are of different sizes and the smaller one is always sailed to windward. The main differences, compared to proas, are that the hulls have a symmetric U-form profile, and a second hull is used instead of an outrigger. When a float (cama) is used in place of the smaller hull, the craft is called a camakau.

The Fijian double canoe was the largest and finest sea-going vessel ever designed and built by natives of Oceania before contact with Europeans.

Vaa

Vaʻa is a word in Samoan, Hawaiian and Tahitian which means 'boat', 'canoe' or 'ship'. A larger traditional seagoing vessel for long-distance voyages is referred to as vaʻa tele. The term alia is also used for larger vessels in Samoa. The smaller vaʻa used for fishing typically have a float, or outrigger, attached to the main hull for stability. This outrigger part of the canoe is called ama in various Polynesian languages.

Traditional fishing boat

Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Even today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked (open) boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered, usually with outboard engines. The remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars.

Camakau

Camakau are a traditional watercraft of Fiji. Part of the broader Austronesian tradition, they are similar to catamarans, outrigger canoes, or smaller versions of the drua, but are larger than a takia. These vessels were built primarily for the purposes of travelling between islands and for trade. These canoes are single hulled, with an outrigger and a cama, a float, with both ends of the hull being symmetrical. They were very large, capable of travelling open ocean, and have been recorded as being up to 70 ft in length.

The Moloka'i Hoe is an annual outrigger canoe race between the islands of Molokai and Oahu, Hawaii. The race is one of Hawaii's largest annual sporting events, drawing participants from Hawaii and the U.S. mainland as well as internationally. Participating countries include Australia, New Zealand, England, Germany, Japan, Hong Kong, and Tahiti.

Bangka (boat)

Bangka are various native watercraft of the Philippines. It originally referred to small double-outrigger dugout canoes used in rivers and shallow coastal waters, but since the 18th century, it has expanded to include larger lashed-lug ships, with or without outriggers. Though the term used is the same throughout the Philippines, "bangka" can refer to a very diverse range of boats specific to different regions. Bangka was also spelled as banca, panca, or panga in Spanish. It is also known archaically as sakayan.

Polynesian multihull terminology

Polynesian multihull terminology, such as "ama", "aka" and "vaka" are multihull terms that have been widely adopted beyond the South Pacific where these terms originated. This Polynesian terminology is in common use in the Americas and the Pacific but is almost unknown in Europe, where the anglo-saxon terms "hull" and "outrigger" form normal parlance. Outriggers, catamarans, and outrigger boats are a common heritage of all Austronesian peoples and predate the Micronesian and Polynesian expansion into the Pacific. They are also the dominant forms of traditional ships in Island Southeast Asian and Malagasy Austronesian cultures, where local terms are used.

Paopao (canoe)

A paopao, is the name used by the Polynesian-speaking inhabitants of the Ellice Islands for their single-outrigger canoes, of which the largest could carry four to six adults. The large double-hulled sailing-canoes had ceased to be constructed in the Ellice Islands some time before contact with Europeans.

Sakman

Sakman, better known in western sources as flying proas, are traditional sailing outrigger boats of the Chamorro people of the Northern Marianas. They are characterized by a single outrigger and a crab claw sail. They are the largest native sailing ships (ladjak) of the Chamorro people. Followed by the slightly smaller lelek and the medium-sized duding. They are similar to other traditional sailing ships of Micronesia, like the wa, baurua, and the walap. These ships were once used for trade and transportation between islands.

References

  1. Campbell, I.C. (1995). "The Lateen Sail in World History". Journal of World History. 6 (1): 1–23. JSTOR   20078617.
  2. Adrian, Horridge (2008). "Origins and Relationships of Pacific Canoes and Rigs". In Di Piazza, Anne; Pearthree, Erik (eds.). Canoes of the Grand Ocean (PDF). BAR International Series 1802. Archaeopress. ISBN   9781407302898.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Mahdi, Waruno (1999). "The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean". In Blench, Roger; Spriggs, Matthew (eds.). Archaeology and Language III: Artefacts languages, and texts. One World Archaeology. 34. Routledge. pp. 144–179. ISBN   0415100542.[ dead link ]
  4. 1 2 3 Doran, Edwin B. (1981). Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN   9780890961070.
  5. 1 2 3 Doran, Edwin, Jr. (1974). "Outrigger Ages". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 83 (2): 130–140.
  6. Francisco Ignacio Alcina (1668). Historia de las islas e indios de Bisayas.
  7. Beheim, B. A.; Bell, A. V. (23 February 2011). "Inheritance, ecology and the evolution of the canoes of east Oceania". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1721): 3089–3095. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0060. PMC   3158936 . PMID   21345865.
  8. Hornell, James (1932). "Was the Double-Outrigger Known in Polynesia and Micronesia? A Critical Study". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 41 (2 (162)): 131–143.
  9. Francisco Combés (1667). Historia de las islas de Mindanao, Iolo y sus adyacentes : progressos de la religion y armas Catolicas.
  10. Kapitän, Gerhard (May 1989). "Records of Native Craft in Sri Lanka—I: The single outrigger fishing canoe oruwa—Part 2.2: Rowed, paddled and poled oru". International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 18 (2): 137–149. doi:10.1111/j.1095-9270.1989.tb00185.x.
  11. Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Land of a Thousand Atolls: A Study of Marine Life in the Maldive and Nicobar Islands, World Publishing Co., Cleveland and New York, 1964.
  12. Dempwolff, Otto (1934–1938). "Vergleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes". Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen (Special Publication nos. 15, 17, 19).
  13. Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen. "The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (Web Edition)" . Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  14. Jett, Stephen C. (2017). Ancient Ocean Crossings: Reconsidering the Case for Contacts with the Pre-Columbian Americas. University of Alabama Press. pp. 197–200. ISBN   9780817319397.
  15. 1 2 Mahdi, Waruno (2016). "Origins of Southeast Asian Shipping and Maritime Communication across the Indian Ocean". In Campbell, Gwyn (ed.). Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World. Palgrave Series in Indian Ocean World Studies. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 25–49. ISBN   9783319338224.
  16. Waruno, Mahdi (2017). "Pre-Austronesian origins of seafaring in Insular Southeast Asia". In Acri, Andrea; Blench, Roger; Landmann, Alexandra (eds.). Spirits and Ships: Cultural Transfers in Early Monsoon Asia. ISEAS Publishing. pp. 325–374. ISBN   9789814762755.
  17. Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (December 2013). "The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary" . Oceanic Linguistics. 52 (2): 493–523. doi:10.1353/ol.2013.0016. S2CID   146739541.
  18. 1 2 Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (14 January 2018). "*saRman outrigger float". Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  19. Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (14 January 2018). "*kiajo outrigger boom". Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  20. Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (14 January 2018). "*kayajo outrigger boom". Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  21. Lawrence A. Reid (1994). "Unravelling the linguistic histories of Philippine Negritos". In Tom Dutton & Darrell T. Tryon (ed.). Language Contact and Change in the Austronesian World. Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 77. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 456. ISBN   9783110127867.
  22. 1 2 Patricia Calzo Vega (1 June 2011). "The World of Amaya: Unleashing the Karakoa". GMA News Online. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  23. Emma Helen Blair & James Alexander Robertson, ed. (1906). The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898.
  24. 1 2 Stead, Martin Roderick (2018). Defining the Construction Characteristics of Indigenous Boats of the Philippines: The Impact of Technical Change Pre and Post Colonisation (PDF) (MPhil). University of Southampton.
  25. 1 2 Tu, Karen Kan-Lun (2017). Wa and Tatala: The Transformation of Indigenous Canoes on Yap and Orchid Island (PDF) (PhD).
  26. "Clash of the Paddles – Hamilton Island Events". hamiltonisland.com.au.
  27. "Vaka Eiva – Home". vakaeiva.com.
  28. "Motu 2 Motu Aitutaki". Facebook.
  29. "SCORA – Catalina Crossing – US Outrigger Championships". hcatalinacrossing.org. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015.
  30. "About the IVF". International Va'a Federation. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  31. "Va'a sports technical manual version 2.0" (PDF). Samoa 2019. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.

Further reading