A sampan is a relatively flat-bottomed Chinese and Malay wooden boat. Some sampans include a small shelter on board and may be used as a permanent habitation on inland waters. The design closely resembles Western hard chine boats like the scow or punt. Sampans are generally used for transportation in coastal areas or rivers and are often used as traditional fishing boats. It is unusual for a sampan to sail far from land,as they do not have the means to survive rough weather.
The word "sampan" is often claimed to derive from the original Cantonese term sāam báan (三板),literally "three planks", but this is likely to be a folk etymology. Pierre-Yves Manguin has pointed out possible Austronesian origin of the word,attested in a Malay inscription from 684 CE.
Sampans may be propelled by poles,oars (particularly a single,long sculling oar called a yuloh (simplified Chinese 摇橹/ traditional Chinese 搖櫓)) or may be fitted with outboard motors.
Sampans are still in use by rural residents of Southeast Asia,particularly in Malaysia,Indonesia,Bangladesh,Myanmar,Sri Lanka and Vietnam.
In the Malay community in Southeast Asia,they also use the term sampan for their boats. Large boats such as sampan panjang ,kolek and perahu panjang are used and built by the Malays and Orang Laut living in their coastal villages.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders,also called shipwrights,follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.
A junk is a type of Chinese sailing ship with fully battened sails. There are two types of junk in China:the northern junk,which developed from Chinese river boats,and southern junk,which developed from Austronesian ship designs used in trade with the Eastern Han dynasty since the 2nd century AD. They continued to evolve in later dynasties,and were predominantly used by Chinese traders throughout Southeast Asia. Similar junk designs were also adopted by other East Asian countries,most notably Japan where junks were used as merchant ships to trade goods with China. They were found,and in lesser numbers are still found,throughout Southeast Asia and India,but primarily in China. Historically,a Chinese junk could be one of many types of small coastal or river ships,usually serving as a cargo ship,pleasure boat,or houseboat,but also ranging in size up to large ocean-going vessel. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. There can be significant regional variations in the type of rig or the layout of the vessel;however,they all employ fully battened sails.
Maritime Southeast Asia comprises the countries of Brunei,East Timor,Indonesia,Malaysia,the Philippines and Singapore. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as Island Southeast Asia,Insular Southeast Asia or Oceanic Southeast Asia. The 16th-century term "East Indies" and the later 19th-century term "Malay Archipelago" are also used to refer to Maritime Southeast Asia.
Sculling is the use of oars to propel a boat by moving the oars through the water on both sides of the craft,or moving a single oar over the stern. A long,narrow boat with sliding seats and rigged with two oars per rower may be referred to as a scull,its oars may be referred to as sculls,and a person rowing it referred to as sculler.
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar. However,rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat,while paddles are hand-held and have no mechanical connection.
Traditionally,many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea,or on a lake or river. Even today,many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),at the end of 2004,the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels,of which 2.7 million were undecked (open) boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised,only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered,usually with outboard engines. The remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types,operated by sail and oars.
Human-powered watercraft are watercraft propelled by human power.
Naga Pelangi is a wooden junk rigged schooner of the Malay pinas type built using traditional lashed-lug techniques from 2004 to 2009 in Kuala Terengganu,Malaysia. Finished in 2010,it is operated as a charter vessel in South East Asia.
The pinas,sometimes called "pinis" as well,is one of two types of junk rigged schooners of the east coast of the Malay peninsula,built in the Terengganu area. This kind of vessel was built of Chengal wood by the Malays since the 19th century and roamed the South China Sea and adjacent oceans as one of the two types of traditional sailing vessels the late Malay maritime culture has developed:The bedar and the pinas.
Grace Quan is a modern reconstruction of a Chinese-American shrimp fishing junk,similar to those in the fleet that operated in San Francisco Bay in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The junk was built in 2003 as a joint project between China Camp State Park in San Rafael,California and the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park,and is now jointly exhibited and operated by both institutions. It functions as a "working sailing museum" to educate the public about a previously forgotten chapter in the history of Chinese-American immigrants to California.
Penjajap,also pangajava and pangayaw,were native outrigger warships used by several Austronesian ethnic groups in maritime Southeast Asia. They were typically very long and narrow,and were very fast. They are mentioned as being used by native fleets in Indonesia,the southern Philippines,Malaysia,and Brunei.
The djong,jong,or jung is a type of ancient sailing ship originating from Java that was widely used by Javanese and Malay sailors. The word was and is spelled jong in its languages of origin,the "djong" spelling being the colonial Dutch romanisation.
Sampan panjang was a type of Malay fast boat from the 19th century. It was used especially by the sampan-men,or "Orang Laut". Historically,they can be found in Malaysia,Singapore,and Indonesia. This type of boat was used by Malay people as racing boat and as transport boat. The sampan panjang appeared at the first quarter of the 19th century,and disappeared at the turn of that century. These boats proved to be superior than European boats in racing purposes;they were easy winners when racing against the European yachts of that time.
Pelang or pilang is a traditional boat from Indonesia and Malaysia. It may refer to several different type of boats in the Nusantara,but commonly they refer to outrigger canoe. The function differs from where they were used,from transporting people,fishing,to trading. Pilang has been known from at least the 14th century.
Perahu payang or simply payang is a traditional Malay open fishing boat. They are usually found in Terengganu,and to a lesser extent,Kelantan,Pahang,and Johor coasts. A few examples normally come down to Singapore to operate during the period of the north-east monsoon in the South China Sea.
Ghurab or gurab is a type of merchant and warship from Nusantara archipelago. The ship was a result of Mediterranean influences in the region,particularly introduced by the Arabs,Persians,and Ottoman.
Lashed-lug boats are ancient boat-building techniques of the Austronesian peoples. It is characterized by the use of sewn holes and later dowels ("treenails") to stitch planks edge-to-edge onto a dugout keel and solid carved wood pieces that form the caps for the prow and stern. The planks are further lashed together and unto ribs with fiber ropes wrapped around protruding carved lugs on the inside surfaces. Unlike western boat-building techniques,the shell of the boat is created first,prior to being lashed unto ribs. The seams between planks are also sealed with absorbent tapa bark and fiber that expands when wet or caulked with resin-based preparations.
Lancang is a type of sailing ship from Maritime Southeast Asia. It is used as warship,lighter,and as royal ship,particularly used by the people of Sumatran east coast,but can also be found in the coast of Kalimantan.
Stern sculling is the use of a single oar over the stern of a boat to propel it with side-to-side motions that create forward lift in the water. It is distinguished from sculling,which is rowing with two oars on either side of the boat and from sweep rowing,whereby each boat crew member employs a single oar,complemented by another crew member on the opposite side with an oar,usually with each pulling an oar with two hands.
A juanga or joanga refers to large-sized kora-kora,karakoa and lanong. They are used all throughout the Philippines and Eastern Indonesia,in Maluku smaller versions existed. They are propelled by oars but are not used for carrying cargo.
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