The term lambo or lamba refer to two types of traditional boats from Indonesia.
Lambo is the Indonesian version of small western styled merchant boats with one mast from the end of the 19th century. It is directly developed as merchant boats, and unlike other boats from Indonesia, it was not derived from local fishing perahu or canoe.
The origin of the word "lambo" and its meaning is not clear. It is probable that this word is a crude dialog word meaning ''no mother", which means this boat doesn't incorporate ancestor traditions (that is, developed from Western boats). It may also be possible that, the word comes from Kawi and old Javanese language word "lambu" which means a kind of boat.
It has two masts, with its sturdy rig and gaff easily recognized from afar. The defining features of this boat is the shape of the keel, bow, and the stern (it has "counter" type stern). Most of them weighed between 10 and 40 tons. As in most types of boats from this class there must be a deck house. Short deck at the front of the mast, usually with cooking stove located in movable kitchen box, and a canvas curtain atop the stern deck. Older boats has vertical bow and deeper keel.From the outside it may look like a copy of western boat, be it the hull type, hull shape, or the lines of the planking, but if seen closely it shows that this boat is constructed with frames from thick wood, cut to shapes and combined corner by corner with dowels. Western-styled flooring and ribs then applied after the frame is formed. This type of lambo could carry 700 pikul of cargo (about 43.75 tons), with total crew of only 6-7 men, which is the same as a palari or golekan with 500 pikul (31.25 tons) cargo. The length of Buton lambo is about 40-55 ft (12.2-16.8 m) at the waterline, with overall length of 58-80 ft (17.8-24.4 m).
This type of perahu is the result of combining fore-and-aft rig with indigenous pajala-type hull made by Bugis and Makassar people.They can be seen in the area of river mouths and creeks at the North of Makassar. They also can be seen carrying sea turtles to Kampung Benoa, Bali, with Mandarese crew. In there they are known as bago by other sailors, but to Mandarese people in Sulawesi, bago is a term referring to small boats for catching fish.
This lambo had traditional hull of southern West Sulawesi, its stempost and sternpost formed a smooth curve with the keel. The hull is the same as Makassar and Mandarese boat with a post to support the rudder. A deckhouse is located at the middle of the hull, with a bowsprit for supporting the headsail. It may be smaller than Makassarese bisean boat, the weight is around 20-30 tons, similar to Buginese palari boats from 1930s. Although the hull looked like Butonese lambo, the hull does not have straight long keel, perpendicular stem and sternpost, nor western-styled central rudder (West Sulawesian lambo is using double quarter rudder).It is single-masted, with cantilever support beam, large single foresail, and mainsail (in the form of nade sail). West Sulawesian lambo is about 45-60 ft (13.7-18.3 m) LOA, and 30-40 ft (9.1-12.2 m) length at waterline. The carrying capacity was 300-350 pikul (18.75-21.875 tons) of cargo, less than a palari of the same size, but they are faster and can be handled by smaller crew.
During the 1970s the Indonesian local vessels were progressively equipped with engines. Since machine installation did not fit well in traditional pinisi designs, lambo hull became a common alternative. In later years, their load capacities were increased until the current average of 300 tons, with the so-called PLM (perahu layar motor - motor sailing boat). Nearly every cargo boat seen nowadays in the local ports of Jakarta, Surabaya and Makassar are such modified lambos, still retaining some features from the original designs.
Literally, the word pinisi refers to a type of rigging of Indonesian sailing vessels. A pinisi carries seven to eight sails on two masts, arranged like a gaff-ketch with what is called 'standing gaffs' - i.e., unlike most Western ships using such a rig, the two main sails are not opened by raising the spars they are attached to, but the sails are 'pulled out' like curtains along the gaffs which are fixed at around the centre of the masts.
Tongkang or "Tong'kang" refers to several type of boats used to carry goods along rivers and shoreline in Maritime Southeast Asia. One of the earliest record of tongkang comes from 15th century Malay Annals. One passage mentioned it as being used by Majapahit empire during the 1350 attack on Singapura.
The pinas, sometimes called "pinis" as well, is one of two types of junk rigged schooners of the east coast of the Malay peninsula, built in the Terengganu area. This kind of vessel was built of Chengal wood by the Malays since the 19th century and roamed the South China Sea and adjacent oceans as one of the two types of traditional sailing vessels the late Malay maritime culture has developed: The bedar and the pinas.
The term bedar,, is applied to a wide variety of boats of the east coast of Malaysia that carry one or two junk sails and lack the typical transom stern of the perahu pinas. These junk rigged boats are usually built in the Terengganu area. The stern of the bedar is a classical "canu" or "pinky stern," being a typical "double ender", a bit like a modern ship's lifeboat, with a very full turn of the bilge and with markedly raked stem and stern. They came in small versions as small one-masted fishing vessels - anak bedar and were built as big as 90 feet over deck (LOD). The majority of the bedars were usually 45 to 60 feet over deck. The bedar, like all Terengganu boats, was built of Chengal wood by the Malays since the 19th century and roamed the South China Sea and adjacent oceans as a highly seaworthy traditional sailing vessel.
A Sandeq is a type of outrigger sailboat or trimaran used by the Mandarese people for fishing and as a means of transportation between islands. The size of Sandeq varies, with hulls ranging from 5 to 15 metres long and 0.5 to 1.5 metres wide. Its carrying capacity ranges from a few hundred kilograms to over 2 tons. The sleek shape of the Sandeq makes it more agile and faster than other sailboats. The name of the vessel comes from a word in the Mandar language that means pointy, referring to the bow's shape.
Padewakang were traditional boats used by the Bugis, Mandar, and Makassar people of South Sulawesi. Padewakang were used for long distance voyages serving the south Sulawesi kingdoms.
Pencalang is a traditional merchant ship from Nusantara. Historically it was called as pantchiallang or pantjalang. It was originally built by Malay people from the area of Riau and the Malay Peninsula, but has been copied by Javanese shipwrights. By the end of the 17th century this ship has been built by Javanese and Chinese shipbuilders in and around Rembang. However it was a popular choice for Balinese skippers followed by Sulawesian skippers.
Perahu Mayang or simply mayang is a type of fishing boat from Java, Indonesia. This type of boat is used mainly for fishing and trading. Historically, this indigenous vessel is also favored by European skippers and private merchants for trading in East Indies: 50% of them were using mayang and pencalang. It is mostly used in northern coast of Java. The major production site is in Rembang, Central Java.
Toop is a type of boat-ship produced in East Indies. Appeared at the end of the 18th century, and built in local shipyards, this type of boat is one of the results of the incorporation of 'Western' and 'Nusantaran' technologies that began in the shipyards of the 17th and 18th European trading companies. This type of boat is commonly used for long-distance shipping. In the first half of the 19th century, this was the most common type of boat used by sailors and traders in Nusantara. Majority of toop is owned by merchants from the western area of Nusantara.
Patorani is a traditional fishing boat from Makassar, Indonesia. It is used by Macassan people for fishing, transport, and trading since at least 17th century A.D. Historically this type of boat was used by Gowa Sultanate as war boat.
Golekan is a type of traditional boat from Madura, Indonesia. They once plied as far as Singapore, where they are referred to as Madurese traders. In the present this type of boat is only known locally, especially near Bangkalan in Western Madura and around the Kangean islands.
Leti leti is a type of traditional transport vessel from East Madura, Indonesia, especially from the administrative district of Sumenep. The leti leti is a recent development, the hull form and sail were developed in the 19th century. In 1979 sailing leti leti was numbered about 1000, but this was reduced in the next decades when more modern, motorized vessel appeared.
Lis-alis is a type of traditional boat of Madura, Indonesia. Lis-alis usually present in canals that provide salt evaporation service in southern part of Madura and around Surabaya. Until the present, lis-alis remained overwhelmingly popular as a fishing craft in Bangkalan and Sukolilo, while a larger version, the kroman, has been used in this area for at least a century for inshore transport work.
Janggolan refers to two different type of perahu from Indonesia. One is from Madura, and the other from Bali. The Madurese janggolan is a type of indigenously constructed boat, meanwhile Balinese janggolan is an indigenous boat with western-styled hull construction.
Benawa or banawa is a type of ship from Gowa, an old principality in the southwest corner of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The earliest record of this vessel is from Hikayat Banjar, which has been written gradually from 14th-17th century. In the present, the type is already extinct; pelari and paduwakan, vessels with similar hull, have taken its place.
Palari is a type of Indonesian sailing vessel from South Sulawesi. It was mainly used by the people of Ara and Lemo Lemo, for transporting goods and people. This vessel is rigged with pinisi rig, which often makes it better known as "Pinisi" instead of its name. In Singapore, palari is known as "Makassartrader".
Pajala is a type of traditional perahu from western South Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is used mainly for fishing, but in the present it's a Bugis/Makassar name for small to medium-sized boat hull.
A bago is a traditional boat built by the Mandar people of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The hull is of the pajala-type, lightly built and allowing for shallow displacement. The boat is long, with the mast only making up a quarter of its length. A bago can be readily identified as Mandarese boat by its rudderpost style. Smaller-sized bagos are often used as fishing boats from which fishermen cast their nets. The Mandar people prefer using a bago over an outrigger canoe.
Paduwang is a traditional double-outrigger vessel from Madura, Indonesia. It is built with planks instead of single log, and used for fishing, trading and transport of people and goods near Madura island. In the 19th century, Paduwang was a popular fishing craft in East Java.
Orembai or Arombai is a type of plank boat from the Maluku Islands of Eastern Indonesia. It is mainly used for fishing and transport. This vessel is used as far as Batavia, where in the 17th century it became popular to go out "orembaaien" on an evening rowing on the river or city canals.