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USA-17--a 90-foot-long (27 m) trimaran, type BOR90. BMW Oracle BOR90.JPG
USA-17 —a 90-foot-long (27 m) trimaran, type BOR90.
A traditional paraw double-outrigger sailboat (bangka) from the Philippines Yacht of Boracay.jpg
A traditional paraw double-outrigger sailboat ( bangka ) from the Philippines

A trimaran (or double-outrigger) is a multihull boat that comprises a main hull and two smaller outrigger hulls (or "floats") which are attached to the main hull with lateral beams. Most modern trimarans are sailing yachts designed for recreation or racing; others are ferries or warships. They originated from the traditional double-outrigger hulls of the Austronesian cultures of Maritime Southeast Asia; particularly in the Philippines and Eastern Indonesia, where it remains the dominant hull design of traditional fishing boats. Double-outriggers are derived from the older catamaran and single-outrigger boat designs. [1] [2]



The word "trimaran" is a portmanteau of "tri" and "(cata)maran", [3] a term that is thought to have been coined by Victor Tchetchet, a pioneering, Ukrainian-born modern multihull designer. [4] Trimarans consist of a main hull connected to outrigger floats on either side by a crossbeam, wing, or other form of superstructure—the traditional Polynesian terms for the hull, each float and connector are vaka, ama and aka, respectively (although trimarans are not traditionally Polynesian, since they instead use single-outrigger and catamaran configurations). [5]

Sailing trimarans


An Iranun lanong, a double-outrigger warship from the Philippines used in the navies of the Sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu from the 18th to late 19th centuries. They were also commonly used for raids and piracy. Iranun lanong warship by Rafael Monleon (1890).jpg
An Iranun lanong , a double-outrigger warship from the Philippines used in the navies of the Sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu from the 18th to late 19th centuries. They were also commonly used for raids and piracy.
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat (Mahdi, 1999) Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat.png
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat (Mahdi, 1999)
The Balatik, a paraw, a functioning replica of a traditional Austronesian sailing trimaran from the Visayas Islands of the Philippines Balatik paraw trimaran (cropped).jpg
The Balatik, a paraw , a functioning replica of a traditional Austronesian sailing trimaran from the Visayas Islands of the Philippines

The first double-outrigger boats were developed by the Austronesian people and are still widely used today by traditional fishermen in maritime Southeast Asia. It developed from the more ancient single-outrigger boats as a way to deal with the problem of the instability of the latter when tacking leeward. Double-outrigger boats, however, did not develop among Austronesians in Micronesia and Polynesia (although it exists in western Melanesia), where single-outrigger boats and catamarans are used instead. [1] [2] [7] [8] [9]

Warships with double-outriggers were used widely in Maritime Southeast Asia since ancient times up until the early modern period, with examples like the karakoa , [10] [11] lanong [6] kora kora , [12] [13] knabat bogolu , [14] and the Borobudur ships . These were often referred to by Europeans during the colonial era as "proas", a general term which can also refer to single-outriggers and even to native ships without outriggers. [15] [16]

20th century

Sailing catamarans and trimarans gained popularity during the 1960s and 1970s. [8] [17] Amateur development of the modern sailing trimaran started in 1945 with the efforts of Victor Tchetchet, a Ukrainian émigré to the US, who built two trimarans made of marine plywood, which were about 24 feet (7 metres) long. He is credited with coining the term, "trimaran." [4] In the 1950s and 60s, Arthur Piver designed and built plywood kit trimarans, which were adopted by other homebuilders, but were heavy and not sea-kindly by modern standards. Some of these achieved ocean crossings, nonetheless. [18] Other designers followed, including Jim Brown, Ed Horstman, John Marples, Jay Kantola, Chris White, Norman Cross, Derek Kelsall and Richard Newick, thus bringing the trimaran cruiser to new levels of performance and safety.

Following the homebuilt movement, production models became available. Some trimarans in the 19–36-foot lengths (5.8–11.0 m) are designed as "day-sailers" which can be transported on a road trailer. These include the original Farrier – Corsair folding trimarans, such as the F-27 Sport Cruiser – and original John Westell swing-wing folding trimaran (using the same folding system later adopted also on Quorning Dragonfly) and like trimarans.[ citation needed ]

Sandeq double-outrigger sailboats with traditional Austronesian crab claw sails in Majene, West Sulawesi, Indonesia Sandeq boats in Majene, West Sulawesi, Indonesia.jpg
Sandeq double-outrigger sailboats with traditional Austronesian crab claw sails in Majene, West Sulawesi, Indonesia

Modern western-built trimarans typically do not use Austronesian rigging like tanja or crab claw sails. Instead they use a standard Bermuda rig. Trimarans are also typically significantly wider. In addition, trimaran floats are much more buoyant than those of outrigger canoes to support a large sailplan. They contribute to drag when heavily immersed, and their level of immersion indicates when to reef. In terms of performance, an objective comparison by Doran (1972) in terms of maximum progress against the wind, maximum speed, and speed downwind concluded that both the traditional double-outrigger vinta of the Philippines and the single-outrigger wa of the Caroline Islands, respectively, are still superior to the modern trimaran. [19]

LoeRea, 60-foot (18-metre) trimaran used in the movie, Waterworld. LoeReal 60 foot Waterworld trimaran (cropped).jpg
LoeRea, 60-foot (18-metre) trimaran used in the movie, Waterworld .

Folding trimarans

Weta Trimaran racing in the High Sierra Regatta Weta Trimaran racing in the High Serra Regatta.jpg
Weta Trimaran racing in the High Sierra Regatta

Several manufacturers build trimarans in which the floats can be removed, repositioned, or folded near to the main hull. This allows them to be trailerable and/or to fit in a normal monohull space in a marina. Several mechanisms allow the amas or outriggers to be stored compactly:


Trimaran safety features include amas with multiple sealed partitions, controls that all run to the cockpit, a collision bulkhead, partial or full cockpit coverings or windshields, and drain holes in the cockpit that can adequately drain the cockpit quickly, among other things.

Trimaran capsizes are more likely to be of the pitchpole type than a roll to one side due to their higher sideways stability and speeds. Capsized trimarans are harder to turn upright after they have turtled than monohull boats. While some capsized trimarans righted by sideways rotation may suffer heavy damage to mast and rigging, many modern [24] and ancient [25] trimarans are explicitly designed for this method of righting. Harnesses pulling on the stern toward the bow, or from the bow toward the stern of capsized trimarans have been shown[ citation needed ] to be able to successfully turn them end-over-end. Several design features reduce the chance of pitch-pole capsize; these include having wing nets with an open weave designed to reduce windage and decks and nets that shed water easily. The best way to avoid capsize is to reduce sail in heavy weather.[ citation needed ]

Competition and records

Thomas Coville holds the new world record for solo circumnavigation of the world by sailing the trimaran, Sodebo Ultim, set on December 25, 2016 with a time of 49 days and 3 hours. Prior to his feat, Francis Joyon held the world record for solo circumnavigation of the world, set on January 20, 2008. The 51-year-old Frenchman circled the planet alone in 57 days, 13 hours, 34 minutes, 6 seconds in a trimaran. He beat British sailor Ellen MacArthur's record set in February 2005 for which she spent just over 71 days at sea. [26]

Francis Joyon and crew of five sailors; Dec 2016–Jan 2017; the Maxi trimaran IDEC SPORT; current absolute (wind or mechanically powered) fastest maritime circumnavigation, in 40 days 23 hours 30 minutes 30 seconds of sailing. Average speed of 26.85 knots (30.71 MPH), covering a total distance of 26,412 nautical miles (48,915 km; 30,394 mi). [27] In early 2020, the same boat won a race, retracing the tea clipper route from Hong Kong to London in just under 32 days—one-third the time it took the clippers to sail the route. [28]

Hydroptère , an experimental sailing hydrofoil trimaran, briefly reached 56.3 knots (104.3 km/h; 64.8 mph) [29] near Fos-sur-Mer, but capsized and turtled shortly thereafter. [30] [31]

33rd America's Cup

Competing with a giant trimaran the BMW Oracle Racing team representing the Golden Gate Yacht Club won the 2010 America's Cup on February 14, 2010, off Valencia, Spain, beating the giant catamaran Alinghi 2-0 in the best-of-three series and becoming the first American syndicate to win the cup since 1992. The large rigid wing sail of the USA 17 trimaran provided a decisive advantage and the trimaran won the America's Cup by a considerable margin in each race.


Earthrace broke the world record for circumnavigating the globe in a motorized boat in 2008 in just under 61 days. [32]

Trimaran ships

The trimaran configurations has also been used for both passenger ferries and warships. The Australian ship-building company, Austal, investigated the comparative merits of trimaran ships, compared with catamaran and monohull configurations. They found that there was an optimum location for the outer hulls in terms of minimizing wave generation and consequent power requirements for operating at high speeds with a payload of 1,000 tonnes. They further found that such a trimaran configuration was superior to a catamaran for roll and lateral force in a beam sea and superior in suppressing motion sickness resulting from a head sea. [33]

The negative considerations for trimarans, compared with catamarans or monohulls are: [33]

Between 2005 and 2020, Austal had built 14 aluminum high-speed trimaran ships, 11 of which were for the US Navy. In 2020, they had 11 trimarans under construction or under order. In addition to shipyards in Australia and the US, the company had shipyards in Vietnam and the Philippines. [34]

In 2005 Austal delivered the 127-metre trimaran (417 ft) Benchijigua Express to Spanish ferry operator Fred Olsen, S.A. for service in the Canary Islands. Capable of carrying 1,280 passengers and 340 cars, or equivalents, at speeds up to 40 knots, this boat was the longest aluminum ship in the world at the time of delivery. [35] A modern warship, the RV Triton was commissioned by British defence contractor QinetiQ in 2000. In October 2005, the United States Navy commissioned for evaluation the construction of a General Dynamics litoral combat ship trimaran designed and built by Austal. [36]

High-speed ferries

HSC Bajamar Express BAJAMAR EXPRESS, trimaran de la compania de ferris "Fred. Olsen Express", navegando hacia Tenerife, Canarias. Espana. Spain.jpg
HSC Bajamar Express

High-speed craft are governed by a code that applies to those designed for international passenger voyages that are shorter than four hours from a port of refuge, or cargo craft of 500 gross tonnage no more than eight hours from a port of refuge. All passengers are provided with a seat and there are no enclosed sleeping berths. [37]

The demand for high-speed ferries started in the late 1970s for ferries built mostly in Norway. Ultimately, two Australian shipyards came to prominence, Incat and Austal. [38] They were initially built by many shipyards, but by the turn of the century only two companies were still building larger vessels of over 70 metres and 3,000 Gross Tons. While Incat has specialized in wave-piercing catamarans, Austal has developed high-speed trimarans. [39] [34]

In 2010 Austal built the 102 metre Hull 270, although they were unable to find a buyer for the ship until it was sold to Condor Ferries in 2015 when it was named HSC Condor Liberation and began operating to the Channel Islands. [40] Prospects for trimaran ferries picked up in 2017 when Fred. Olsen Express ordered two 118 metre trimarans for their Canary Islands services, [41] named Bajamar Express and Bañaderos Express. In 2018 a Japanese company ordered an 83 metre trimaran ferry. [42]

Trimaran warship, USS Independence News Photo 090712-N-0000G-004.jpg
Trimaran warship, USS Independence

The first use of trimaran hull designs in modern navies was in the RV Triton, a Research Vessel for the Royal Navy. She was built as a technology demonstrator ship for the Royal Navy's Future Surface Combatant, and has been used to prove the viability of the hull-form. Since 2007 the ship has been used by the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service's Customs Marine Unit.

Littoral combat ships built by General Dynamics at Bath Iron Works are of a trimaran design. USS Independence (LCS-2) is the first of these ships. Littoral combat ships built by Lockheed are of a monohull design.

First launched on 31 August 2012 at Bali Strait, 63M Carbon Fibre Composite Trimaran Fast Missile Boat (Indonesian: Kapal Cepat Rudal [KCR]) named Klewang-class fast attack craft (Klewang- means a traditional Indonesian single edge sword), was the first stealth trimaran of the Indonesian Navy built by North Sea Boats at Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. This ship combined a number of existing advance technologies into a single, unique platform; a wave-piercer trimaran hull from, constructed exclusively of infused vinylester carbon fibre cored sandwich materials for all structural elements, with external "stealth" geometry and features intended to reduce detection. The KRI Klewang (625) caught fire because of an electrical short-circuit in the engine room during a maintenance period on September 28, 2012 and was a total loss.

43 Meter Trimarans called Ocean Eagle from CMN wharf with design from Nigel Irens und Prolarge based on the Ocean Adventurer concept will provide coastal protection for Mozambique.

See also


  1. 1 2 Mahdi, Waruno (1999). "The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean". In Blench, Roger; Spriggs, Matthew (eds.). Archaeology and Language III: Artefacts languages, and texts. One World Archaeology. 34. Routledge. p. 144-179. ISBN   0415100542.[ dead link ]
  2. 1 2 Doran, Edwin B. (1981). Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN   9780890961070.
  3. Collins English Dictionary – 2007 – Harper Collins – ISBN   978-0-00-780072-8
  4. 1 2 "Victor Tchetchet". Multihull Maven.
  5. White, Chris. (1997). The cruising multihull. Camden, Me.: International Marine. p. 45. ISBN   0-07-069868-6. OCLC   39033104.
  6. 1 2 James Francis Warren (2007). The Sulu Zone, 1768-1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. NUS Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN   9789971693862.
  7. Beheim, B. A.; Bell, A. V. (23 February 2011). "Inheritance, ecology and the evolution of the canoes of east Oceania". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1721): 3089–3095. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0060. PMC   3158936 . PMID   21345865.
  8. 1 2 Hornell, James (1932). "Was the Double-Outrigger Known in Polynesia and Micronesia? A Critical Study". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 41 (2 (162)): 131–143.
  9. Doran, Edwin, Jr. (1974). "Outrigger Ages". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 83 (2): 130–140.
  10. Francisco Ignacio Alcina (1668). Historia de las islas e indios de Bisayas.
  11. Francisco Combés (1667). Historia de las islas de Mindanao, Iolo y sus adyacentes : progressos de la religion y armas Catolicas.
  12. Charles P.G. Scott (1896). "The Malayan Words in English (First Part)". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 17: 93–144.
  13. Raymond Arveiller (1999). Max Pfister (ed.). Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia). Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie. Volume 298. Max Niemeyer. p. 174. ISBN   9783110927719.
  14. Haddon, Alfred Cort (1920). The Outriggers of Indonesian Canoes. London: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
  15. Folkard, Henry Coleman (1853). The Sailing Boat: a description of English and foreign boats. London: Hunt and Son.
  16. Blackburn, Graham (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Ships and Boats. I.B.Tauris. p. 262. ISBN   9781860648397.
  17. Harris, Robert B. (1965). "Catamarans: A Revolution in Sailing History". Archon. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. (Fall 1965): 12. Now gaining popularity is the trimaran, a triple-hulled craft of an ancient origin as the catamaran. [...] Trimarans have now crossed both the Atlantic and the Pacific.
  18. Randy Thomas (June 1985). "Multihulls Discovered: Part 1: Their origins, myths, magic, mana... and caveats that go along with these craft that have evolved from ancient heritage". Yachting . Retrieved 2015-01-01.
  19. Edwin Doran Jr., Texas A. & M. University (1972). "Wa, Vinta, and Trimaran". Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 81, No. 2. Retrieved 2015-01-01. In contrast to double-outrigger canoes, however, [trimaran] floats are often quite large and buoyant and contribute considerably to drag which slows the boat. [...] The Pacific canoes are notably more narrow ([length/beam] ratios of about 10 and 13 respectively) than the trimaran (ratio of about 7).
  20. "Animation" . Retrieved 2009-08-08.
  21. "Whisper" . Retrieved 2009-01-09.
  22. "trimax 1080 trimaran" . Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  23. David Owen (1970). "Trimariner". Archived from the original on 2011-04-02. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
  24. "Weta Owners Manual" . Retrieved 2015-01-01.
  25. Edwin Doran Jr., Texas A. & M. University (1972). "Wa, Vinta, and Trimaran". Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 81, No. 2. Retrieved 2015-01-01. Seaworthiness is implicit in the ability to make such voyages. A specific point illustrating the latter is the technique known to Caroline Inslanders for righting their canoes after they have capsized at sea. In brief, the mast is rigged from under side of float to a sheer legs erected above the bottom of the capsized boat. Four men climb quickly up the inclined mast, their weight forcing the float to submerge to a point directly underneath the main hull. Past this point the float's own buoyancy takes it back to the surface in righted position whereupon the canoe is bailed, rerigged and continues on its voyage.
  26. Staff (December 25, 2016). "French sailor Thomas Coville sets new record for solo sailing circumnavigation | DW | 25.12.2016". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  27. Gain, Bruce (February 6, 2017). "Q&A with IDEC Sport skipper Francis Joyon". Sailing World. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  28. "IDEC SPORT shatters Tea Route Record >> Scuttlebutt Sailing News". Scuttlebutt Sailing News. 2020-02-20. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  29. Though it was first announced the ship reached 61 kn: «Pointe de l'Hydroptère à 61 noeuds» (in French)
  30. Les données officielles ont été récupérées Archived 2010-10-08 at the Wayback Machine , L'Hydroptère , 14 January 2009 (in French)
  31. "Hydroptere: 61 knots and huge crash with 35-38 knots, gusts over 45". Fos-sur-Mer: Catamaran Racing. December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  32. Seiff, Abby (2006). "Fast Fueled". Popular Science . Bonnier Group. 269 (6): 18.
  33. 1 2 Yun, Liang; Bliault, Alan (2014-07-08). High Performance Marine Vessels. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 238–9. ISBN   978-1-4614-0869-7.
  34. 1 2 Biscevic, Tajna (2020-02-28). "Austal's WA shipyard launches new trimaran". Manufacturers' Monthly. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  35. "Delivery Benchijigua Express – Austal". Archived from the original on 2006-04-22.
  36. "Defence – Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) – Austal". Archived from the original on 2008-08-20.
  37. International Maritime Organization (2020). "High-Speed Craft (HSC)". Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  38. Talley, Wayne K. (2012-02-13). The Blackwell Companion to Maritime Economics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 173. ISBN   978-1-4443-3024-3.
  39. AUSTAL. "AUSTAL Trimaran technology" (PDF).
  40. Staff (May 27, 2015). "Allegations that Condor Liberation could capsize are 'sensationalist and factually incorrect'". Jersey Evening Post. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  42. Austal awarded $68m contract for 83 metre trimaran |

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A multihull is a ship or boat with more than one hull, whereas a vessel with a single hull is a monohull.

Sailboat Boat propelled partly or entirely by sails

A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails and is smaller than a sailing ship. Distinctions in what constitutes a sailing boat and ship vary by region and maritime culture.

Catamaran Watercraft with two parallel hulls of equal size

A catamaran is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size. It is a geometry-stabilized craft, deriving its stability from its wide beam, rather than from a ballasted keel as with a monohull boat. Catamarans typically have less hull volume, smaller displacement, and shallower draft (draught) than monohulls of comparable length. The two hulls combined also often have a smaller hydrodynamic resistance than comparable monohulls, requiring less propulsive power from either sails or motors. The catamaran's wider stance on the water can reduce both heeling and wave-induced motion, as compared with a monohull, and can give reduced wakes.

Outrigger Projecting structure on a boat

An outrigger is a projecting structure on a boat, with specific meaning depending on types of vessel. Outriggers may also refer to legs on a wheeled vehicle that are folded out when it needs stabilization, for example on a crane that lifts heavy loads.

Outrigger boat

Outrigger boats are various watercraft featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull. They can range from small dugout canoes to large plank-built vessels. Outrigger boats can also vary in their configuration, from the ancestral double-hull configuration (catamarans), to single-outrigger vessels prevalent in the Pacific Islands and Madagascar, to the double-outrigger vessels (trimarans) prevalent in Island Southeast Asia. They are traditionally fitted with Austronesian sails, like the crab claw sails and tanja sails, but in modern times are often fitted with petrol engines.

Proa Type of multihull sailboat

Proas are various types of multi-hull outrigger sailboats of the Austronesian peoples. The terms were used for native Austronesian ships in European records during the Colonial era indiscriminately, and thus can confusingly refer to the double-ended single-outrigger boats of Oceania, the double-outrigger boats of Island Southeast Asia, and sometimes ships with no outriggers or sails at all.

Waka (canoe) Māori watercraft, usually canoes

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Turtling (sailing)

In dinghy sailing, a boat is said to be turtling or to turn turtle when the boat is fully inverted with the mast pointing down to the lake bottom or seabed. The name stems from the appearance of the upside-down boat, similar to the carapace, that is the top shell of a sea turtle. The term can be applied to any vessel; turning turtle is less frequent but more dangerous on ships than on smaller boats. Relative to monohulls, it is more hazardous on multihulls, because of their inherent stability in an inverted position. Measures can be taken to prevent a capsize from becoming a turtle.

Sailing hydrofoil Sailboat with wing-like foils mounted under the hull

A sailing hydrofoil, hydrofoil sailboat, or hydrosail is a sailboat with wing-like foils mounted under the hull. As the craft increases its speed the hydrofoils lift the hull up and out of the water, greatly reducing wetted area, resulting in decreased drag and increased speed. A sailing hydrofoil can achieve speeds exceeding twice the wind speed.


Drua, also known as Na Drua, N'drua, Ndrua or Waqa Tabu, is a double-hull sailing boat that originated in the south-western Pacific islands. Druas do not tack but rather shunt. Both ends of each hull are identical, but the hulls are of different sizes and the smaller one is always sailed to windward. The main differences, compared to proas, are that the hulls have a symmetric U-form profile, and a second hull is used instead of an outrigger. When a float (cama) is used in place of the smaller hull, the craft is called a camakau.

The Fijian double canoe was the largest and finest sea-going vessel ever designed and built by natives of Oceania before contact with Europeans.

Astus 14.1 trimaran dinghy

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Traditional fishing boat

Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Even today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked (open) boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered, usually with outboard engines. The remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars.

Telstar trimarans is a line of trimarans most recently built by the Performance Cruising Inc shipyard in Annapolis, Maryland.

VPLP design is a French-based naval architectural firm founded by Marc Van Peteghem and Vincent Lauriot-Prévost, responsible for designing some of the world's most innovative racing boats. Their designs presently hold many of the World Speed Sailing records.

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F-31 Sport Cruiser Sailboat class

The F-31 Sport Cruiser is a family of American trailerable trimaran sailboats that was designed by New Zealander Ian Farrier and first built in 1991. The boats were built by Corsair Marine in the United States but are now out of production.

Polynesian multihull terminology

Polynesian multihull terminology, such as "ama", "aka" and "vaka" are multihull terms that have been widely adopted beyond the South Pacific where these terms originated. This Polynesian terminology is in common use in the Americas and the Pacific but is almost unknown in Europe, where the anglo-saxon terms "hull" and "outrigger" form normal parlance. Outriggers, catamarans, and outrigger boats are a common heritage of all Austronesian peoples and predate the Micronesian and Polynesian expansion into the Pacific. They are also the dominant forms of traditional ships in Island Southeast Asian and Malagasy Austronesian cultures, where local terms are used.


Sakman, better known in western sources as flying proas, are traditional sailing outrigger boats of the Chamorro people of the Northern Marianas. They are characterized by a single outrigger and a crab claw sail. They are the largest native sailing ships (ladjak) of the Chamorro people. Followed by the slightly smaller lelek and the medium-sized duding. They are similar to other traditional sailing ships of Micronesia, like the wa, baurua, and the walap. These ships were once used for trade and transportation between islands.