Paraw

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A paraw on a Philippine postcard (c.1940) Parao postcard from the Philippines (1940).jpg
A paraw on a Philippine postcard (c.1940)
A paraw sailing on Boracay Island Boracay Sailing Paraw.jpg
A paraw sailing on Boracay Island

Paraw (Philippine Spanish: parao) are various double outrigger sail boats in the Philippines. It is a general term (similar to the term bangka ) and thus can refer to a range of ship types, from small fishing canoes to large merchant lashed-lug plank boats ( balangay or baloto) with two outriggers (katig) propelled by sails (usually a large crab-claw sail opposite a smaller triangular foresail)

Contents

Etymology

1913 photograph of a paraw off Bacolod, Negros with traditional Austronesian crab claw sails Native Prao, off Bacolod, Negros (1913).png
1913 photograph of a paraw off Bacolod, Negros with traditional Austronesian crab claw sails

The word paraw (also spelled parao) is a cognate of the terms proa of the Pacific Islands, and perahu or prau of Malay-Indonesia. It refers to outrigger boats propelled by sails (layag). It is a type of bangka , the wider term used for boats (with or without outriggers) in the Philippines.

Characteristics

The paraw has three major elements that make it a paraw: the bangka (canoe or main hull), the katig (outriggers), and the layag (sails). Motorized versions of bangkas (with outriggers) are commonly known as pump boats and are used for inter-island travel.

Paraws can sail between 11 and 17 knots (20~31 km/h). The outriggers (ama), or katig, are made of wood or bamboo, and may be straight or curved upward much like skis.

Construction

A paraw sailboat on a beach Paraw (Philippines).jpg
A paraw sailboat on a beach

Traditionally these boats have been made from dungon, guisoc, ipil, duca, baslayan, obacya, bayog, Philippine mahogany (lawaan), basa and molave . Modern versions use plywood. The ropes of the boats are traditionally made from abaca (Manila hemp), but are now often synthetic rope.

The main hull (excluding outriggers) is called a bangka for dugout canoes or baloto (also balangay, baroto, biroko, biray, etc.) for hulls made of planks secured with lashed lugs. The boat itself may be classified by passenger capacity as isahan ('for one [person]') or duwahan ('for two [persons]'), but the paraw usually has capacity for more than two people, leading to its use in ferrying small groups of passengers and goods between islands. The narrow cross-section of the boat made it sleek, cutting across water without a lot of drag.

The two katig or outriggers usually made from bamboo or various kinds of wood and served as counterpoise so that the boat would not easily overturn. They are attached to the boat via tarik (akas). The presence of the outriggers negates the need for a heavy keel and therefore reduces the overall weight of the paraw without sacrificing stability.

The layag or main sail may be made of anything from woven mats, cloth, canvas even sack cloth. Traditionally the main sail is similar to a lateen rig or a crabclaw sail and is attached to a vertical and horizontal spar, the sail differs from a traditional lateen rig in that the vertical spar is parallel to the mast and does not suffer from bad tack. The sail's spar may be as long as the mast, unattached and may appear to be longer than the mast when attached to it. There are no guidelines as to how the main sail is shaped but it may approximate an equilateral triangle. The paraw is also equipped with a foresail or jib and adds to the overall surface area and generated thrust derived from the wind. A variation of the paraw with rectangular sails is the vinta.

The mast, commonly made of bamboo, is secured by lines attached to, among other things, the outriggers, the fore (and sometimes, the aft) and various parts of the boat. Historically, the mast of smaller paraws was a spear or bangkaw and was a useful part of the ship when conducting raids against other seaside villages.

Current uses

Balatik

The Balatik, a 74 ft (23 m) sailing paraw used by Tao Philippines in Coron, Palawan Balatik, a paraw from the Tao Expedition, Philippines.jpg
The Balatik, a 74 ft (23 m) sailing paraw used by Tao Philippines in Coron, Palawan

In November 2012, a team led by the artisan Gener Paduga, along with the Tao Philippines organization, started building a full-sized paraw sailboat in Palawan. Paduga originally envisioned the project while crewing a sailing yacht from Palawan to Africa. After having witnessed the thriving native sailing traditions in the Indian Ocean, he decided to revive the almost extinct native boat-building and sailing traditions of the Philippines. Sailing ships, which were once used throughout the islands, were in steep decline after engines became widely available in the 1970s. [1] [2]

The team consisted of several traditional boat carpenters from the islands of Cagayancillo and Romblon. The boat was constructed entirely using native techniques and also featured intricate designs by two master carvers of the native Palaw'an people. The boat was completed in March 2014 and was officially named the Balatik, after a traditional Filipino constellation (equivalent to Orion) named after a hunter's trapping device. It is 74 ft (23 m) long and 9 ft (2.7 m) at the widest point of the hull. [1] [3] [2] It has two masts with four sails and could be crewed by three or four people. The boat is currently used both for tourism and for educational and social welfare projects of the Tao Kalahi Foundation in Palawan. [4]

Paraw Regatta

The Paraw Regatta, a large tourism event, is held annually since 1973. It is a 36.5 kilometer race held in Iloilo City.

Paraw sailing Boracay Island

Before Boracay Island became a tourist resort, paraws were used for fishing and transportation of people as well as goods. Paraw sailing these days is a major tourist attraction. Local sailors offer their paraws for island hopping and sunset sailing for a fairly small rental fee.

See also

Related Research Articles

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A sail plan is a description of the specific ways that a sailing craft is rigged. Also, the term “sail plan” is a graphic depiction of the arrangement of the sails for a given sailing craft.

Lateen

A lateen or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction.

Outrigger boat

Outrigger boats are various watercraft featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull. They can range from small dugout canoes to large plank-built vessels. Outrigger boats can also vary in their configuration, from the ancestral double-hull configuration (catamarans), to single-outrigger vessels prevalent in the Pacific Islands and Madagascar, to the double-outrigger vessels (trimarans) prevalent in Island Southeast Asia. They are traditionally fitted with Austronesian sails, like the crab claw sails and tanja sails, but in modern times are often fitted with petrol engines.

Proa Type of multihull sailboat

Proas are various types of multi-hull outrigger sailboats of the Austronesian peoples. The terms were used for native Austronesian ships in European records during the Colonial era indiscriminately, and thus can confusingly refer to the double-ended single-outrigger boats of Oceania, the double-outrigger boats of Island Southeast Asia, and sometimes ships with no outriggers or sails at all.

Canoe sailing refers to the practice of fitting an Austronesian outrigger or Western canoe with sails.

Jukung

A jukung or kano, also known as cadik is a small wooden Indonesian outrigger canoe. It is a traditional fishing boat, but newer uses include "Jukung Dives", using the boat as a vehicle for small groups of SCUBA divers.

Crab claw sail Triangular sail with spars along upper and lower edges used by traditional Austronesians

The crab claw sail is a fore-and-aft triangular sail with spars along upper and lower edges. The crab claw sail was first developed by the Austronesian peoples some time around 1500 BC. It is used in many traditional Austronesian cultures in Island Southeast Asia, Micronesia, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar. Due to its extraordinary performance and ease-of-operation, it has also become very popular in modern sport sailing. It is sometimes known as the Oceanic lateen or the Oceanic sprit, even though it is not restricted to Oceania, is neither a lateen sail nor a spritsail, and has an independent older origin.

Vinta

The vinta is a traditional outrigger boat from the Philippine island of Mindanao. The boats are made by Sama-Bajau, Tausug and Yakan peoples living in the Sulu Archipelago, Zamboanga peninsula, and southern Mindanao. Vinta are characterized by their colorful rectangular lug sails (bukay) and bifurcated prows and sterns, which resemble the gaping mouth of a crocodile. Vinta are used as fishing vessels, cargo ships, and houseboats. Smaller undecorated versions of the vinta used for fishing are known as tondaan.

Arevalo, Iloilo City Iloilo City District in Western Visayas, Philippines

Villa de Arevalo, commonly known as simply Villa or Arevalo, is one of the seven districts of Iloilo City, in the province of Iloilo. It was founded as La Villa Rica de Arévalo by a group of Spanish and Mexican soldiers and their commanding officer who built his mansion along the coastal settlement in 1581. Though formally founded in the said year, Villa de Arevalo dates back its establishment in 1566 when Spanish conquerors established a settlement in the areas between it and the neighboring town of Oton.

Traditional fishing boat

Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Even today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked (open) boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered, usually with outboard engines. The remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars.

Balangay

Balangay, also spelled barangay, is a type of lashed-lug boat built by joining planks edge-to-edge using pins, dowels, and fiber lashings. They are found throughout the Philippines and were used largely as trading ships up until the colonial era. The oldest known balangay are the Butuan boats, which have been carbon-dated to 320 AD and were recovered from several sites in Butuan, Agusan del Norte.

Paraw Regatta Festival

Paraw Regatta Festival or Iloilo Paraw Regatta Festival is an annual festival held in February in the Villa de Arevalo district, Iloilo City, Philippines. Its main event is a sailboat race in Iloilo Strait that features the Paraw, a Visayan double outrigger sail boat. It is the oldest traditional craft event in Asia and the largest sailing event in the Philippines. It is one of Iloilo City's tourism events along with the Dinagyang Festival, Kasadyahan Festival, Chinese New Year festival and La Candelaria Fiesta. The Iloilo Paraw Regatta began as a half-day sailboat race but is now a multi-day, multi-event festival.

Kaep

Kaep is a traditional type of double-ended Proa sailboat native to Palau. Some of the essential design elements have also been adopted as a modern smaller multihull prototype variant.

Karakoa Type of warship from Nusantara

Karakoa were large outrigger warships from the Philippines. They were used by native Filipinos, notably the Kapampangans and the Visayans, during seasonal sea raids. Karakoa were distinct from other traditional Philippine sailing vessels in that they were equipped with platforms for transporting warriors and for fighting at sea. During peacetime, they were also used as trading ships. Large karakoa, which could carry hundreds of rowers and warriors, were known as joangas by the Spanish.

Garay (ship)

Garay were traditional native warships of the Banguingui people in the Philippines. In the 18th and 19th centuries, they were commonly used for piracy by the Banguingui and Iranun people against unarmed trading ships and raids on coastal settlements in the regions surrounding the Sulu Sea.

Lepa (ship)

Lepa, also known as lipa or lepa-lepa, are indigenous ships of the Sama-Bajau people in the Philippines and Malaysia. They were traditionally used as houseboats by the seagoing Sama Dilaut. Since most Sama have abandoned exclusive sea-living, modern lepa are instead used as fishing boats and cargo vessels.

Bangka (boat)

Bangka are various native watercraft of the Philippines. It originally referred to small double-outrigger dugout canoes used in rivers and shallow coastal waters, but since the 18th century, it has expanded to include larger lashed-lug ships, with or without outriggers. Though the term used is the same throughout the Philippines, "bangka" can refer to a very diverse range of boats specific to different regions. Bangka was also spelled as banca, panca, or panga in Spanish. It is also known archaically as sakayan.

Sakman

Sakman, better known in western sources as flying proas, are traditional sailing outrigger boats of the Chamorro people of the Northern Marianas. They are characterized by a single outrigger and a crab claw sail. They are the largest native sailing ships (ladjak) of the Chamorro people. Followed by the slightly smaller lelek and the medium-sized duding. They are similar to other traditional sailing ships of Micronesia, like the wa, baurua, and the walap. These ships were once used for trade and transportation between islands.

Bigiw

Bigiw is a small double-outrigger sailboat native to the islands of Mindanao, Visayas, and Palawan in the Philippines. It is used for personal transport or small-scale fishing and can hold one to three people. It is traditionally propelled by sails and steered with a single oar, but is commonly motorized in modern times. It can also be paddled. The sail type used is predominantly triangular crab claw sails, but it can also use spritsails or tanja sails.

Djenging

Djenging is a type of large double-outrigger plank boat built by the Sama-Bajau people of the Philippines. It is typically used as a houseboat, though it can be converted to a sailing ship. It was the original type of houseboat used by the Sama-Bajau before it was largely replaced by the lepa after World War II. Larger versions of djenging were also known as balutu or kubu, often elaborately carved with bifurcated extensions on the prow and stern.

References

  1. 1 2 "Palawan Paraw: A Blog Documenting the Construction and Voyages of a Traditional Filipino Sailboat". Wordpress. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  2. 1 2 Diamond, Isabel (23 October 2014). "Philippines: Reviving the lost art of sailing in Palawan". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  3. "Palawan by Paraw Boat". Travel+Leisure. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  4. "Palawan Paraw: Reviving a Relic of Filipino Culture" (PDF). Wordpress. Retrieved 5 December 2018.