Boat

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A recreational motorboat with an outboard motor Motorboat at Kankaria lake.JPG
A recreational motorboat with an outboard motor

A boat is a watercraft of a large range of types and sizes, but generally smaller than a ship, which is distinguished by its larger size, shape, cargo or passenger capacity, or its ability to carry boats.

Contents

Small boats are typically found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as lake freighters 1,000 feet (300 m) long on the Great Lakes are called "boats".

Boats vary in proportion and construction methods with their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation, fishing, and sport. Fishing boats vary widely in style partly to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, and sailboats. House boats may be used for vacationing or long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore. Lifeboats have rescue and safety functions.

Boats can be propelled by manpower (e.g. rowboats and paddle boats), wind (e.g. sailboats), and motor (including gasoline, diesel, and electric).

History

Silver model of a boat, tomb PG 789, Royal Cemetery of Ur, 2600-2500 BCE. Silver model of a boat, tomb PG 789, Royal Cemetery of UR, 2600-2500 BCE.jpg
Silver model of a boat, tomb PG 789, Royal Cemetery of Ur, 2600-2500 BCE.

After the Homo erectus possibly using watercrafts more than a million years ago crossing straits between landmasses, [1] [2] boats have served as transportation far into the pre-historic. [3] Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, [4] and in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, [5] suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times. The earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, [6] and the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris that was constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC. This canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. [7] [8] Other very old dugout boats have also been recovered. [9] [10] [11] Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. [12] A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed boat has been found at site H3 in Kuwait. [13] Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in Sumer, [3] ancient Egypt [14] and in the Indian Ocean. [3]

Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia. [15] Evidence of varying models of boats has also been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. [16] [17] Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India. This type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed[ when? ] solely of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels. [18]

The historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce, travel, and military purposes. [16]

Types

Boats with sails in Bangladesh saari saari paal tolaa naukaa.jpg
Boats with sails in Bangladesh

Boats can be categorized into three main types:

  1. Unpowered or human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks, gondolas and boats propelled by poles like a punt.
  2. Sailboats, propelled mainly by means of sails.
  3. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines.

Terminology

The hull is the main, and in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both capacity and buoyancy. The keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in part or whole. While a ship often has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are often lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks perhaps topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, aft, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads.

The forward end of a boat is called the bow, the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port.

Building materials

Traditional Toba Batak boat (circa 1870), photograph by Kristen Feilberg COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een Toba Batak prauw met houtsnijwerk op de voorsteven TMnr 60011149.jpg
Traditional Toba Batak boat (circa 1870), photograph by Kristen Feilberg
Fishing boats in Visakhapatnam, India Boats at Bhimili beach in Visakhapatnam.jpg
Fishing boats in Visakhapatnam, India

Until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials, primarily wood, although reed, bark and animal skins were also used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak [19] and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log.

By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment". This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy, easily repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode.[ citation needed ]

As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, and the Bessemer process (patented in 1855) cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built entirely of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats.

Mullins also offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, [20] but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity. Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight.

Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass (aka "glassfibre") became popular, especially for recreational boats. Fiberglass is also known as "GRP" (glass-reinforced plastic) in the UK, and "FRP" (for fiber-reinforced plastic) in the US. Fiberglass boats are strong, and do not rust, corrode, or rot. Instead, they are susceptible to structural degradation from sunlight and extremes in temperature over their lifespan. Fiberglass structures can be made stiffer with sandwich panels, where the fiberglass encloses a lightweight core such as balsa [21] or foam.

Cold moulding is a modern construction method, using wood as the structural component. In cold moulding very thin strips of wood are layered over a form. Each layer is coated with resin, followed by another directionally alternating layer laid on top. Subsequent layers may be stapled or otherwise mechanically fastened to the previous, or weighted or vacuum bagged to provide compression and stabilization until the resin sets.

Propulsion

The most common means of boat propulsion are as follows:

Buoyancy

A boat displaces its weight in water, regardless whether it is made of wood, steel, fiberglass, or even concrete. If weight is added to the boat, the volume of the hull drawn below the waterline will increase to keep the balance above and below the surface equal. Boats have a natural or designed level of buoyancy. Exceeding it will cause the boat first to ride lower in the water, second to take on water more readily than when properly loaded, and ultimately, if overloaded by any combination of structure, cargo, and water, sink.

As commercial vessels must be correctly loaded to be safe, and as the sea becomes less buoyant in brackish areas such as the Baltic, the Plimsoll line was introduced to prevent overloading.

European Union classification

Since 1998 all new leisure boats and barges built in Europe between 2.5m and 24m must comply with the EU's Recreational Craft Directive (RCD). The Directive establishes four categories that permit the allowable wind and wave conditions for vessels in each class: [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

Kayak Light boat that is paddled

A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is typically propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq.

Ship Large buoyant watercraft

A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, shape, load capacity, and purpse. In the Age of Sail a "ship" was a sailing vessel defined by its sail plan of at least three square rigged masts and a full bowsprit.

Sailing Propulsion of a vehicle by wind power

Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice (iceboat) or on land over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.

Yachting

Yachting is the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for racing or cruising. Yachts are distinguished from working ships mainly by their leisure purpose. "Yacht" derives from the Dutch word jacht ("hunt"). With sailboats, the activity is called sailing, and with motorboats, it is called powerboating.

Yacht Recreational boat or ship

A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenities that accommodate overnight use. To be termed a yacht, as opposed to a boat, such a pleasure vessel is likely to be at least 33 feet (10 m) in length and may have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities.

Canoe Light boat that is paddled

A canoe is a lightweight narrow water vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle.

Watercraft Vehicles that are intended for locomotion on or in the water

Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles used in and on water, including boats, ships, hovercraft, and submarines. Watercraft usually have a propulsive capability and hence are distinct from a simple device that merely floats, such as a log raft.

Dugout canoe

A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) is Greek -- mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) -- and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In German, they are called Einbaum. Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner.

Boat building Design and construction of floating vessels

Boat building is the design and construction of boats and their systems. This includes at a minimum a hull, with propulsion, mechanical, navigation, safety and other systems as a craft requires.

Outrigger Projecting structure on a boat

An outrigger is a projecting structure on a boat, with specific meaning depending on types of vessel. Outriggers may also refer to legs on a wheeled vehicle that are folded out when it needs stabilization, for example on a crane that lifts heavy loads.

Boating Leisure activity involving boats

Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels, focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. It is a popular activity, and there are millions of boaters worldwide.

Z-drive Steerable marine drive system

A Z-drive is a type of marine propulsion unit. Specifically, it is an azimuth thruster. The pod can rotate 360 degrees allowing for rapid changes in thrust direction and thus vessel direction. This eliminates the need for a conventional rudder.

Fishing vessel Boat or ship used to catch fish on a body of water

A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing.

Sailing yacht Private sailing vessel with overnight accommodations

A sailing yacht, is a leisure craft that uses sails as its primary means of propulsion. A yacht may be a sail or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies here to sailing vessels that have a cabin with amenities that accommodate overnight use. To be termed a "yacht", as opposed to a "boat", such a vessel is likely to be at least 33 feet (10 m) in length and have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities. Sailboats that do not accommodate overnight use or are smaller than 30 feet (9.1 m) are not universally called yachts. Sailing yachts in excess of 130 feet (40 m) are generally considered to be superyachts.

Ship construction techniques can be categorized as one of hide, log, sewn, lashed-plank, clinker, shell-first, and frame-first. While the frame-first technique dominates the modern ship construction industry, the ancients relied primarily on the other techniques to build their watercraft. In many cases, these techniques were very labor-intensive and/or inefficient in their use of raw materials. Regardless of differences in ship construction techniques, the vessels of the ancient world, particularly those that plied the waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the islands of Southeast Asia were seaworthy craft, capable of allowing people to engage in large-scale maritime trade.

Traditional fishing boat

Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Even today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked (open) boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered, usually with outboard engines. The remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars.

Outline of canoeing and kayaking Overview of and topical guide to canoeing and kayaking

The following outline is provided as an overview of canoeing and kayaking:

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sailing:

Bangka (boat)

Bangka are various native watercraft of the Philippines. It originally referred to small double-outrigger dugout canoes used in rivers and shallow coastal waters, but since the 18th century, it has expanded to include larger lashed-lug ships, with or without outriggers. Though the term used is the same throughout the Philippines, "bangka" can refer to a very diverse range of boats specific to different regions. Bangka was also spelled as banca, panca, or panga in Spanish. It is also known archaically as sakayan.

References

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  2. Vaucher, Jean (2012-01-08). "Prehistoric Craft". Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2021-08-18.
  3. 1 2 3 Robert A. Denemark, ed. (2000). World system history: The social science of long-term change (1 ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 208. ISBN   978-0-415-23276-0.
  4. "Plakias Survey Finds Mesolithic and Palaeolithic Artifacts on Crete". www.ascsa.edu.gr. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  5. First Mariners – Archaeology Magazine Archive. Archive.archaeology.org. Retrieved on 2013-11-16.
  6. McGrail, Sean (2001). Boats of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 11. ISBN   978-0-19-814468-7.
  7. Van der Heide, G.D. (1974). Scheepsarcheologie in Nederland[Archeology of ships in the Netherlands]. Naarden: Strengholt. p. 507.
  8. "World's oldest boat". Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  9. "Oldest Boat Unearthed". China.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2009-01-02. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
  10. McGrail, Sean (2001). Boats of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 431. ISBN   978-0-19-814468-7.
  11. "8,000-year-old dug out canoe on show in Italy". Stone Pages Archeo News. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
  12. Pohjanpalo, Jorma (1970). The sea and man. Translated by Diana Tullberg. New York: Stein and Day. p. 25. ISBN   978-0812813036 . Retrieved 2015-11-05. The oldest raft structures known are at least 8,000 years old.
  13. Lawler, Andrew (June 7, 2002). "Report of Oldest Boat Hints at Early Trade Routes". Science. 296 (5574): 1791–1792. doi:10.1126/science.296.5574.1791. PMID   12052936. S2CID   36178755 . Retrieved 2008-05-05.
  14. McGrail, Sean (2001). Boats of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN   978-0-19-814468-7.
  15. McGrail, Seán (2004). Boats of the world: From the Stone Age to medieval times (Paperback ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 251. ISBN   978-0-19-927186-3.
  16. 1 2 McGrail, Seán (2004). Boats of the world : From the Stone Age to medieval times (Paperback ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN   978-0-19-927186-3.
  17. "Beypore History – The Dhows of Beypore". historicalleys.blogspot.com. 6 February 2009.
  18. Holmes, George C (2016-03-09). Ancient and Modern Ships – Part I. Wooden Sailing-Ships. ISBN   9781473360624.
  19. Streever, Bill (2009). Cold: Adventures in the World's Frozen Places . New York: Little, Brown and Company. p.  154.
  20. WH Mullins boat history, Salem Ohio
  21. .. as in the Iroqois catamaran
  22. "The Barge Buyer's Handbook" - DBA publications ISBN   9780953281954