Patrol boat

Last updated

A patrol boat (also referred to as a patrol craft, patrol ship or patrol vessel) is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence, border protection, immigration law-enforcement, search and rescue duties. There have been many designs for patrol boats. They may be operated by a nation's navy, coast guard, police force or customs and may be intended for marine ("blue water") or estuarine ("green water") or river ("brown water") environments. They are commonly found engaged in various border protection roles, including anti-smuggling, anti-piracy, fisheries patrols, and immigration law enforcement. They are also often called upon to participate in rescue operations.

Contents

Classification

They may be broadly classified as inshore patrol vessels (IPVs) or offshore patrol vessels (OPVs). They are warships typically smaller in size than a corvette and can include fast attack craft, torpedo boats and missile boats, although some are as large as a frigate. The offshore patrol vessels are usually the smallest ship in a navy's fleet that is large and seaworthy enough to patrol off-shore in the open ocean. Smaller inshore patrol vessels also known as coastal patrol craft or coastal patrol boats. Riverine patrol craft are used for patrol river area. In larger militaries, such as in the United States military, offshore patrol vessels usually serve in the coast guard, but many smaller nations' navies operate these type of ships.

History

PCE-872, a World War II patrol craft escort of the U.S. Navy Pce-872c.jpg
PCE-872, a World War II patrol craft escort of the U.S. Navy

During both World Wars in order to rapidly build up numbers, all sides created auxiliary patrol boats by arming motorboats and seagoing fishing trawlers with machine guns and obsolescent naval weapons. Some modern patrol vessels are still based on fishing and leisure boats. Seagoing patrol boats are typically around 30 m (100 ft) in length and usually carry a single medium caliber artillery gun as main armament, and a variety of lighter secondary armament such as machine guns or a close-in weapon system. Depending on role, vessels in this class may also have more sophisticated sensors and fire control systems that would enable them to carry torpedoes, anti-ship and surface-to-air missiles. [1]

Most modern designs are powered by gas turbine arrangements such as CODAG, and speeds are generally in the 25–30 knots (46–56 km/h; 29–35 mph) range. They are primarily used for patrol in a country's exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Common tasks are fisheries inspection, anti-smuggling (usually anti-narcotics) duties, illegal immigration patrols, anti-piracy patrols and search and rescue (law enforcement-type of work). The largest OPVs might also have a flight deck and helicopter embarked. In times of crisis or war, these vessels are expected to support the larger vessels in the navy.

Their small size and relatively low cost make them one of the most common type of warship in the world. Almost all navies operate at least a few offshore patrol vessels, especially those with only "green water" capabilities. They are useful in smaller seas such as the North Sea as well as in open oceans. Similar vessels for exclusively military duties include torpedo boats and missile boats. The United States Navy operated the Pegasusclass of armed hydrofoils for years, in a patrol boat role. The River Patrol Boat (PBR, sometimes called "Riverine" and "Pibber") is a U.S. design of small patrol boat type designed to patrol waters of large rivers.

Specific nations

Albania

Iliria, an example of a modern patrol boat of the Albanian Naval Force Patrol Boat Iliria.jpg
Iliria, an example of a modern patrol boat of the Albanian Naval Force

Albanian Naval Force

Algeria

Algerian National Navy

Argentina

Argentine Naval Prefecture's GC67 patrol vessel Rio Uruguay garde cote argentin.jpg
Argentine Naval Prefecture's GC67 patrol vessel

Argentine Naval Prefecture

Argentine Navy

Australia

Royal Australian Navy

HMAS Armidale of the Royal Australian Navy HMAS Armidale Darling Harbour.jpg
HMAS Armidale of the Royal Australian Navy

Australian Border Force Marine Unit

Others

Bahamas

Royal Bahamas Defence Force

Others

Bangladesh

The Bangladesh Navy classified its medium size patrol ships as large patrol craft (LPC) which are armed with either anti-ship missiles or torpedoes. Those ships typically have heavier armaments but less range than OPVs. [2] [3]

BNS Nirmul, AShM armed Durjoy-class LPC of the Bangladesh Navy BNS Nirmul.jpg
BNS Nirmul, AShM armed Durjoy-class LPC of the Bangladesh Navy

Bangladesh Navy

Large patrol craft
Offshore patrol vessel
Inshore patrol vessel
ASW patrol boat
Patrol gunboat

Bangladesh Coast Guard

Leader-class OPVs of Bangladesh Coast Guard Coast Guard Ship (Bangladesh).jpg
Leader-class OPVs of Bangladesh Coast Guard
Offshore patrol vessel
Inshore patrol vessel
Fast patrol vessel
Coastal patrol vessel
Riverine patrol craft

Border Guard Bangladesh

Patrol vessel

Belgium

Brazil

Brunei

Bulgaria

Canada

HMCS Harry DeWolf, a Harry DeWolf-class offshore patrol vessel of the Royal Canadian Navy HMCS Harry DeWolf.jpg
HMCS Harry DeWolf, a Harry DeWolf-class offshore patrol vessel of the Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

Canadian Coast Guard

Chile

China (PRC)

People's Liberation Army Navy

China Coast Guard

Colombia

ARC Juan Ricardo Oyola Vera, a PAV-IV-class patrol boat of the Colombian National Navy ARC Juan Ricardo Oyola Vera.jpg
ARC Juan Ricardo Oyola Vera, a PAV-IV-class patrol boat of the Colombian National Navy

Colombian Navy

  • Diligente-class patrol boat
  • Nodriza-class patrol boat
  • PAF-I-class patrol boat
  • PAF-II-class patrol boat
  • PAF-III-class patrol boat
  • PAF-IV-class patrol boat
  • Patrullera Fluvial Ligera-class patrol boat
  • Riohacha-class gunboat
  • Fassmer-80 class – built in Colombia by COTECMAR

Croatia

Denmark

HDMS Storen (P555), a Flyvefisken-class patrol vessel with the Royal Danish Navy RDN P555 Storen 1.jpg
HDMS Støren (P555), a Flyvefisken-class patrol vessel with the Royal Danish Navy

Royal Danish Navy

Eritrea

Eritrean Navy

Others

Finland

Kurki (51), a Kiisla-class patrol boat with the Finnish Navy Kurki 51 patrol craft in Suomenlinna 2.JPG
Kurki (51), a Kiisla-class patrol boat with the Finnish Navy

Finnish Navy

Finnish Border Guard

France

Maritime Gendarmerie Vedette class patrol boat Patrouilleur Gendarmerie Maritime.jpg
Maritime Gendarmerie Vedette class patrol boat

French Navy

Maritime Gendarmerie

  • Trident-class patrol boat
  • Géranium-class patrol boat
  • Jonquille-class patrol boat
  • Vedette-class patrol boat
  • Pétulante-class patrol craft
  • Pavois-class patrol craft

Germany

New Bundespolizei offshore patrol vessel BP 81 Potsdam 2019-10-03 - TDE - BP 81 - Potsdam.jpg
New Bundespolizei offshore patrol vessel BP 81 Potsdam

Greece

Hellenic Navy HSY-56A gunboat HS Aittitos 20080702-Faliron-HS Aittitos P-268.jpg
Hellenic Navy HSY-56A gunboat HS Aittitos

Hellenic Navy

Hellenic Coast Guard

  • Sa'ar 4class [11] – acting as offshore patrol vessels (OPV)
  • Stan Patrol 5509 OPV
  • Vosper Europatrol 250 Mk1 OPV
  • Abeking & Rasmussen patrol vessels – class Dilos
  • POB-24G patrol vessels – class Faiakas
  • CB90-HCG
  • Lambro 57 and derivatives – all being boats for coastal patrols

Hong Kong (SARPRC)

Sea Panther (PL 3), a Sea Panther-class large command boat with the Hong Kong Police Marine Unit HKPF Police Boat 3.JPG
Sea Panther (PL 3), a Sea Panther-class large command boat with the Hong Kong Police Marine Unit

Hong Kong Police Force

Iceland

Icelandic Coast Guard

India

The Indian Coast Guard's offshore patrol vessel ICGS Samarth at sea. ICGS-Samarath.jpg
The Indian Coast Guard's offshore patrol vessel ICGS Samarth at sea.
INS Sunayna (P57) returns to Kochi post an 80 day anti piracy patrol in the Gulf of Aden INS Sunayna returns to Kochi post an 80 day anti piracy patrol in the Gulf of Aden.jpg
INS Sunayna (P57) returns to Kochi post an 80 day anti piracy patrol in the Gulf of Aden

Indian Navy

Indian Coast Guard

Indonesia

KN Tanjung Datu (1101) of the Indonesian Maritime Security Agency KN Tanjung Datu (1101), Indonesian Maritime Security Agency, 23 march 2018.jpg
KN Tanjung Datu (1101) of the Indonesian Maritime Security Agency

Ireland

Irish Naval Service Large Patrol Vessel (LPV) LE Niamh Irish patrol vessel.jpg
Irish Naval Service Large Patrol Vessel (LPV) LÉ Niamh

Irish Naval Service

List of INS vessels; [12]

Israel

Slovenian Navy HPL-21, an example of the Israeli-made Super Dvora Mk II-class patrol boat also in service with the Israeli Navy HPL-21 Ankaran.jpg
Slovenian Navy HPL-21, an example of the Israeli-made Super Dvora Mk II-classpatrol boat also in service with the Israeli Navy

Italy

Italian Navy Comandanti-class Cigala Fulgosi Cigala Fulgosi (P 490).jpg
Italian Navy Comandanti-class Cigala Fulgosi
Italian Coast Guard patrol boat U. Diciotti, CP-902 CP-902-Aug2008.jpg
Italian Coast Guard patrol boat U. Diciotti, CP-902

Japan

Shikishima (Japan Coast Guard), the largest patrol boat in the world JapanCoastGuard Shikishima.jpg
Shikishima (Japan Coast Guard), the largest patrol boat in the world
Japan Coast Guard Hida Japan Coast Guard PL51 Hida 2.jpg
Japan Coast Guard Hida

Latvia

Malaysia

Malta

Protector class patrol boat P52 of the Maritime Squadron of the Armed Forces of Malta. Malta - Gzira - Lazzaretto Creek (MSTHC) 02 ies.jpg
Protector class patrol boat P52 of the Maritime Squadron of the Armed Forces of Malta.

Mexico

ARM Oaxaca, lead boat of the Oaxaca-class. A.R.M. Oaxaca (P161).JPG
ARM Oaxaca, lead boat of the Oaxaca-class.
Durango-class offshore patrol vessels in formation. Marina Michoacan.jpg
Durango-class offshore patrol vessels in formation.

Mexican Navy

Montenegro

Kotor class frigate of the Montenegrin Navy Fregata klasa Kotor P34.jpg
Kotor class frigate of the Montenegrin Navy

Morocco

Royal Moroccan NavyOPV-70 Tonnerres de Brest 2012 - Bir Anzarane - 001.JPG
Royal Moroccan NavyOPV-70

Netherlands

New Zealand

Norway

Royal Norwegian Navy

Norwegian Coast Guard

NoCGV Tor (W334 KYSTVAKT) from Nornen Class of the Norwegian Coast Guard Kv Tor.jpg
NoCGV Tor (W334 KYSTVAKT) from Nornen Class of the Norwegian Coast Guard

Peru

Philippines

Philippine Navy

Del Pilar-class offshore patrol vessel , Philippine Navy PF-15 and SARV-002 CARAT 2013.jpg
Del Pilar-class offshore patrol vessel , Philippine Navy
Jacinto-class patrol vessel , Philippine Navy BRP Artemio Ricarte PS37.jpg
Jacinto-class patrol vessel , Philippine Navy

Philippine Coast Guard

Gabriela Silang-class offshore patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard BRP Gabriela Silang (OPV-8301).jpg
Gabriela Silang-class offshore patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
San Juan-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard BRP 002 - EDSA II.jpg
San Juan-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
Ilocos Norte-class patrol boat, Philippine Coast Guard BRP 3503 - Romblon.jpg
Ilocos Norte-class patrol boat, Philippine Coast Guard
Parola-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard BRP Tubbataha.jpg
Parola-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard

Portugal

NRP Viana do Castelo, offshore patrol vessel of the Portuguese Navy Npop360.jpg
NRP Viana do Castelo, offshore patrol vessel of the Portuguese Navy

Portuguese Navy

National Republican Guard

Qatar

Qatari Emiri Navy

Romania

Russia

Russian Coast Guard Rubin class patrol boat Zhemchug on the Almaz Shipbuilding Company Coast guard boat in SPB.jpg
Russian Coast Guard Rubin class patrol boat Zhemchug on the Almaz Shipbuilding Company

Senegal

Fouladou, OPV 190 from Senegalese navy Fouladou Senegal Patrol.jpg
Fouladou, OPV 190 from Senegalese navy

Singapore

Police Coast Guard third generation PT Class Flower Ray(PT65),conducting a sea-rescue demonstration Police Coast Guard PT.jpg
Police Coast Guard third generation PT Class Flower Ray(PT65),conducting a sea-rescue demonstration

Slovenia

South Africa

An Israeli Sa'ar 4-class missile boat, called the Warrior-class strike craft in the South African Navy US Navy 100315-N-4774B-200 The Chilean navy Sa'ar 4-class fast-attack craft Angamos and Casma perform tactical maneuvering exercises in the Strait Of Magellan.jpg
An Israeli Sa'ar 4-class missile boat, called the Warrior-class strike craft in the South African Navy

South Korea (ROK)

Spain

Meteoro (P-41) Meteoro P41.jpg
Meteoro (P-41)

Sri Lanka

Suriname

Sweden

HSwMS Stockholm (PC-11), a Stockholm-class corvette with the Royal Swedish Navy HMS Stockholm in Kalmar.JPG
HSwMS Stockholm (PC-11), a Stockholm-class corvette with the Royal Swedish Navy

Additionally, the Royal Swedish Navy also operates smaller types of patrol boats (Swedish: bevakningsbåt = "guard boat"):

The Swedish Coast Guard operate an additional 22 patrol vessels for maritime surveillance.

Thailand

Turkey

Turkish TCG Karabiga (P-1205), one of the Tuzla-class patrol boats Tuzla Sinifi Karakol Gemisi.jpg
Turkish TCG Karabiga (P-1205), one of the Tuzla-class patrol boats

Turkish Naval Forces

Coast Guard Command

  • KAAN 15 class
  • KAAN 19 class
  • KAAN 29 class
  • KAAN 33 class
  • SAR 33 class
  • SAR 35 class
  • 80 class

United Kingdom

Two River class offshore patrol vessels of the Royal Navy Korvetten River-Klasse 7951.jpg
Two River class offshore patrol vessels of the Royal Navy

United States

United States Navy

USS Firebolt (PC-10), a United States Navy Cyclone-class patrol ship USS Firebolt (PC-10) 2.jpg
USS Firebolt (PC-10), a United States Navy Cyclone-class patrol ship

United States Coast Guard

Venezuela

Naiguata during sea trials Arbv GC23.jpg
Naiguatá during sea trials

Vietnam

Related Research Articles

The United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, and United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) use a hull classification symbol to identify their ships by type and by individual ship within a type. The system is analogous to the pennant number system that the Royal Navy and other European and Commonwealth navies use.

Croatian Navy Military unit

The Croatian Navy is a branch of the Croatian Armed Forces. It was formed in 1991 from what Croatian forces managed to capture from the Yugoslav Navy during the Breakup of Yugoslavia and Croatian War of Independence. In addition to mobile coastal missile launchers, today it operates 30 vessels, divided into the Navy Flotilla for traditional naval duties, and the Croatian Coast Guard. Five missile boats form Croatian fleet's main offensive capability.

Royal Brunei Navy maritime warfare branch of Bruneis military

The Royal Brunei Navy is the naval defence force of Brunei Darussalam. It is a small but relatively well-equipped force whose main responsibility is to conduct search and rescue missions and to deter and defend the Brunei waters against attack mounted by sea-borne forces.

The Force d'action navale is the 9,600-man and about 100-ship force of surface warships of the French Navy. As of 2018, it is commanded by Vice-Amiral d’Escadre Jean-Philippe Rolland.

OTO Melara 76 mm Naval artillery piece

The OTO Melara 76 mm gun is a naval gun built and designed by the Italian defence company Oto Melara. It is based on the Oto Melara 76/62C and evolved toward 76/62 SR and 76/62 Strales.

Japan Coast Guard Coast guard of Japan

The Japan Coast Guard is the coast guard of Japan.

Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency

The Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency ; formally known as Malaysia Coast Guard for international identification, is the coast guard organisation of Malaysia, and principal government agency tasked with maintaining law and order, and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the high seas.

Protector-class offshore patrol vessel

The Protector-class offshore patrol vessel is a ship class of two offshore patrol vessel (OPVs) operated by the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) since 2010. The ships are named HMNZS Otago and HMNZS Wellington.Three similar vessels built to the same Vard 7 85M design were built by Colombo Dockyard for the Sri Lanka Coast Guard.

Police Coast Guard Maritime police agency of Singapore

The Police Coast Guard (PCG) is a division of the Singapore Police Force that combines the functions of marine police and coast guard in Singapore. Its duties include the law enforcement and search and rescue operations in collaboration with the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore and the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority. It is headquartered at Brani Regional Base on Pulau Brani.

Barbados Coast Guard Military unit

The Barbados Coast Guard is the maritime element of the Barbados Defence Force. Its responsibilities include territorial defence, patrolling Barbados' territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), as well as conducting maritime law enforcement, counter-narcotic, search and rescue, fisheries and environmental protection and the enforcement of port & harbour regulations. The Barbados Coast Guard currently is based at its headquarters at HMBS PELICAN in Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados. The base consists of a partially enclosed base for the coast guard fleet to dock. It consists of a small fleet, including its flagship HMBS TRIDENT.

Marine Unit (Australian Border Force)

The Marine Unit, formerly the Australian Customs Service National Marine Unit, is a division of the Australian Border Force which acts as a Coast Guard in guarding Australia's coast. The Marine Unit focuses on surveillance and response activities within the Australian Economic Exclusion Zone (EEZ), and the operation and training of ships and crews to do so.

Cyprus Navy maritime warfare branch of Cyprus military

The Cyprus Naval Command is the armed sea wing of the Cyprus National Guard. The Cypriot Navy has the primary mission of defending the maritime borders of the Republic of Cyprus, but is currently unable to access the waters around Northern Cyprus, which have been controlled by the Turkish Navy since the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This force does not possess any capital ships or other major warships, but is equipped with patrol boats, landing craft, surface-to-surface missile systems and integrated radar systems, as well as SEALs-type naval underwater demolitions units.

Coast Guard (Russia) Coast guard of Russia

The Coast Guard of the Border Service of the FSB, previously known as the Maritime Units of the KGB Border Troops, is the coast guard of Russia.

<i>Samarth</i>-class offshore patrol vessel Class of Indian Coast Guard patrol vessels

The Samarth-class offshore patrol vessel are a series of eleven offshore patrol vessels being built by Goa Shipyard Limited for the Indian Coast Guard. The construction of Samarth class was motivated by a desire to triple the Coast Guard assets in the aftermath of 2008 Mumbai attacks. They are an improvement over the earlier Sankalp class, with a larger beam and more powerful engines. The ships are being constructed in two batches—a batch of six ordered in May 2012 that was completed in December 2017 and a follow-on batch of five ordered in August 2016.

Maritime Squadron of the Armed Forces of Malta Military unit

The Maritime Squadron of the Armed Forces of Malta is the naval component of the Maltese military. The Maritime Squadron has responsibility for the security of Maltese territorial waters, maritime surveillance and law enforcement, as well as search and rescue. It is based at Hay Wharf in Floriana.

Coast Guard Goal 2030

Coast Guard Goal 2030 is a planned modernization program for the Bangladesh Coast Guard. The goal includes increasing manpower, purchasing more ships, hovercraft, helicopters, UAVs, maritime patrol aircraft and adding new generation surveillance technologies. The vision of the goal is for the Bangladesh Coast Guard to be a technologically advanced two-dimensional force that is capable of protecting the coastal area of Bangladesh well. Additionally, it will assist the Bangladesh Navy in case of any national emergency.

Ocea FPB 72 Fast patrol boat designed by Ocea

French shipbuilding firm Ocea has designed and sold fast patrol boat it calls the Ocea FPB 72. As of June 2018 it has delivered FPB 72 vessels to Surinam, Nigeria and the Philippines.

Musytari-class is a class of Offshore patrol vessel of Royal Malaysian Navy in service from 1980s to 2006. It was then handed over to the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency / Malaysia Coast Guard on June 2006 and known as Langkawi-class.

Aselsan SMASH Remote controlled weapon station

The SMASH is a type of remote controlled weapon station manufactured by Aselsan of Turkey. The system is fitted with 30mm Mk44 Bushmaster II auto-canon.

References

  1. "MK VI Patrol Boats, United States of America". www.naval-technology.com. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  2. "Bangladesh and Asia's Maritime Balance". Center for International Maritime Security. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  3. "Tender specifications for construction of 02 X Large Patrol Craft (LPC) in local shipyard for BN" (PDF). Directorate General of Defence Purchase. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  4. "BDR-Shahjalal – Patrol Vessel – Details and current position IMO 8106472 MMSI 0 | Vessels | VesselFinder". www.vesselfinder.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  5. "Brazil getting armored vehicles, boats". Space War. Space Media Network. UPI. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2017. The first-of-class Amazonas was constructed at BAE Systems' Portsmouth facility.
  6. "Offshore Patrol Vessels". BAE Systems. n.d. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. We are supplying three Ocean Patrol Vessels and ancillary support services to the Brazilian Navy, as well as a manufacturing licence to enable further vessels of the same class to be constructed in Brazil. P120 Amazonas, P121 Apa and P122 Araguari
  7. OOB-31 “Omiš” predan u ruke OS RH (in Croatian)
  8. "Gunboats Class Osprey 55". Hellenic Navy. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  9. "Gunboats Class Osprey HSY-55". Hellenic Navy. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  10. "Gunboats Class Asheville". Hellenic Navy. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  11. E.A. Pagotsis (2009). G. Christogiannakis (ed.). Hellenic Defence Report 2009-2010 (Yearbook of the magazine Hellenic Defence & Security). Athens: Line Defence Publications Ltd. p. 81.
  12. "Naval Service - Defence Forces". www.military.ie.