|חיל הים הישראלי|
Cadets from the Israeli Naval Academy in December 2007
|Size||3 corvettes (Sa'ar 5class)|
8 missile boats (Sa'ar 4.5class)
5 submarines (Dolphinclass)
45 patrol boats
2 support ships
|Garrison/HQ||HaKirya, Tel Aviv, Israel|
|Motto(s)||"Open Sea, Safe Coasts"|
|Engagements|| 1948 Arab–Israeli War |
War over Water
War of Attrition
Yom Kippur War
1982 Lebanon War
1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict
2006 Lebanon War
Blockade of the Gaza Strip
Operation Protective Edge
|Commander of the Navy||Aluf Eli Sharvit|
The Israeli Navy (Hebrew : חיל הים הישראלי, Ḥeil HaYam HaYisraeli (English: Sea Corps of Israel); Arabic : البحرية الإسرائيلية) is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Eilat and the Red Sea theater. The current commander in chief of the Israeli Navy is Aluf Eli Sharvit. The Israeli Navy is believed to be responsible for maintaining Israel's offshore nuclear second strike capability.
The origins of the Israeli Navy lay in the founding of the Betar Naval Academy, a Jewish naval training school established in Civitavecchia, Italy, in 1934 by the Revisionist Zionist movement under the direction of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, with the agreement of Benito Mussolini.[ citation needed ] The Academy trained cadets from all over Europe, Palestine and South Africa and produced some of the future commanders of the Israeli Navy. In September 1937, the training ship Sarah I visited Haifa and Tel Aviv as part of a Mediterranean tour.
In 1938, encouraged by the Jewish Agency, Dr. Shlomo Bardin founded the Marine High School in Bosmat, the Technion's Junior Technical College. 1943 witnessed the founding of the Palyam, the naval branch of the Palmach, whose training was undertaken at the maritime school. The Jewish merchant marine was also raised, operating SS Tel-Aviv and cargo ships such as Atid.
In 1942, eleven hundred Haganah volunteers joined the Royal Navy, mostly in technical roles (12 of them were officers by the nomination agreement of the Jewish Agency with the Royal Navy). A few reached sea service and combat service. Two of them served with the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), one of whom was Edmond Wilhelm Brillant and the other Zvi Avidror. With the end of the Second World War, Palyam members took part in clandestine immigration activities, bringing Europe's Jews to Palestine, as well as commando actions against Royal Navy deportation ships. Royal Navy volunteers, meanwhile, rejoined the Haganah.
During the last months of British Mandate in Palestine, the former Royal Navy volunteers started work on the captured clandestine immigration ships (known as the Fleet of Shadows) in Haifa harbor, salvaged a few and pressed them into service. These were to become the Navy's first ships and saw service in the 1948 Israeli War of Independence.
At the outset of the 1948 war and with the founding of the IDF, the Israeli Navy consisted of four former Aliyah Bet ships impounded in Haifa harbor. These ships were refurbished by a newly formed naval repair facility with the assistance of two private shipbuilding and repair companies. In October 1948, a submarine chaser was purchased from the United States. With the founding of the IDF in early 1948, the Israeli Navy was therefore formed from a core of the following personnel:
During the war, the warships served on coastal patrol duties and bombarded Arab targets on land, including Egyptian coastal installations in and around the Gaza area all the way to Port Said.The Israeli Navy also engaged the Egyptian Navy at sea during Operation Yoav, and the Egyptian Navy's flagship, Emir Farouk , was sunk in an operation by Israeli naval commandos.
To make matters worse, Palyam personnel often resisted efforts to instill order, discipline and rank in the newly formed service. Mess rooms were initially shared by both officers and enlisted men. Ships possessed a captain with nautical skills, but also a commanding officer regarded as political. This would cause a great deal of debate between veterans of the Palyam, Royal Navy volunteers from the Haganah and U.S. Navy Machal volunteers about what form the Navy should take.Commander Allen Burk is reputed to have said, out of despair, "You cannot make naval officers from cowboys".
Royal Navy Captain Ashe Lincoln,who was Jewish, advised Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to purchase corvettes, frigates, destroyers, torpedo boats, and patrol boats to build up the Israeli Navy power. To that end, he urged Ben-Gurion to consult with professional navy advisers. This resulted in instructions to contact U.S. Navy advisors, mainly Commander Paul Shulman from the U.S. Navy.
The Israeli Navy suffered from a lack of professional command during its early days.Gershon Zak, head of the IDF "Sea Service", was a teacher and bureaucrat without any relevant experience. Having never been recruited into the IDF, Zak was a civilian and had no official rank. The early days of the Israeli Navy were therefore characterized by political infighting, as many groups and individuals jockeyed for power. Palyam politics blocked the nomination of Paul Shulman (a Jewish U.S. Navy officer with a rank of Commander who volunteered for the Israeli Navy) as Navy-Commander in Chief and he resigned in 1949. The first Navy-Commander in Chief awarded the rank of Aluf was Shlomo Shamir.
The conclusion of the 1948 war afforded the navy the time to build up its strength. Beginning in the early 1950s the navy purchased frigates, torpedo boats, destroyers, and eventually submarines. The material build-up was accompanied by the training of Israeli Navy officers in Royal Navy academies in the UK and Malta, as well as in France.
Three distinct periods characterize the history of the Israeli Navy:
Until 1967 the Naval Headquarters were located at Stella-Marris, on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Haifa. After the Six-Day War it was relocated to the Kirya in Tel Aviv, next to IDF Headquarters.
In the most significant engagement in its history, during the Yom Kippur War five Israeli Navy missile boats sank five Syrian ships without losses during the Battle of Latakia. As a result, the Syrian Navy remained in port for the remainder of the conflict.It was the first naval battle in history between surface-to-surface missile-equipped missile boats.
Another significant engagement is the Battle of Baltim, during which six Israeli Navy missile boats engaged four Egyptian Navy missile boats sinking three, again, without losses.
Based in Haifa, Eilat, and Ashdod respectively, Squadrons 914, 915, and 916 defend Israel's shores from nearby.
The Missile Boats Flotilla, based at Haifa. It consists of the 31st, 32nd and 33rd Missile Boat Squadrons and the 34th Anti-Submarine Squadron.
The Submarine Flotilla, a volunteer unit founded in 1959.
For security reasons, applicants with dual citizenship must now officially renounce all other citizenships to be accepted into the submarine service training program.
Shayetet 13, or Flotilla 13, is an elite naval commando unit which specializes in sea-to-land incursions, counter-terrorism, sabotage operations, maritime intelligence gathering, maritime hostage rescue, and boarding. It is among the most highly trained and secretive units in the Israeli military.
Salvage and underwater works unit. Formed as the damage control branch of the Navy Shipyards, the unit later incorporated experienced Flotilla-13 divers.
Force protection and harbour security unit. Also in charge of diving checkups of civilian ships entering Israeli harbours.
The Corps' relies on its Naval Intelligence Division for naval intelligence.
"INS" stands for "Israeli Navy Ship".
|U.S. built class|
|Sa'ar 4.5||INS Romach, pronounced [ʁomaχ] (Lance) |
INS Keshet (Bow)
INS Kidon (Javelin)
INS Tarshish (Tarshish)
INS Yaffo (Jaffa)
|Dolphinclass||INS Dolphin (Dolphin) |
INS Livyathan (Whale)
INS Tekumah (Revival)
|German built submarines|
|AIP Dolphin 2 class|| INS Tanin (Crocodile) |
INS Drakon (Dragon)
|Class||Photo||Number of ships||Commissioned||Origin||Notes|
|Super Dvora Mk II||4||1996|
|Super Dvora Mk III||13||2004|
|Rafael Protector USV||2000s||Unmanned Naval Patrol Vehicles|
|Silver Marlin||2006?||USV Naval Patrol Vehicles|
Aircraft operated by the Israeli Navy, even when including on-board Navy mission specialists, are flown and maintained by Israeli Air Force personnel and are part of the air force command structure.
ThyssenKrupp will build four Sa'ar patrol vessels for EEZ duties such as protecting offshore gas fields. 90 m (295 ft) long and displace around 1,800 tonnes, named Sa'ar 6-classcorvette. This deal was signed in December 2014 and Germany is believed to be contributing up to €115m of the €1 billion cost. Previously Israel had hoped to acquire an up-armed version of the Freedomclass of littoral combat ships from Lockheed Martin, but spiralling costs had made this impossible, along with a fallback option from Northrop Grumman/Huntington Ingalls Industries which built the Sa'ar 5class.The ships will be based on the MEKO A-100 design like Germany's Braunschweig-classcorvettes, suggesting they will be
Currently under construction is a sixth Dolphin 2 submarine (INS Drakon). Additionally, Israel signed an MoU with Germany for the construction of three more Dolphin 2 submarines with expected delivery in the late 2020s which will replace its three Dolphin 1 submarines delivered in the late 1990s.
The Israeli Navy signed an agreement with Israel Shipyards for the design and supply of a new class of missile boats based on Israel Shipyards' Sa'ar 72-class corvette that will replace its Sa'ar 4.5 ships starting in the mid-2020s. Israel Shipyards will also construct a large dry dock which will enable it to outfit the new Sa'ar 6 corvettes with various Israeli-made systems, as well as service and maintain the Sa'ar 6 corvettes and Dolphin submarines.
The Israeli Navy is small compared to other Navies and the officers chain of command is as follows with respect to Royal – Navy / United States:
|OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF(D) & Student officer|
|Superior Academic Officer|
(קצין אקדמי בכיר)
|Professional Academic Officer|
(קצין מקצועי אקדמי)
|No equivalent||No insignia||No equivalent|
| Chief warrant officer |
| Command Sergeant Major |
(רב-סמל בכיר (רס"ב
| Sergeant Major |
(רב-סמל מתקדם (רס"מ
| Master Sergeant |
(רב-סמל ראשון (רס"ר
| Sergeant First Class |
| Staff Sergeant |
(סמל ראשון (סמ"ר
| Sergeant |
| Corporal |
(רב טוראי (רב"ט
| Private |
Sleeve rank of Israeli Navy Commander-in-Chief is a rank of honor. This began as special permission from Lt. General Amnon Lipkin-Shahak (then chief of staff of the IDF) and allows the Navy Commander-in-Chief to have a sleeve rank of Vice Admiral which is equal to Lt. General, the rank of the IDF Chief of Staff. However the de facto rank of Israeli Navy Commander-in-Chief is Rear Admiral and the gesture given to the navy is ceremonial only when meeting foreign commanding officers.
The same resolution as mentioned above applies to the rank of Commodore. There is ceremonial-only sleeve rank of Rear–Admiral while by the IDF hierarchy and chain of command he remains a commodore.
A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper warship. The warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was historically that of the sloop-of-war. The modern types of ship below a corvette are coastal patrol craft, missile boat and fast attack craft. In modern terms, a corvette is typically between 500 tons and 2,000 tons, although recent designs may approach 3,000 tons, which might instead be considered a small frigate.
The Dolphin class is a diesel-electric submarine developed and constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) in Kiel, Germany, for the Israeli Navy. The first boats of the class were based on the export-only German 209-class submarines, but modified and enlarged. The Dolphin 1 sub-class is slightly larger than the German Navy Type 212 in length and displacement. The three newer air-independent propulsion (AIP) equipped boats are similar to the Type 212 vessels in underwater endurance, are 12 metres (39 ft) longer, nearly 500 tonnes heavier in submerged displacement and have a larger crew than either the Type 212 or the Type 214.
Sa'ar 5 is a class of Israeli Navy small corvettes. They were Israeli designed using lessons learned from the Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boats. Three Sa'ar 5 ships were built by Huntington Ingalls Industries for the Israeli Navy, based on Israeli designs.
The Egyptian Navy, also known as the Egyptian Naval Force, is the maritime branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It is the largest navy in the Middle East and Africa, and is the sixth largest in the world measured by the number of vessels. The navy's missions include protection of more than 2,000 kilometers of coastline of the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, defense of approaches to the Suez Canal, and support for army operations. The majority of the modern Egyptian Navy was created with the help of the Soviet Union in the 1960s. The navy received ships in the 1980s from China and other, western, sources. In 1989, the Egyptian Navy had 18,000 personnel as well as 2,000 personnel in the Coast Guard.
INSHanit is a Sa'ar 5-class corvette of the Israeli Navy, built by Northrop Grumman Ship Systems in 1994. On 14 July 2006, during the 2006 Lebanon War, it suffered damage after being struck by a Hezbollah C-802 anti-ship missile.
The Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) is the naval arm of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is classed as the country's most vital defence force due to its island geography and is responsible for the maritime defense of the Sri Lankan nation and its interests. The role of the Sri Lanka Navy is to conduct operations at sea for the defence of the nation and its interests and conduct prompt and sustainable combat operations at sea in accordance with the national policies.
Zeev Almog, was the Commander In Chief (C.I.C.) of the Israeli Navy from 1979–1985. He was also General Manager of Israel Shipyards from 1986 to 1995.
HMS Zealous was a Z-class destroyer of the Royal Navy built in 1944 by Cammell Laird. She served during the Second World War, participating in operations in the North Sea and off the Norwegian coast, before taking part in some of the Arctic convoys. She spent a further ten years in Royal Navy service after the end of the war, before being sold to the Israeli Navy, which operated her as INS Eilat. She saw action during the Suez Crisis in 1956, attacking Egyptian ships and was still active by the outbreak of the Six-Day War in 1967. She was sunk several months after the conflict by missiles launched from several small Egyptian missile boats; this made her the first vessel to be sunk by a missile boat in wartime. It was an important milestone in naval surface warfare, which aroused considerable interest around the world in the development of small manoeuvrable missile boats.
Shmuel "Samek" Yanai was a former Israeli naval commander and chair of the Atlit Museum of Illegal Immigration at the Atlit detainee camp.
Palyam was the sea force of the Palmach.
The Battle of Baltim was fought between the Israeli Navy and the Egyptian Navy on October 8–9, 1973, during the Yom Kippur War. It took place off the Nile delta, between Baltim and Damietta. The battle erupted when six Israeli Sa'ar class missile boats heading toward Port Said were engaged by four Egyptian Osa class missile boats coming from Alexandria. It lasted about forty minutes. The Osas fired Styx missiles, missed, and begun withdrawing back to Alexandria when the Israelis began to give chase. Two Osas were sunk by Gabriel missiles within a span of 10 minutes, and a third was sunk twenty-five minutes later. The fourth made it back to base.
Edmond Wilhelm Brillant the Levi was a Polish-born Israeli naval architect, Hagana member, among the founding fathers of the Israeli navy and was notable for assisting the Israeli Merchant Marine in several major projects, including the nations' first passenger liner, SS Shalom through the ZIM Navigation company, now Zim Integrated Shipping Services. He dedicated his greatest efforts to building up the young states' maritime capability, both civil and military. Brillant was born in Jaroslaw Galicia, Poland, and was the youngest of the four sons of the famous pharmacist Wiktor Brillant and his wife Laura Brillant.
The Cherbourg Project was an Israeli military operation that took place on 24 December 1969 and involved the escape of five remaining armed Sa'ar 3 class boats from the French port of Cherbourg. The boats had been paid for by the Israeli government but had not been delivered due to the French arms embargo in 1969. The whole operation was planned by the Israeli Navy, and was codenamed Operation Noa, after the daughter of Captain Binyamin "Bini" Telem.
The Israeli naval campaign in Operation Yoav refers to the operations of the Israeli naval service during Operation Yoav in the final stage of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The main objective of the naval service was to disrupt the supply lines from Egypt to Palestine, completing the Egyptian expeditionary force's encirclement, and force Egypt to allocate large forces to fight against targets at sea instead of on the ground, where Operation Yoav was conducted.
Michael (Yomi) Barkai was the Commander of the Israeli Navy, a recipient of the Medal of Distinguished Service for his command of the missile ships during the Yom Kippur War.
The Pacific Fleet is the Russian Navy fleet in the Pacific Ocean.
The Israeli Naval Academy is a voluntary course, dedicated to the training, education and selection of Naval Officers, and it takes place alongside other instructional courses at the Naval Command School in the Israeli Naval Instruction Base. The Naval Academy is considered one of the most prestigious and demanding courses in the IDF – alongside the Israeli Air Force Flight Academy. On average, only one out of three cadets completes the course successfully, representing a 10% completion rate from initial selection process to graduation. The course is nearly three years long, and cadets graduate with a B.A. from Haifa University and an Officer rank of Lieutenant Junior Grade. Graduates are committed to 61 months' additional military service.
Aluf Ram Rothberg is a general in the Israel Defense Forces who was the head of the Israel Navy.
Operation Full Disclosure was a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces on March 5, 2014, in the Red Sea. After days of surveillance far out to sea, Israeli Navy Shayetet 13 commandos seized the Iranian-owned and Panamanian-registered merchant vessel Klos C that had set sail from Iran, heading for Port Sudan via Iraq. On board, the commandos found long-range missiles suspected to be destined for Gaza concealed in containers full of Iranian bags marked as Portland cement. An unnamed senior Egyptian security official reportedly confirmed that the arms shipment was headed for militants in either Gaza or Sinai. A UN panel of experts concluded that the weapons came from Iran and were being sent to Sudan, accusing Iran of violating the arms embargo. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929 authorizes states to seize items, including arms, that Iran is forbidden from exporting.
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