East Asia

Last updated
East Asia

东亚/東亞(in Chinese)
東アジア(in Japanese)
동아시아(in Korean)
Дорнод Ази/ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ(in Mongolian)
East Asia (orthographic projection).svg
States [note 1]
Dependencies
Major cities
Area
  Total11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
Population
 (2016) [note 3]
  Total1,641,908,531
  Rank 2nd (World)
Time zone
Languages and language families
  GDP (Nominal)US$20.8 trillion
(2018 est.) [1]
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese 東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet Đông Á
Chữ Hán 東亞
Korean name
Hangul 동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja 東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Зүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kana ひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai 東亞細亞/東亞
Shinjitai 東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Uyghur name
Uyghur شەرقىي ئاسىي
Russian name
Russian Восточная Азия
Romanization Vostochnaja Azija
China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam are culturally East Asian East Asian Cultural Sphere.png
China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam are culturally East Asian

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical [2] and ethno-cultural [3] terms. [4] [5] The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan. [2] [4] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] People indigenous to the region are known as East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. [14]

A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subregion.

Asia Earths largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements, as well as vast barely populated regions. Its 4.5 billion people constitute roughly 60% of the world's population.

Geography The science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places or regions that form it

Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Contents

The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. [15] [16] East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. [17] [18] [19] Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana Buddhism which came via trade routes from India. [note 4] ), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. [12] Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus. [20] [21]

Mongol Empire former country in Asia and Europe

The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries; it became the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia; eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for almost all formal writing in China until the early 20th century, and also, during various periods, in Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Among Chinese speakers, Literary Chinese has been largely replaced by written vernacular Chinese, a style of writing that is similar to modern spoken Mandarin Chinese, while speakers of non-Chinese languages have largely abandoned Literary Chinese in favor of local vernaculars.

Chinese calendar Lunisolar calendar from China

The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017.

East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

East Asian people is a racial classification specifier used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan. The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean and Yamato. Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang and Mongols.

Beijing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.

Hong Kong Chinese special administrative region

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world.

History

Like the Ancient Greeks and Romans and their profound influence on Europe and the Western World, China already possessed an advanced civilization nearly 1500+ years before its neighbors (c. 2000 BC) and through various Chinese dynasties has exerted cultural, economic, technological, political, and military influence across East Asia up to the present. [22] [23] [24] [25] [25] [26] For many centuries, especially between the 7-14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period. [27]

Western world Countries that identify themselves with an originally European shared culture

The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and states, depending on the context, most often including at least parts of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. The Western world is also known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world. It is often correlated with the Northern half of the North-south divide.

China became the first literate nation in East Asia and has also provided Japan, Vietnam, and Korea with many loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems (see Chinese characters). [28] From around 200 BC to 200 AD, the Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. [29] And China has always been the most populous epicenter in East Asia as well.

Chinese characters logographic writing system used in the Sinosphere region

Chinese characters are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages. They remain a key component of the Japanese writing system where they are known as kanji. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, and historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts.

Han dynasty 3rd-century BC to 3rd-century AD Chinese dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).

China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions. [30]

Han conquest of Gojoseon

The Han conquest of Gojoseon was a campaign launched by Emperor Wu of Han China against Wiman Joseon between 109 and 108 BC. It resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and the establishment of the Four Commanderies of Han in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula.

Lelang Commandery commandery of China

Lelang Commandery was a commandery of the Han Dynasty established after conquering Wiman Joseon in 108 BC and lasted until Goguryeo conquered it in 313. The Lelang Commandery extend the rule of the Four Commanderies of Han as far south as the Han River (Korea), which largely follows along the boundary between modern day North and South Korea. South Korean scholars have described its administrative areas as being limited to the Pyongan and Hwanghae regions, whose southern bounds lie roughly 75 miles North of the Han River.

Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea.

Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.

Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the temporary loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature.

As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established (Korea by 4th century AD and Japan by the 7th century AD), Korea, Japan, and Vietnam actively began to incorporate Chinese cultural and religious influences such as the Chinese language, Classical Chinese in administration, written Han characters, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism (introduced from India via China), Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies like legalism, music, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties. [31] (See East Asian cultural sphere.)

The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. [32] [33] [24] [22]

The end of the 19th century to present.

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry forced Japan to open up. [34] [35] After the 1860s, Japan modernized rapidly with the Meiji Restoration, transforming itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation. [36] [11] [35] [36]

By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. Japan defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War, thereafter annexing Korea and Taiwan from China. [36]

In 1905 Japan also vanquished its imperial rival Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one and shocked the West. [37] [34]

In prelude to WW2, Japan launched an invasion of mainland China in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It annexed Manchuria and absorbed more and more of the eastern coast, committing atrocities like Unit 731 and Nanjing Massacre along the way.

Japan's ultimate imperial dream was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia under its hegemonic control, establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia. [38]

After nearly a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, the US nuked Japan twice, leading to Allied victory in WW2 and the defeat and occupation of Japan.

The US and the Soviet Union also took control of Japan's former colony, Korea and divided their own respective ideologies, resulting in the division of Korea.

During the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China and later fled to Taiwan.

In his 2009 book When China Rules the World , Martin Jacques says that Japan is currently a vassal state of the US, since Japan has no right to wage war and relies on the US military. He also refers to South Korea and Taiwan as vassals of the US. [39]

During the latter half of the twentieth century, Japan has experienced a post war economic miracle. South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan have emerged as Tiger economies. China opened up, entered the World Trade Organization, rose to the 2nd largest economy in the world (1st by PPP), and is starting to reclaim its historical status as a regional and world superpower. [6] [40]

Although there were no wars in the region for decades, the stability of the region remains fragile because of North Korea's nuclear program.

Definitions

China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as the core encompassed by the East Asian cultural sphere (as opposed to neighboring nations also within East Asia). [3] [41] [42] [43] Sometimes Mongolia is added to this core as well. [44] [45] [46] [47] [48]

CJKV share a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China. [49] [50] [50] [51] [52] Other usages cite geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China. [52] [53] [54] [4] [55] [56] Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence, though some classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country. [4] [57] Mongolia is geographically north of China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture currently have less of an impact in Mongolia's historically nomadic society (however Mongolia was controlled by China during the Han, Tang, and Qing dynasties). Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. [4] [57]

Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia. [58] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal. [59] The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation". [60]

East Asia map of Koppen climate classification. East Asia map of Koppen climate classification.svg
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic considerations "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics"
North Asia
Central Asia
Western Asia
South Asia
East Asia
Southeast Asia Location-Asia-UNsubregions.png
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic considerations "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics"
  East Asia

The UNSD division of East Asia is "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics", [63] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. [2] [64]

Alternative definitions

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia". [69] [70] [71]

Economy

Customs territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017) [72]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2017) [72]
GDP PPP
billions of USD (2017) [72]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2017) [72]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 12,014.6108,643.10723,159.10716,660.269
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong [73] 341.65946,109.124454.91261,393.316
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau [74] 49.80277,451.28771.778111,629.024
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,872.13538,439.5175,428.81342,831.523
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 11.1353,639.89439.70412,978.557
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea N/AN/AN/AN/A
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1,538.03029,891.2552,029.03239,433.779
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan [note 5] 579.30224,576.6651,185.48050,293.541

Territorial and regional data

Etymology

FlagCommon NameOfficial NameISO 3166 Country Codes [75]
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym ISO Short NameAlpha-2 CodeAlpha-3 CodeNumeric
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 中国 People's Republic of China中华人民共和国ChinaCNCHN156
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區Hong KongHKHKG344
Flag of Macau.svg Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區MacaoMOMAC446
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 日本 State of Japan日本国JapanJPJPN392
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Монгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
MongoliaМонгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
MongoliaMGMNG496
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea 조선 Democratic People's Republic of Korea조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of)KPPRK408
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea대한민국 (大韓民國)Korea (the Republic of)KRKOR410
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan [76] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China中華民國Taiwan (Province of China) [77] TWTWN158

Demographics

State/Territory Area km2 Population [78]
(2016)
Population density
per km2
HDI [79] Capital/Administrative Center
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 9,640,011 [note 6] 1,403,500,365 [note 7] 1380.752 Beijing
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 1,1047,302,8436,3900.933 Hong Kong
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 30612,16718,6620.909 Macao
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 377,930127,748,5133370.909 Tokyo
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 1,564,1003,027,39820.741 Ulaanbaatar
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 120,53825,368,6201980.733 Pyongyang [80]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 100,21050,791,9195000.903 Seoul
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 36,18823,556,7066390.907 Taipei [81]

Ethnic groups

EthnicityNative namePopulationLanguage(s)Writing system(s)Major states/territories*Physical appearance
Han/Chinese 漢族 or 汉族1,260,000,000 [82] Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc. Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Hanfuk-1.jpg
Yamato/Japanese 大和民族125,117,000 [83] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg
Kimono lady at Gion, Kyoto.jpg
Joseon/Korean 조선족 (朝鮮族)
한민족 (韓民族)
79,432,225[ citation needed ] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja) Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg
KOCIS Korea Hanbok-AoDai FashionShow 43 (9766406474).jpg
Bai 白族1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Bai 5.JPG
Hui 回族10,586,087[ citation needed ] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc.Simplified Han characters [note 8] Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
HuiChineseMuslim3.jpg
Mongols 蒙古族/Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Монгол/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Hamtdaa Mongolian Arts Culture Masks - 0064 (5568565844).jpg
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh18,000,000 Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Zhuang's beautiful maiden in Chongzuo Fusui.jpg
Uyghurs 维吾尔族/ئۇيغۇر15,000,000+ [84] Uighur Arabic alphabet, Cyrillic script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg [note 9]
Uyghur-elders-sunday-market-Kashgar.jpg
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ10,422,873[ citation needed ] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc.Simplified Han characters, Mongol script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Manchu bride. John Thomson. China, 1871-1872. The Wellcome Collection, London.jpg
Hmong/Miao 苗族/Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb9,426,007[ citation needed ]Hmong, Southwestern MandarinLatin script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Gui Zhou Qian Dong Nan Miao Zu Nu Xing (a Miao woman in Qiandongnan,Guizhou).jpg
Tibetans 藏族/བོད་པ་6,500,000Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
People of Tibet46.jpg
Yi 彝族/ꆈꌠ8,714,393Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Ethnic Yi China Costume.jpg
Tujia 土家族8,353,912Northern Tujia, Southern TujiaSimplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Tujia women.jpg
Kam 侗族/Gaeml2,879,974GaemlSimplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Ethic Dong Liping Guizhou China.jpg
Tu 土族/Monguor289,565 Tu, Northwestern MandarinSimplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Nadun Picture 1.jpg
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ131,992 Daur, Northeastern MandarinMongol script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Daur woman smiling.jpg
Taiwanese Aborigines 阿美族/Pangcah, etc.533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc.Latin script, Traditional Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Tao1.jpg
Ryukyuan 琉球民族(沖縄人)1,900,000 Japanese
Ryukyuan
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg ( Flag of Okinawa Prefecture.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Five men wearing Ryukyuan Dress.JPG
Ainu アイヌ200,000 Japanese
Ainu [85]
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg
AinuSan.jpg

Culture

Overview

The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. [86] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea. [87] [25] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [52] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. [94] [95] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. [33] [95] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World. [91] [89] [95] [87]

Religions

ReligionNative nameDenominationMajor bookTypeEst. FollowersEthnic groupsStates/territories
Chinese religion none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc.Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc.Pantheism/polytheism~900,000,000 [96] [97] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Taoism 道教Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism~20,000,000 [97] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
East Asian Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God~300,000,000Han, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God~10,000,000Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Shamanism [note 10] 萨满教 or Бөө мөргөлN/AN/APolytheism/pantheismN/AManchus, Mongols, Oroqen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Shintoism 神道 Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheismN/AYamato Flag of Japan.svg
Sindo/Muism 신도 or 무교Sindo sectsN/APolytheism/pantheismN/AKorean Flag of South Korea.svg
Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰N/AN/APolytheism/pantheismN/ARyukyuan Flag of Japan.svg ( Flag of Okinawa Prefecture.svg )

Festivals

FestivalNative NameOther nameCalendarDate Gregorian dateActivityReligious practicesFoodMajor ethnicitiesMajor states/territories
Chinese New Year 春節 or 春节Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 121 Jan–20 FebFamily Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksWorship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Manchus etc. Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Korean New Year 설날 or Seollal Korean Month 1 Day 121 Jan–20 FebAncestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb SweepingN/A Tteokguk Korean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сарWhite Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 125 Jan – 2 MarFamily Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksN/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc. Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
New Year 元旦Yuan DanGregorian1 Jan1 JanFireworksN/AN/AN/A Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节Upper Yuan Festival (上元节)ChineseMonth 1 Day 154 Feb – 6 MarLanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Sky-officerYuanxiaoHan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Daeboreum 대보름 or 정월 대보름Great Full Moon Korean Month 1 Day 154 Feb – 6 MarGreeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom)Bonfires (daljip taeugi) Ogok-bap, namul, nutsKorean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Qingming Festival / Hanshi Festival 清明節 or 清明节 / 寒食節 or 寒食节Tomb Sweeping Day / Cold Food FestivalSolar15th day since March equinox / Day 105 after Winter solstice 4–6 AprilAncestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBurning Hell money(Only Qingming Festival)Cold FoodHan, Korean, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 or 단오Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal) Chinese / Korean Month 5 Day 5Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum)Worship various Gods Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs)Han, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 or 백중Mid Yuan FestivalChineseMonth 7 Day 15Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Earth-officerHan, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节中秋祭ChineseMonth 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon viewWorship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Chuseok 추석 or 한가위Hangawi Korean Month 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon viewN/A Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup)Korean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Double Ninth Festival重陽節 or 重阳节Double Positive FestivalChineseMonth 9 Day 09Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.Worship various GodsHan, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Lower Yuan Festival下元節 or 下元节N/AChineseMonth 10 Day 15Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Water-officerCibaHan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Dongzhi Festival冬至 or 동지N/AGregorianBetween Dec 21 and Dec 23Between Dec 21 and Dec 23Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spiritsN/A Tangyuan, Patjuk Han, Korean Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Small New Year小年Jizao (祭灶)ChineseMonth 12 Day 23Cleaning HousesWorship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
International Labor DayN/AN/AGregorian1 May1 MayN/AN/AN/AN/A Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
International Women's DayN/AN/AGregorian8 Mar8 MarTaking care of womenN/AN/AN/AAll

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

Collaboration

East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games, it is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

It is one of five Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), the South Asian Games and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements

Name of agreementPartiesLeaders at the timeNegotiation beginsSigning dateStarting timeCurrent status
China–South Korea FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012Jun 01, 2015Dec 30, 2015Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013N/AN/A10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj -Feb 10, 2015-Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/AN/AN/AOfficially proposed
China-HK CEPA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa -Jun 29, 2003-Enforced
China-Macau CEPA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Macau.svg Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah -Oct 18, 2003-Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015N/AN/ANegotiating
ECFA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010Jun 29, 2010Aug 17, 2010Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011Jun 21, 2013N/AAbolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011N/AN/ASuspended

Military alliances

NameAbbr.Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Russia.svg
General Security of Military Information AgreementGSOMIA Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan - Flag of the United States.svg ( Flag of Guam.svg Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg ) Flag of Japan.svg
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea - Flag of the United States.svg ( Flag of Guam.svg Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg ) Flag of South Korea.svg
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980)TRA (SAMDT) Flag of the United States.svg ( Flag of Guam.svg Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO)- Flag of NATO.svg Flag of the United States.svg ( Flag of Guam.svg Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg ) Flag of Australia (converted).svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg [98]

Cities and towns

See also

Notes

  1. A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. The population on the Taiwan Island and the Penghu Islands is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but the political status is dispute.
  2. The area figure is based on the combined areas of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan as listed at List of countries and dependencies by area.
  3. The population figure is the combined populations of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects.
  4. includes Tibetan Buddhism traditionally prevailing in Tibetan and Mongolian areas
  5. Listed as "Taiwan Province of China" by the IMF
  6. Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
  7. A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China."
  8. The Hui people also use the Arabic alphabet in the religious field.
  9. The Khotons also in Flag of Mongolia.svg .
  10. almost Manchu, Mongolian

Related Research Articles

Far East geographical term

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia, the Russian Far East, and Southeast Asia. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 12th century, denoting the Far East as the "farthest" of the three "easts", beyond the Near East and the Middle East. Likewise, in Qing Dynasty of the 19th and early 20th centuries the term "Tàixī (泰西)" – i.e. anything further west than the Arab world – was used to refer to the Western countries.

Geography of China Geography of the country of China

China has great physical diversity. The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertile lowlands and foothills. They are the location of most of China's agricultural output and human population. The southern areas of the country consist of hilly and mountainous terrain. The west and north of the country are dominated by sunken basins, rolling plateaus, and towering massifs. It contains part of the highest tableland on earth, the Tibetan Plateau, and has much lower agricultural potential and population.

Southeast Asia Subregion of Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

  1. Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and West Malaysia.
  2. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
History of East Asia history of nations of eastern Asia

The History of East Asia encompasses the histories of China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan from prehistoric times to the present.

Mainland Southeast Asia The continental portion of Southeast Asia

Mainland Southeast Asia is the continental portion of Southeast Asia. It lies east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. It includes the countries of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, peninsular Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

China proper Geopolitical term

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many administrative, cultural, and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the Central Plain ; another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty. There is no direct translation for "China proper" in the Chinese language due to differences in terminology used by the Qing to refer to the regions and the expression is controversial among scholars, particularly in China, due to national territorial claims.

Asian values was a political ideology of the 1990s, which defined elements of society, culture and history common to the nations of Southeast and East Asia. It aimed to use commonalities – for example, the principle of collectivism – to unify people for their economic and social good and to create a pan-Asian identity. This contrasted with perceived European ideals of the universal rights of man. The concept was advocated by Mahathir Mohamad and by Lee Kuan Yew, as well as other Asian leaders. The popularity of the concept waned after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, when it became evident that Asia lacked any coherent regional institutional mechanism to deal with the crisis.

Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation, is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, politics, economics, lifestyle, law, norms, mores, customs, traditions, values, mentality, perceptions, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, and philosophy. During colonialism it often involved spread of Christianity.

Northeast Asia Subregion of Asia

Northeast Asia, North-East Asia or Northeastern Asia is a term to refer to a geographical subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It includes the core countries of the ethno-cultural East Asia.

Economy of Asia Asias economic regions include East Asia,  South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East

The economy of Asia comprises more than 4.5 billion people living in 49 different nations. Six further states lie partly in Asia, but are considered to belong to another region economically and politically. Asia is the fastest growing economic region, as well as the largest continental economy by both GDP Nominal and PPP in the world. China, Japan, India, South Korea and Indonesia are currently the top five economies in Asia. Moreover, Asia is the site of some of the world's longest modern economic booms, starting from the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, economic boom (1978–2013) in China and economic boom in India (1991–present).

Asia-Pacific part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean; typically includes East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania

Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean. The Asia-Pacific varies in area depending on which context, but it typically includes much of East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania.

Culture of Asia

The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory. Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated. However, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like religion, language and relative ethnic homogeneity. These regions are Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and West Asia.

East Asian cultural sphere Grouping of countries and regions that were historically influenced by the culture of China

The East Asian cultural sphere, or the Sinosphere, consists of nations in East and Southeast Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture, including literary traditions and religions. Other names for the concept include the Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, and the ancient Chinese cultural sphere, though the last name is also used to refer particularly to the Sinophone community.

Tiger Cub Economies

Tiger Cub Economies collectively refer to the economies of the developing countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the five dominant countries in Southeast Asia.

Economy of East Asia Regional economy

The Economy of East Asia comprises more than 1.6 billion people living in 6 different countries and regions. It is home to one of the most economically dynamic places in the world. The region is the site to some of the world's longest modern economic booms, starting from the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, the Taiwan miracle in Taiwan (1960–1996) and the economic boom (1978–2015) in Mainland China. The region is home of some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Japan, South Korea, Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. As East Asia's economic prominence has grown, so has its importance and influence in the world economy. It has emerged as an increasingly prominent region in the Asian continent and in the global economy and international politics as a whole. East Asia now boasts an expanding cosmopolitan middle class, where its members are linked to the global communications grid that are identifying with its Western counterparts across the world making it a significant force to be reckoned with in the global economy. The region's economic success has led to it being dubbed "An East Asian Renaissance" by the World Bank in 2007.

Eastern world Countries and cultures east of Europe

Eastern world is an umbrella term for various cultures or social structures, nations and philosophical systems, which vary depending on the context. It most often includes at least part of Asia or, geographically, the countries and cultures east of Europe, the Mediterranean region and Arab world, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism. Africa may rarely be included. It is often seen as a counterpart to the Western world, and correlates strongly to the Southern half of the North-South divide.

Ethnic groups in Asia Modern ethnolinguistic groups in the continent of Asia

The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centers - greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.

Japanese colonial empire

The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895. Victories over China and Russia expanded the Japanese sphere of influence, notably in Taiwan and Korea, and southern Sakhalin became a colony of Japan as the Karafuto Prefecture in 1905.

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