East Asia

Last updated
East Asia
East Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Area11,840,000 km2 (4,570,000 sq mi) (3rd)
Population1.6 billion (2020; 4th)
Population density141.9/km2 (54.8/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)$37 trillion (2021) [1]
GDP  (nominal)$25.6 trillion (2021) [2]
GDP per capita$16,000 (nominal) [2]
Demonym East Asian
Countries
Dependencies
Languages Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Tibetan, Others
Time zones UTC+7, UTC+8 & UTC+9
Largest cities List of urban areas: [7]
UN M49 code 030 – Eastern Asia
142Asia
001World
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese 東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Korean name
Hangul 동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja 東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Зүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kana ひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai 東亞細亞/東亞
Shinjitai 東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Uyghur name
Uyghur شەرقىي ئاسىي

East Asia, sometimes defined geographically as Northeast Asia [8] and abbreviated as EA or NEA, is along with Southeast Asia located at the far eastern regions of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. [9] [10]

Contents

The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. [3] [4] [5] [6] China, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan are all unrecognized by at least one other East Asian state due to severe ongoing political tensions in the region, specifically the division of Korea and the political status of Taiwan. Hong Kong and Macau, two small coastal quasi-dependent territories located in the south of China, are officially highly autonomous but are under de jure Chinese sovereignty. East Asia borders Siberia and the Russian Far East to the north, Southeast Asia to the south, South Asia to the southwest, and Central Asia to the west. To the east is the Pacific Ocean and to the southeast is Micronesia (a Pacific Ocean island group, classified as part of Oceania).

East Asia, especially Chinese civilization, is regarded as one of the earliest cradles of civilization. Other ancient civilizations in East Asia that still exist as independent countries in the present day include the Japanese, Korean and Mongolian civilizations. Various other civilizations existed in East Asia in the past but have since been absorbed into neighbouring civilizations in the present day, such as Tibet, Baiyue, Manchuria and Ryukyu, among many others. Taiwan has a relatively young history in the region after the prehistoric era; originally, it was a major site of Austronesian civilization prior to colonization by European colonial powers and China from the 17th century onward. For thousands of years, China was the leading civilization in the region, exerting influence on its neighbors. [11] [12] [13] Historically, societies in East Asia have fallen within the Chinese sphere of influence, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar serves as the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana [14] ), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, and Sindoism in Korea. [15] [16] [17] Tengerism and Tibetan Buddhism are prevalent among Mongols and Tibetans while other religions such as Shamanism are widespread among the indigenous populations of northeastern China such as the Manchus. [18] [19] [20] Major languages in East Asia include Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Major ethnic groups of East Asia include the Han (mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan), Yamato (Japan) and Koreans (North Korea, South Korea). Mongols, although not as populous as the previous three ethnic groups, constitute the majority of Mongolia's population. There are 76 officially-recognized minority or indigenous ethnic groups in East Asia; 55 native to mainland China (including Hui, Manchus, Chinese Mongols, Tibetans, Uyghurs and Zhuang in the frontier regions), 16 native to the island of Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), one native to the major Japanese island of Hokkaido (the Ainu) and four native to Mongolia (Turkic peoples). Ryukyuan people are an unrecognised ethnic group indigenous to the Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan, which stretch from Kyushu Island (Japan) to Taiwan. There are also several unrecognised indigenous ethnic groups in mainland China and Taiwan.

East Asian people comprise around 1.7 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 20.5% of the global population. [21] [22] [23] The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).[ when? ][ citation needed ]

East Asia has some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. [24]

History

China was the first region settled in East Asia and was undoubtedly the core of East Asian civilization from where other parts of East Asia were formed. [25] The various other regions in East Asia were selective in the Chinese influences they adopted into their local customs. Historian Ping-ti Ho famously labeled Chinese civilization as the "Cradle of Eastern Civilization", in parallel with the "Cradle of Western Civilization" along the Fertile Crescent encompassing Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. [26]

Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic, technological, and political muscle onto its neighbors. [27] [28] [29] [30] Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically, politically and militarily for over two millennia. [30] [31] [32] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. [33] [34] [29] Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it also supplied Japan and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems. [35]

Under Emperor Wu of Han, the Han dynasty made China the regional power in East Asia, projecting much of its imperial power on its neighbors. [30] [36] Han China hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most economically developed, as well as the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region at the time. [37] [38] Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions. [39] Jomon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Starting from the fourth century AD, Japan incorporated the Chinese writing system which evolved into Kanji by the fifth century AD and has become a significant part of the Japanese writing system. [40] Utilizing the Chinese writing system allowed the Japanese to conduct their daily activities, maintain historical records and give form to various ideas, thoughts, and philosophies. [41] During the Tang dynasty, China exerted its greatest influence on East Asia as various aspects of Chinese culture spread to Japan and Korea. [42] [43] As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Japan and Korea actively began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, religion, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with Tang China and succeeding Chinese dynasties. [42] [43] [44] Drawing inspiration from the Tang political system, Prince Naka no oe launched the Taika Reform in 645 AD where he radically transformed Japan's political bureaucracy into a more centralized bureaucratic empire. [45] The Japanese also adopted Mahayana Buddhism, Chinese style architecture, and the imperial court's rituals and ceremonies, including the orchestral music and state dances had Tang influences. Written Chinese gained prestige and aspects of Tang culture such as poetry, calligraphy, and landscape painting became widespread. [45] During the Nara period, Japan began to aggressively import Chinese culture and styles of government which included Confucian protocol that served as a foundation for Japanese culture as well as political and social philosophy. [46] [47] The Japanese also created laws adopted from the Chinese legal system that was used to govern in addition to the kimono, which was inspired from the Chinese robe (hanfu) during the eighth century AD. [48] For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization and foremost military and economic power exerting its influence as the transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly shaped the region up until the nineteenth century. [49] [50] [51] [52]

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late nineteenth century, China's power began to decline. [27] [53] By the mid-nineteenth century, the weakening Qing dynasty became fraught with political corruption, obstacles and stagnation that was incapable of rejuvenating itself as a world power in contrast to the industrializing Imperial European colonial powers and a rapidly modernizing Japan. [54] [55] The U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry would open Japan to Western ways, and the country would expand in earnest after the 1860s. [56] [57] [58] Around the same time, Japan with its rush to modernity transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation in the modern era. [59] [60] [57] The modern and militarily powerful Japan would galvanize its position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised to advance to lead the entire world. [59] [61] By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's most dominant power. [61] With its newly found international status, Japan would begin to challenge the European colonial powers and inextricably took on a more active geopolitical position in East Asia and world affairs at large. [62] Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan soundly defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War as well as vanquishing imperial rival Russia in 1905; the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one. [63] [64] [65] [66] [56] Its hegemony was the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan and Korea. [59] During World War II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia under its control establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia. [67] After a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, post-colonial East Asia saw the defeat and occupation of Japan by the victorious Allies as well as the division of China and Korea during the Cold War. The Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China after the latter lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the region would see the post war economic miracle of Japan, which ushered in three decades of unprecedented growth, only to experience an economic slowdown during the 1990s, but nonetheless Japan continues to remain a global economic power. East Asia would also see the economic rise of South Korea and Taiwan, and the integration of Mainland China into the global economy through its entry in the World Trade Organization while enhancing its emerging international status as a potential world power. [3] [68] [69] Although there have been no wars in East Asia for decades, the stability of the region remains fragile because of North Korea's nuclear program.

Definitions

Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region that overlap with conceptions of East Asia Central Asia borders4.png
Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region that overlap with conceptions of East Asia

In common usage, the term "East Asia" typically refers to a region including Greater China, Japan, and Korea. [70] [71] [72] [73] [21] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [69]

China, Japan, and Korea represent the three core countries and civilizations of traditional East Asia - as they once shared a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China. [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] Other usages define Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan as countries that constitute East Asia based on their geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China. [79] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater Chinese sphere of influence. Though Confucianism continues to play an important role in Vietnamese culture, Chinese characters are no longer used in its written language and many scholarly organizations classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country. [88] [89] [90] Mongolia is geographically north of Mainland China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture had limited impact on Mongolian society. Thus, Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. [88] [89] Xinjiang (East Turkestan) and Tibet are sometimes seen as part of Central Asia. [91] [92] [93]

Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. Mainland China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia. [94] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal. [95] The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation". [96]

The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region. Map of East Asia.png
The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.
East Asia map of Koppen climate classification. East Asia map of Koppen climate classification.svg
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
North Asia
Central Asia
Western Asia
South Asia
East Asia
Southeast Asia Location-Asia-UNsubregions.png
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:
  East Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience, [97] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan. [9] [98]

Alternative definitions

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to the geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.[ citation needed ]

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries as well as the island of Taiwan. This usage is often seen in economic and diplomatic discussions. [99] [100] [101] The Council on Foreign Relations of the United States defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea. [95]

Economy

Customs territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2021) [1]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2021) [1]
GDP PPP
billions of USD (2021) [1]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2021) [1]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 16,642.31811,81926,656.76617,205.654
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong [102] 368.63349,036472.39558,165.200
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau [103] 39.44958,00461.62358,930.534
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 5,378.13642,9285,585.78641,636.628
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 14.2334,17242.41212,259.059
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea N/AN/AN/AN/A
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1,806.70734,8662,436.87544,292.194
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan [lower-alpha 1] 759.10432,1231,403.66354,019.882
East Asia$25,008.58$14,858$36,659.52$21,779.585

Territorial and regional data

Etymology

FlagCommon NameOfficial NameISO 3166 Country Codes [104]
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym ISO Short NameAlpha-2 CodeAlpha-3 CodeNumeric
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 中国 People's Republic of China中华人民共和国ChinaCNCHN156
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區Hong KongHKHKG344
Flag of Macau.svg Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區MacaoMOMAC446
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 日本 Japan日本国JapanJPJPN392
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Монгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
MongoliaМонгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
MongoliaMNMNG496
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea 조선 Democratic People's Republic of Korea조선민주주의인민공화국Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of)KPPRK408
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea대한민국Korea (the Republic of)KRKOR410
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan [105] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China中華民國Taiwan [106] TWTWN158

Demographics

State/Territory Area km2 Population [107] [108]
(2018)
Population density
per km2
HDI [109] Capital/Administrative Center
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 9,640,011 [lower-alpha 2] 1,427,647,786 [lower-alpha 3] 1380.761 Beijing
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 1,1047,371,7306,3900.949 Hong Kong
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 30631,63618,6620.914 Macao
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 377,930127,202,1923370.919 Tokyo
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 1,564,1003,170,21620.737 Ulaanbaatar
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 120,53825,549,6041980.733 Pyongyang [110]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 100,21051,171,7065000.916 Seoul
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 36,1976390.916 Taipei [111]
East Asia11,840,0001,683,205,624141Increase2.svg0.856 (very high)

Ethnic groups

EthnicityNative namePopulationLanguage(s)Writing system(s)Major states/territories*Traditional attire
Han/Chinese 漢族 or 汉族1,313,345,856 [112] Chinese (Mandarin, Min, Wu, Yue, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Xiang, Huizhou, Pinghua, etc.) Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Hanfu man and lady.jpg
Yamato/Japanese 大和民族125,117,000 [113] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg
Shinto married couple.jpg
Korean 조선족 (朝鮮族)
한민족 (韓民族)
79,432,225[ citation needed ] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja) Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg
Hanbok (female and male).jpg
Bai 白族1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Bai 5.JPG
Hui 回族10,586,087[ citation needed ] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc.Simplified Han characters [lower-alpha 4] Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
HuiChineseMuslim3.jpg
Mongols Монголчуудᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Монгол/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Russia.svg
Mongolian Musician.jpg
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh18,000,000 Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Zhuang's beautiful maiden in Chongzuo Fusui.jpg
Uyghurs 维吾尔族/ئۇيغۇر15,000,000+ [114] Uyghur Arabic alphabet, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg [lower-alpha 5]
Uyghur-elders-sunday-market-Kashgar.jpg
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ10,422,873[ citation needed ] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchu language Simplified Han characters, Mongol script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Aksan.jpg
Hmong/Miao 苗族/Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb9,426,007[ citation needed ] Hmong/Miao, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Gui Zhou Qian Dong Nan Miao Zu Nu Xing (a Miao woman in Qiandongnan,Guizhou).jpg
Tibetans 藏族/བོད་པ་6,500,000Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
People of Tibet46.jpg
Yi 彝族/ꆈꌠ8,714,393Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Ethnic Yi China Costume.jpg
Tujia 土家族8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern TujiaSimplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Tujia women.jpg
Kam 侗族/Gaeml2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Ethic Dong Liping Guizhou China.jpg
Tu 土族/Monguor289,565 Tu, Northwestern MandarinSimplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Nadun Picture 1.jpg
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ131,992 Daur, Northeastern MandarinMongol script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Daur woman smiling.jpg
Indigenous Taiwanese Peoples 臺灣原住民/ 高山族/ Yincomin/ Kasetaivang/ Inanuwayan533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc.Latin script, Traditional Han characters Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Tao1.jpg
Ryukyuan 琉球民族1,900,000 Japanese
Ryukyuan
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Five men wearing Ryukyuan Dress.JPG
Ainu アイヌ/ Aynu/ Айну200,000 Japanese
Ainu [115]
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg
AinuSan.jpg

East Asian culture

Overview

The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. [116] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea. [117] [30] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [83] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. [124] [125] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. [34] [125] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World. [121] [119] [125] [117]

Religions

ReligionNative nameCreator/Current LeaderFounded TimeMain DenominationMajor bookTypeEst. FollowersEthnic groupsStates/territories
Chinese folk religion 中國民間信仰 or 中国民间信仰Spontaneous formation5000 years from now[ citation needed ] Salvationist, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc.Prehistoric,pantheism,and polytheism~900,000,000 [126] [127] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Taoism 道教 Zhang Daoling, was considered the founder of Taoism by Taoists. He founded Zhengyi, the earlist denomination of Taoism. Zhang Daoling reformed the Chinese folk religion from Szechuan, into a real, organised, and regulated religion, in 125A.D.. Wang Chongyang founded the Quanzhen Denomination. Tale says Wang Chongyang met two Gods, Lü Dongbin and Han Zhongli, during Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in 1159. He then get started to study Taoism himself. Three years later, he finished his studying, and founded Quanzhen. The new leader of Zhengyi need to be the son or paternal nephew of the previous leader, confirmed by the court of Zhengyi, in Mount Longhu, Jiangxi. Also beginning from the Song Dynasty, the leaders of Zhengyi get started to be confirmed and titled by the Emperor of China. In 1949, the 63th leader, Zhang Enfu, fled to Taiwan with Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang, died in 1969 in Taipei. The Kuomintang Authority titled his cousin Zhang Yuanxian as the 64th leader, while the Court of Zhengyi back in Jiangxi argued that the oracle already foreseen the leadership will end at the 63th generation. Zhang Yuanxian died in 2008, only left a daughter as heir. Meanwhile, the Kuomintang Authority didn't confirmed the next leader. On the other hand, in Mainland China, Zhang Enfu's second daughter's son, Lu Jintao, changes his surname to Zhang, and get in charge of the Court of Zhengyi currently. For the leader of Quanzhen, the last (18th) leader (1335-1362) was Wanyan Deming, titled by the Emperor of Yuan Dynasty. Wanyan Deming was a Jurchen Taoist, the Wanyan family was the imperial house of Jin Dynasty. There is no official leader of Quanzhen after Wanyan Deming anymore.[ citation needed ]125 A.D. Eastern Han dynasty [ citation needed ] Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism, polytheism~20,000,000 [127] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
East Asian Buddhism/Chinese Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教The Emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu Zhuang, made a dream about the Buddha occasionally, then sent people to the Western Regions to Introduce Buddhism to the Capital, Chang'an, in 67 A.D. In 384 A.D., during the Eastern Jin dynasty, Indian Mālānanda introduced the Chinese Buddhism to Baekje. In 552 A.D., King Seong of Baekje offered Buddhism to the Emperor Kinmei of Japan.[ citation needed ]67 A.D. Eastern Han dynasty Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God, Dualism.~300,000,000Han, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Japan.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Tibetan Buddhism 藏传佛教/བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche, Prince of the Ancient Xang Xung Kingdom.1800 years agoMahayana, Bon Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God~10,000,000Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Shamanism [lower-alpha 6] 萨满教 or Бөө мөргөлSpontaneous formationPrehistoric periodN/APrehistoric, polytheism, and pantheismN/AManchus, Mongols, Oroqen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Shintoism 神道Spontaneous formation Jōmon period Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Prehistoric,pantheism,and polytheismN/AYamato Flag of Japan.svg
Shindo/Muism 신도 or 무교Spontaneous formation900 years agoShindo sectsN/APrehistoric,pantheism,and polytheismN/AKorean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰Spontaneous formationN/AN/AN/APrehistoric,pantheism,and polytheismN/ARyukyuan Flag of Japan.svg ( Flag of Okinawa Prefecture.svg )

Festivals

FestivalNative NameOther nameCalendarDate Gregorian dateActivityReligious practicesFoodMajor ethnicitiesMajor states/territories
Lunar New Year 農曆新年/农历新年 or 春節/春节Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 121 Jan–20 FebFamily Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksWorship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Manchus etc. Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Korean New Year 설날 or Seollal Korean Month 1 Day 121 Jan–20 FebAncestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb SweepingN/A Tteokguk Korean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Losar or Tsagaan Sar 藏历新年/ལོ་གསར་ or 查干萨日/Цагаан сарWhite Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 125 Jan – 2 MarFamily Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksN/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc. Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
New Year 元旦Yuan DanGregorian1 Jan1 JanFireworksN/AN/AN/A Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节Upper Yuan Festival (上元节)ChineseMonth 1 Day 154 Feb – 6 MarLanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Sky-officerYuanxiaoHan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Daeboreum 대보름 or 정월 대보름Great Full Moon Korean Month 1 Day 154 Feb – 6 MarGreeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom)Bonfires (daljip taeugi) Ogok-bap, namul, nutsKorean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Hanshi Festival 寒食節 or 寒食节Cold Food Festival Solar term Traditionally, on the 105th day after the Winter solstice. Revised to 1 day before the Qingming Festival by Johann Adam Schall von Bell (Chinese: 汤若望) during the Qing dynasty.April 3–5Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, No cooking hot meal/setting fire, Cold food only. Cuju, etc. (People used to mix this one with the Qingming Festival due to their close dates)In Memory of a loyal Ancient named Jie Zhitui (Chinese: 介子推), ordered by the Monarch of the Jin (Chinese state), Duke Wen of Jin (Chinese: 重耳)Cold Food, e.g. Qingtuan Han, Korean, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Qingming Festival 清明節 or 清明节Tomb Sweeping Day Solar term 15th day after the Vernal Equinox. Just 1 day after the Hanshi Festival, but in much higher repute.April 4-6thAncestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Excursion, Planting trees, Flying kites, Tug of war, Cuju, etc. (Almost the same with the Hanshi Festival's, due to their close dates)Burning Hell money for deceased family members. Planting willow brances to keep ghosts away from houses.Boiled eggsHan, Korean, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 or 단오Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal) Chinese / Korean Month 5 Day 5Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum)Worship various Gods Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs)Han, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 or 백중Mid Yuan FestivalChineseMonth 7 Day 15Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Earth-officerHan, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节中秋祭ChineseMonth 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon viewWorship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Chuseok 추석 or 한가위Hangawi Korean Month 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon viewN/A Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup)Korean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Double Ninth Festival重陽節 or 重阳节Double Positive FestivalChineseMonth 9 Day 09Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.Worship various GodsHan, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Lower Yuan Festival下元節 or 下元节N/AChineseMonth 10 Day 15Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Water-officerCibaHan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Dongzhi Festival冬至 or 동지N/AGregorianBetween Dec 21 and Dec 23Between Dec 21 and Dec 23Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spiritsN/A Tangyuan, Patjuk Han, Korean Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Small New Year小年Jizao (祭灶)ChineseMonth 12 Day 23Cleaning HousesWorship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.
*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

Collaboration

East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games, it is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

It is one of five Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), the South Asian Games and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements

Name of agreementPartiesLeaders at the timeNegotiation beginsSigning dateStarting timeCurrent status
China–South Korea FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012Jun 01, 2015Dec 30, 2015Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013N/AN/A10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj -Feb 10, 2015-Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/AN/AN/AOfficially proposed
China-HK CEPA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa -Jun 29, 2003-Enforced
China-Macau CEPA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Macau.svg Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah -Oct 18, 2003-Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015N/AN/ANegotiating
ECFA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010Jun 29, 2010Aug 17, 2010Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011Jun 21, 2013N/AAbolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011N/AN/ASuspended

Military alliances

NameAbbr.Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of Russia.svg
General Security of Military Information AgreementGSOMIA Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan - Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea - Flag of the United States.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980)TRA (SAMDT) Flag of the United States.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO)- Flag of NATO.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg [128]

Major cities

See also

Notes

  1. listed as "Taiwan Province of China" by the IMF
  2. Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
  3. A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China."
  4. The Hui people also use the Arabic alphabet in the religious field.
  5. The Khotons also in Flag of Mongolia.svg .
  6. almost Manchu, Mongolian

Related Research Articles

History of China Account of past events in the Chinese civilisation

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Book of Documents, the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals mention and describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.

History of Asia Overview of human history on the continent

The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe. See History of the Middle East and Outline of South Asian history for further details.

History of East Asia History of nations of eastern Asia

The History of East Asia generally encompasses the histories of China, Japan and Korea from prehistoric times to the present. East Asia is not a uniform term and each of its countries has a different national history, but scholars maintain that the region is also characterized by a distinct pattern of historical development. This is evident in the interrelationship among East Asian countries, which not only involve the sum total of historical patterns but also a specific set of patterns that has affected all or most of East Asia in successive layers.

China proper Geopolitical term

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu-led Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many administrative, cultural, and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the Central Plain ; another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty. There is no direct translation for "China proper" in the Chinese language due to differences in terminology used by the Qing to refer to the regions and the expression is controversial among scholars, particularly in China, due to national territorial claims.

Han Chinese Ethnic group native to China

The Han Chinese, Hanzu or Han people, are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to Greater China. Historically, they were native to the Yellow River Basin region of modern China. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population and consisting of various subgroups speaking distinctive varieties of the Chinese language. The estimated 1.4 billion Han Chinese people are mostly concentrated in the People's Republic of China, where they make up about 92% of the total population. In the Republic of China (Taiwan), they make up about 97% of the population. People of Han Chinese descent also make up around 75% of the total population of Singapore.

Tribute Wealth given by one party to another to show respect, allegiance, or submission

A tribute is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. Various ancient states exacted tribute from the rulers of land which the state conquered or otherwise threatened to conquer. In case of alliances, lesser parties may pay tribute to more powerful parties as a sign of allegiance and often in order to finance projects that would benefit both parties. To be called "tribute" a recognition by the payer of political submission to the payee is normally required; the large sums, essentially protection money, paid by the later Roman and Byzantine Empires to barbarian peoples to prevent them attacking imperial territory, would not usually be termed "tribute" as the Empire accepted no inferior political position. Payments by a superior political entity to an inferior one, made for various purposes, are described by terms including "subsidy".

Names of China

The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhōngguó in its official language. China, the name in English for the country, was derived from Portuguese in the 16th century, and became popular in the mid 19th century. It is believed to be a borrowing from Middle Persian, and some have traced it further back to Sanskrit. It is also thought that the ultimate source of the name China is the Chinese word "Qin", the name of the dynasty that unified China but also existed as a state for many centuries prior. There are, however, other alternative suggestions for the origin of the word.

Sinocentrism refers to the ideology that China is the cultural, political or economic center of the world.

Three Kingdoms of Korea Period of Korean history from 57 BCE to 668 CE

The Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla. Goguryeo was later known as Goryeo, from which the modern name Korea is derived. The Three Kingdoms period is defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD.

<i>Pax Sinica</i> Periods of regional peace maintained by Chinese hegemony

Pax Sinica is a historiographical term referring to periods of peace in East Asia, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia led by China. A study on the China-centric world system says the multiple periods of Pax Sinica, when taken together, amounted to a length of approximately two thousand years.

Culture of Asia Overview of the culture of Asia

The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory. Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated. However, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like culture, religion, language and relative ethnic (racial) homogeneity. These regions are Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and West Asia.

Mandopop refers to Mandarin popular music. The genre has its origin in the jazz-influenced popular music of 1930s Shanghai known as Shidaiqu; with later influences coming from Japanese enka, Hong Kong's Cantopop, Taiwan's Hokkien pop, and in particular the Campus Song folk movement of the 1970s. 'Mandopop' may be used as a general term to describe popular songs performed in Mandarin. Though Mandopop predates Cantopop, the English term was coined around 1980 after "Cantopop" became a popular term for describing popular songs in Cantonese. "Mandopop" was used to describe Mandarin-language popular songs of that time, some of which were versions of Cantopop songs sung by the same singers with different lyrics to suit the different rhyme and tonal patterns of Mandarin.

East Asian cultural sphere Grouping of countries and regions that were historically influenced by the culture of China

The East Asian cultural sphere, otherwise known as the Sinosphere, the Sinic world, the Sinitic world, or the Chinese cultural sphere, encompasses countries within the regions of East and Southeast Asia that were historically heavily influenced by Chinese culture. Some definitions may also include other territories as well, such as Mongolia, having received less influence from China.

De-Sinicization refers to a process of eliminating or reducing Chinese cultural elements, identity, or consciousness from a society or nation. In modern contexts, it is often used in tandem with decolonization and contrasted to the assimilation process of Sinicization.

Economy of East Asia Overview of the economy of East Asia

The economy of East Asia comprises 1.6 billion people living in different countries and regions. It is home to some of the most economically dynamic places in the world, being the site of some of the world's longest modern economic booms, including the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, the Taiwan miracle in Taiwan (1960–1996) and the current economic boom (1978–) in mainland China. The region includes several of the world's largest and most prosperous economies. Such policies are collectively known as the East Asian model, whereby it involves the economies of Japan and the Four Asian Tigers of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Macau is also sometimes included.

Ethnic groups in Asia Modern ethnolinguistic groups in the continent of Asia

The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centres - greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.

East–West dichotomy Perceived social and cultural differences between the Eastern and Western worlds

In sociology, the East–West dichotomy is the perceived difference between the Eastern and the Western worlds. Cultural and religious rather than geographical in division, the boundaries of East and West are not fixed, but vary according to the criteria adopted by individuals using the term.

Japanese colonial empire Japanese empire of 1895–1945

The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895. Victories over China and Russia expanded the Japanese sphere of influence, notably in Taiwan and Korea, and southern Sakhalin became a colony of Japan as the Karafuto Prefecture in 1905. At its apex, the Japanese colonial empire was one of the largest empires in history. Including the home islands, the total amount of land under Japanese sovereignty reached 8,510,000 km2 (3,300,000 sq mi) in 1942. By 1943, it accounted for more than 20% of the world's population at the time with 463 million people in its occupied regions and territories.

East Asian people People of East Asia

East Asian people are the people from East Asia, which consists of China, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea. The total population of all countries within this region is estimated to be 1.677 billion and 21% of the world's population in 2020. However, large East Asian diasporas, such as the Chinese diaspora, Japanese diaspora, Korean diaspora and Mongol diaspora, as well as diasporas of other East Asian ethnic groups, mean that the 1.677 billion does not necessarily represent an accurate figure for the numbers of East Asian people worldwide.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.
  2. 1 2 "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 Kort, Michael (2005). The Handbook Of East Asia. Lerner Publishing Group. p.  7. ISBN   978-0761326724.
  4. 1 2 "East Asia". rand.org. RAND Corporation . Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  5. 1 2 "Tasks of German foreign policy-East Asia" (PDF). auswaertiges-amt.de. German Federal Foreign Office. May 2002. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  6. 1 2 "Countries of Asia". nationsonline.org. Nations Online. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  7. "Demographia.com" (PDF).
  8. "Northeast Asia". un.org. United Nations.
  9. 1 2 "East Asia". Encarta . Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.
  10. Miller, David Y. (2007). Modern East Asia: An Introductory History. Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiv. ISBN   978-0765618221.
  11. Zaharna, R.S.; Arsenault, Amelia; Fisher, Ali (2013). Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift (1st ed.). Routledge (published 2013-05-01). p. 93. ISBN   978-0415636070.
  12. Holcombe, Charles (2017). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN   978-1107544895.
  13. Szonyi, Michael (2017). A Companion to Chinese History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 90. ISBN   978-1118624609.
  14. Selin, Helaine (2010). Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. p. 350. ISBN   978-9048162710.
  15. Salkind, Neil J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology . Sage Publications. p.  56. ISBN   978-1412916882.
  16. Kim, Chongho (2003). Korean Shamanism: The Cultural Paradox. Ashgate. ISBN   9780754631859.
  17. Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
  18. Heissig, Walther (2000). The Religions of Mongolia. Translated by Samuel, Geoffrey. Kegan Paul International. p. 46. ISBN   9780710306852.
  19. Elliott (2001), p. 235.
  20. Shirokogorov (1929), p. 204.
  21. 1 2 Spinosa, Ludovico (2007). Wastewater Sludge. Iwa Publishing. p. 57. ISBN   978-1843391425.
  22. Wang, Yuchen; Lu Dongsheng; Chung Yeun-Jun; Xu Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas. 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC   5889524 . PMID   29636655.
  23. Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas (published April 6, 2018). 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC   5889524 . PMID   29636655.
  24. "East Asia in the 21st Century | Boundless World History". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  25. Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012-11-20). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. ISBN   978-1-4772-6517-8.
  26. Holcombe, Charles (2017-01-11). A History of East Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-107-11873-7.
  27. 1 2 Ball, Desmond (2005). The Transformation of Security in the Asia/Pacific Region. Routledge. p. 104. ISBN   978-0714646619.
  28. Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 119.
  29. 1 2 Amy Chua; Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC. p. 121. ISBN   978-1594205460.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN   978-0231153195.
  31. Goucher, Candice; Walton, Linda (2012). World History: Journeys from Past to Present. Routledge (published September 11, 2012). p. 232. ISBN   978-0415670029.
  32. Smolnikov, Sergey (2018). Great Power Conduct and Credibility in World Politics. ISBN   9783319718859.
  33. Lone, Stewart (2007). Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Asia: From the Taiping Rebellion to the Vietnam War . Greenwood. p.  3. ISBN   978-0313336843.
  34. 1 2 Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. ISBN   0231101082
  35. Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN   978-0521296533.
  36. Cohen, Warren (2000). East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World . Columbia University Press. p.  60. ISBN   978-0231101080.
  37. Chua, Amy (2009). Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance--and Why They Fall. Anchor. p. 62. ISBN   978-1400077410.
  38. Leibo, Steve (2012). East and Southeast Asia 2012. Stryker Post. p.  19. ISBN   978-1610488853.
  39. Tsai, Henry (2009-02-15). Maritime Taiwan: Historical Encounters with the East and the West. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN   978-0765623287.
  40. Kshetry, Gopal (2008). Foreigners in Japan: A Historical Perspective. Xlibris Corp. p. 30. ISBN   978-1425770495.
  41. Kshetry, Gopal (2008). Foreigners in Japan: A Historical Perspective. Xlibris Corp. p. 31. ISBN   978-1425770495.
  42. 1 2 Lockard, Craig (1999). "Tang Civilization and the Chinese Centuries" (PDF). Encarta Historical Essays: 2–3.
  43. 1 2 Lockard, Craig (1999). "Tang Civilization and the Chinese Centuries" (PDF). Encarta Historical Essays: 7.
  44. Fagan, Brian M. (1999). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN   978-0195076189.
  45. 1 2 Lockard, Craig (1999). "Tang Civilization and the Chinese Centuries" (PDF). Encarta Historical Essays: 8.
  46. Lockard, Craig A. (2009). Societies Networks And Transitions: Volume B From 600 To 1750. Wadsworth. pp. 290–291. ISBN   978-1-4390-8540-0.
  47. Embree, Ainslie; Gluck, Carol (1997). Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching . M.E. Sharpe. p.  352. ISBN   9781563242656. Japan culture tang dynasty.
  48. Kshetry, Gopal (2008). Foreigners in Japan: A Historical Perspective. Xlibris Corp. p. 32. ISBN   978-1425770495.
  49. Brown, John (2006). China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs. Createspace Independent. p. 33. ISBN   978-1419648939.
  50. Lind, Jennifer (February 13, 2018). "Life in China's Asia: What Regional Hegemony Would Look Like". Foreign Affairs.
  51. Lockard, Craig (1999). "Tang Civilization and the Chinese Centuries" (PDF). Encarta Historical Essays.
  52. Ellington, Lucien (2009). Japan (Nations in Focus). p. 21.
  53. John M. Roberts (1997). A Short History of the World . Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN   0-19-511504-X.
  54. Hayes, Louis D (2009). Political Systems of East Asia: China, Korea, and Japan. Greenlight. pp. xi. ISBN   978-0765617866.
  55. Hayes, Louis D (2009). Political Systems of East Asia: China, Korea, and Japan. Greenlight. p. 15. ISBN   978-0765617866.
  56. 1 2 Tindall, George Brown; Shi, David E. (2009). America: A Narrative History (1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 926. ISBN   978-0393934083.
  57. 1 2 April, K.; Shockley, M. (2007). Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World . Palgrave Macmillan (published February 6, 2007). pp.  163. ISBN   978-0230001336.
  58. Cohen, Warren (2000). East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World . Columbia University Press. p.  286. ISBN   978-0231101080.
  59. 1 2 3 Batty, David (2005-01-17). Japan's War in Colour (documentary). TWI.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  60. Asian History Module Learning. Rex Bookstore Inc. 2002. p. 186. ISBN   978-9712331244.
  61. 1 2 Goldman, Merie; Gordon, Andrew (2000). Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World. Harvard University Press (published August 15, 2000). p. 3. ISBN   978-0674000971.
  62. Cohen, Warren (2000). East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World . Columbia University Press. p.  273. ISBN   978-0231101080.
  63. Shiping, Hua; Hu, Amelia (2014). East Asian Development Model: Twenty-first century perspectives (1st ed.). Routledge (published 2014-12-09). pp. 78–79. ISBN   978-0415737272.
  64. Lee, Yong Wook; Key, Young Son (2014). China's Rise and Regional Integration in East Asia: Hegemony or community? (1st ed.). Routledge (published March 14, 2014). p. 45. ISBN   978-0313350825.
  65. "Sino-Japanese War (1894–95)". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  66. "The Japanese Economy". Walk Japan. 2010-12-16.
  67. Tindall, George Brown; Shi, David E. (2009). America: A Narrative History (1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 1147. ISBN   978-0393934083.
  68. Northrup, Cynthia Clark; Bentley, Jerry H.; Eckes Jr., Alfred E. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present. Routledge. p.  297. ISBN   978-0765680587.
  69. 1 2 Paul, Erik (2012). Neoliberal Australia and US Imperialism in East Asia. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 114. ISBN   978-1137272775.
  70. "Introducing East Asian Peoples" (PDF). International Mission Board. September 10, 2016.
  71. Gilbet Rozman (2004), Northeast Asia's stunted regionalism: bilateral distrust in the shadow of globalization. Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-4
  72. "Northeast Asia dominates patent filing growth." Retrieved on August 8, 2001.
  73. "Paper: Economic Integration in Northeast Asia." Retrieved on August 8, 2011.
  74. Kim, Johnny S. (2013). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Multicultural Approach. Sage Publications. p. 55. ISBN   978-1452256672.
  75. Shiping, Hua; Hu, Amelia (2014). East Asian Development Model: Twenty-first century perspectives (1st ed.). Routledge (published 2014-12-09). p. 3. ISBN   978-0415737272.
  76. Ness, Immanuel; Bellwood, Peter (2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell (published 2014-11-10). p. 217. ISBN   978-1118970591.
  77. Kort, Michael (2003). The Handbook Of East Asia. 21st Century. p.  7–9. ISBN   978-0761326724.
  78. Spinosa, Ludovico (2007). Wastewater Sludge. Iwa Publishing. p. 57. ISBN   978-1843391425.
  79. 1 2 Prescott, Anne (2015). East Asia in the World: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN   978-0765643223.
  80. Ikeo, Aiko (1996). Economic Development in Twentieth-Century East Asia: The International Context . Routledge. p.  1. ISBN   978-0415149006.
  81. Yoshimatsu, H. (2014). Comparing Institution-Building in East Asia: Power Politics, Governance, and Critical Junctures. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 1. ISBN   978-1137370549.
  82. Kim, Mikyoung (2015). Routledge Handbook of Memory and Reconciliation in East Asia. Routledge. ISBN   978-0415835138.
  83. 1 2 3 Hazen, Dan; Spohrer, James H. (2005). Building Area Studies Collections. Otto Harrassowitz (published 2005-12-31). p. 130. ISBN   978-3447055123.
  84. Grabowski, Richard; Self, Sharmistha; Shields, William (2012). Economic Development: A Regional, Institutional, and Historical Approach (2nd ed.). Routledge (published September 25, 2012). p. 59. ISBN   978-0765633538.
  85. Ng, Arden (4 February 2019). "East Asia is the World's Largest Economy at $29.6 Trillion USD, Including 4 of the Top 25 Countries Globally". Blueback.
  86. Currie, Lorenzo (2013). Through the Eyes of the Pack. Xlibris Corp. p. 163. ISBN   978-1493145171.
  87. Asato, Noriko (2013). Handbook for Asian Studies Specialists: A Guide to Research Materials and Collection Building Tools. Libraries Unlimited. p. 1. ISBN   978-1598848427.
  88. 1 2 Prescott, Anne (2015). East Asia in the World: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN   978-0765643223.
  89. 1 2 Miller, David Y. (2007). Modern East Asia: An Introductory History. Routledge. p. xi. ISBN   978-0765618221.
  90. "Central Themes for a Unit on China | Central Themes and Key Points | Asia for Educators | Columbia University". afe.easia.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2018-12-01. "Within the Pacific region, China is potentially a major economic and political force. Its relations with Japan, Korea, and its Southeast Asian neighbors, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines, will be determined by how they perceive this power will be used."
  91. Cummings, Sally N. (2013). Understanding Central Asia: Politics and Contested Transformations. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-134-43319-3.
  92. Saez, Lawrence (2012). The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): An emerging collaboration architecture. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-136-67108-1.
  93. Cornell, Svante E. Modernization and Regional Cooperation in Central Asia: A New Spring? (PDF). Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and the Silk Road Studies.
  94. Aminian, Nathalie; Fung, K.C.; Ng, Francis. "Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements" (PDF). Policy Research Working Paper. World Bank.
  95. 1 2 "Northeast Asia." Council on Foreign Relations . Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  96. Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (1999). Japan and Russia in Northeast Asia: Partners in the 21st Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 248.
  97. 1 2 "United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". United Nations Statistics Division. 2015-05-06. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
  98. "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  99. Christopher M. Dent (2008). East Asian regionalism . London: Routledge. pp.  1–8.
  100. Charles Harvie, Fukunari Kimura, and Hyun-Hoon Lee (2005), New East Asian regionalism. Cheltenham and Northamton: Edward Elgar, pp. 3–6.
  101. Peter J. Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi (2006), Beyond Japan: the dynamics of East Asian regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 1–33
  102. Listed as "Hong Kong SAR" by IMF
  103. Listed as "Macao SAR" by IMF
  104. "Country codes". iso.org.
  105. From 1949 to 1971, the ROC was referred as "China" or "Nationalist China".
  106. "Country codes". iso.org.
  107. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  108. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  109. "| Human Development Reports". www.hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
  110. Seoul was the de jure capital of the DPRK from 1948 to 1972.
  111. Taipei is the ROC's seat of government by regulation. Constitutionally, there is no official capital appointed for the ROC.
  112. CIA Factbook
  113. 人口推計 – 平成 28年 12月 報 (PDF).
  114. "新疆维吾尔自治区统计局". www.xjtj.gov.cn.
  115. Gordon, Raymond G. Jr., ed. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas: SIL International. ISBN   978-1-55671-159-6. OCLC   224749653.
  116. Lim, SK (2011-11-01). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 56. ISBN   978-9812295941.
  117. 1 2 Goscha, Christopher (2016). The Penguin History of Modern Vietnam: A History. Allen Lane. ISBN   978-1846143106.
  118. Amy Chua; Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC. p. 122. ISBN   978-1594205460.
  119. 1 2 Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 2.
  120. Lewis, Mark Edward (2012). China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty. Belknap Press (published April 9, 2012). p. 156. ISBN   978-0674064010.
  121. 1 2 Reischauer, Edwin O. (1974). "The Sinic World in Perspective". Foreign Affairs. 52 (2): 341–348. doi:10.2307/20038053. JSTOR   20038053.
  122. Lim, SK (2011-11-01). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 89. ISBN   978-9812295941.
  123. Richter, Frank-Jurgen (2002). Redesigning Asian Business: In the Aftermath of Crisis. Quorum Books. p. 15. ISBN   978-1567205251.
  124. Vohra 1999 , p. 22
  125. 1 2 3 Amy Chua; Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC. pp. 121–122. ISBN   978-1594205460.
  126. Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina (2012). "People's Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011" (PDF). Religions & Christianity in Today's China. II (3): 29–54. ISSN   2192-9289. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2017.
  127. 1 2 Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina (2017). "Statistics on Religions and Churches in the People's Republic of China – Update for the Year 2016" (PDF). Religions & Christianity in Today's China. VII (2): 26–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2017.
  128. Shirley Kan (December 2009). Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990. DIANE Publishing. p. 52. ISBN   978-1-4379-2041-3.
  129. United Nations (March 12, 2017). "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations.
  130. 통계표명 : 주민등록 인구통계 (in Korean). Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2015.

Further reading