East Asia

Last updated
East Asia
East Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Area11,840,000 km2 (4,570,000 sq mi) (3rd)
Population1.6 billion (2020; 4th)
Population density141.9 km2 (54.8 sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)$40 trillion (2022) [1]
GDP  (nominal)$28 trillion (2022) [2]
GDP per capita$17,500 (nominal) [2]
Demonym East Asian
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zones UTC+7, UTC+8 & UTC+9
Largest cities List of urban areas: [7]
UN M49 code 030 – Eastern Asia
142Asia
001World
ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢشەرقىي ئاسىي
   North Asia
   Central Asia
   Western Asia
   South Asia
  East Asia
   Southeast Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience, [110] but others commonly use the same definition of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan. [8] [111]

Certain Japanese islands are associated with Oceania due to non-continental geology, distance from mainland Asia or biogeographical similarities with Micronesia. [112] [113] [114] Some groups, such as the World Health Organization, categorize China, Japan and Korea with Australia and the rest of Oceania. The World Health Organization label this region the "Western Pacific", with East Asia not being used in their concept of major world regions. Their definition of this region further includes Mongolia and the adjacent area of Cambodia, as well as the countries of the Malay Archipelago (excluding East Timor and Indonesia). [115]

Alternative definitions

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to the geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.[ citation needed ] On rare occasion, the term is also sometimes taken to include India and other South Asian countries not within the bounds of the Pacific, although the term Indo-Pacific is more commonly used for such a definition. [116]

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia". [117] [118] [119] The Council on Foreign Relations of the United States defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea. [108]

Economy

East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese 東亞/東亞細亞
Customs territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2022) [1]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2022) [1]
GDP PPP
billions of USD (2021) [1]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2021) [1]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 19,911,59314,09626,656.76617,205.654
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong [120] 369,48649,850472.39558,165.200
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau [121] 35,24650,57861.62358,930.534
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,912,14739,2435,585.78641,636.628
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 18,1025,20642.41212,259.059
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea N/AN/AN/AN/A
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1,804,68034,9942,436.87544,292.194
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 841,20936,0511,403.66354,019.882
East Asia$27,892,463$16,513$36,659.52$21,779.585

Territorial and regional data

Etymology

FlagCommon NameOfficial NameISO 3166 Country Codes [122]
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym ISO Short NameAlpha-2 CodeAlpha-3 CodeNumeric
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 中国 People's Republic of China中华人民共和国ChinaCNCHN156
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區Hong KongHKHKG344
Flag of Macau.svg Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區MacaoMOMAC446
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 日本 Japan日本国JapanJPJPN392
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Монгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
MongoliaМонгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
MongoliaMNMNG496
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea 조선 Democratic People's Republic of Korea조선민주주의인민공화국Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of)KPPRK408
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea대한민국Korea (the Republic of)KRKOR410
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan [123] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China (Taiwan)中華民國Taiwan [122] TWTWN158

Demographics

Historical distribution map of linguistic groups in China China ethnolinguistic 1967.jpg
Historical distribution map of linguistic groups in China
State/Territory Area km2 Population [124] [125]
(2021)
Population density
per km2
HDI [126] Capital/Administrative Centre
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 9,640,011 [lower-alpha 3] 1,425,893,465 [lower-alpha 4] 1380.768 Beijing
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 1,1047,494,5786,3900.952 Hong Kong
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 30686,60718,6620.922 Macao
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 377,930124,612,5303370.925 Tokyo
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 1,564,1003,347,78220.739 Ulaanbaatar
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 120,53825,971,9091980.733 Pyongyang [127]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 100,21051,830,1395000.925 Seoul
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 36,19723,196,1786390.926 Taipei [128]
East Asia11,840,0001,683,205,624141Increase2.svg0.861 (very high)

Ethnic groups

EthnicityNative namePopulationLanguage(s)Writing system(s)Major states/territories*Traditional attire
Han/Chinese 漢族 or 汉族1,313,345,856 [129] Chinese (Mandarin, Min, Wu, Yue, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Xiang, Huizhou, Pinghua, etc.) Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of North Korea.svg
Hanfu man and lady.jpg
Yamato/Japanese 大和民族125,117,000 [130] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg
Shinto married couple.jpg
Korean 조선족 (朝鮮族)
한민족 (韓民族)
79,432,225[ citation needed ] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja) Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg
Hanbok (female and male).jpg
Bai 白族1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Bai 5.JPG
Hui 回族10,586,087[ citation needed ] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc.Simplified Han characters [lower-alpha 5] Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
HuiChineseMuslim3.jpg
Mongols Монголчуудᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Монгол/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of Russia.svg
Mongolian Musician.jpg
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh18,000,000 Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Zhuang's beautiful maiden in Chongzuo Fusui.jpg
Uyghurs 维吾尔族/ئۇيغۇر15,000,000+ [131] Uyghur Arabic alphabet, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg [lower-alpha 6]
Uyghur-elders-sunday-market-Kashgar.jpg
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ10,422,873[ citation needed ] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchu language Simplified Han characters, Mongol script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Aksan.jpg
Hmong/Miao 苗族/Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb9,426,007[ citation needed ] Hmong/Miao, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Gui Zhou Qian Dong Nan Miao Zu Nu Xing (a Miao woman in Qiandongnan,Guizhou).jpg
Tibetans 藏族/བོད་པ་6,500,000Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
People of Tibet46.jpg
Yi 彝族/ꆈꌠ8,714,393Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Ethnic Yi China Costume.jpg
Tujia 土家族8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern TujiaSimplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Tujia women.jpg
Kam 侗族/Gaeml2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Ethic Dong Liping Guizhou China.jpg
Tu 土族/Monguor289,565 Tu, Northwestern MandarinSimplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Nadun Picture 1.jpg
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ131,992 Daur, Northeastern MandarinMongol script, Simplified Han characters Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Daur woman smiling.jpg
Indigenous Taiwanese Peoples 臺灣原住民/ 高山族/ Yincomin/ Kasetaivang/ Inanuwayan533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc.Latin script, Traditional Han characters Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Tao1.jpg
Ryukyuan 琉球民族1,900,000 Japanese
Ryukyuan
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Five men wearing Ryukyuan Dress.JPG
Ainu アイヌ/ Aynu/ Айну200,000 Japanese
Ainu [132]
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Flag of Japan.svg
AinuSan.jpg

East Asian culture

Overview

The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. [133] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilised life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasised a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea. [134] [44] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [97] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. [141] [142] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. [48] [142] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World. [138] [136] [142] [134]

Religions

Religion in East Asia (2020) [143]

  Buddhism (52.10%)
   Folk Religion (19.65%)
   No Religion (19.62%)
   Christianity (5.56%)
   Islam (1.57%)
   Hinduism (0.01%)
  Other (1.43%)
ReligionNative nameCreator/Current LeaderFounded TimeMain DenominationMajor bookTypeEst. FollowersEthnic groupsStates/territories
Chinese folk religion 中國民間信仰 or 中国民间信仰Spontaneous formationPrehistoric period Salvationist, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc.Prehistoric,pantheism,and polytheism~900,000,000 [144] [145] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Taoism 道教 Zhang Daoling, was considered the founder of Taoism by Taoists. He founded Zhengyi, the earliest denomination of Taoism. Zhang Daoling reformed the Chinese folk religion from Szechuan, into a real, organised, and regulated religion, in 125A.D.. Wang Chongyang founded the Quanzhen Denomination. Tale says Wang Chongyang met two Gods, Lü Dongbin and Han Zhongli, during Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in 1159. He then get started to study Taoism himself. Three years later, he finished his studying, and founded Quanzhen. The new leader of Zhengyi need to be the son or paternal nephew of the previous leader, confirmed by the court of Zhengyi, in Mount Longhu, Jiangxi. Also beginning from the Song Dynasty, the leaders of Zhengyi get started to be confirmed and titled by the Emperor of China. In 1949, the 63th leader, Zhang Enfu, fled to Taiwan with Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang, died in 1969 in Taipei. The Kuomintang Authority titled his cousin Zhang Yuanxian as the 64th leader, while the Court of Zhengyi back in Jiangxi argued that the oracle already foreseen the leadership will end at the 63th generation. Zhang Yuanxian died in 2008, only left a daughter as heir. Meanwhile, the Kuomintang Authority didn't confirmed the next leader. On the other hand, in Mainland China, Zhang Enfu's second daughter's son, Lu Jintao, changes his surname to Zhang, and get in charge of the Court of Zhengyi currently. For the leader of Quanzhen, the last (18th) leader (1335-1362) was Wanyan Deming, titled by the Emperor of Yuan Dynasty. Wanyan Deming was a Jurchen Taoist, the Wanyan family was the imperial house of Jin Dynasty. There is no official leader of Quanzhen after Wanyan Deming anymore.[ citation needed ]125 A.D. Eastern Han dynasty [ citation needed ] Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism, polytheism~20,000,000 [145] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
East Asian Buddhism/Chinese Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教The Emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu Zhuang, made a dream about the Buddha occasionally, then sent people to the Western Regions to Introduce Buddhism to the Capital, Chang'an, in 67 A.D. In 384 A.D., during the Eastern Jin dynasty, Indian Mālānanda introduced the Chinese Buddhism to Baekje. In 552 A.D., King Seong of Baekje offered Buddhism to the Emperor Kinmei of Japan.[ citation needed ]67 A.D. Eastern Han dynasty Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God, Dualism.~300,000,000Han, Koreans, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Tibetan Buddhism 藏传佛教/བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche, Prince of the Ancient Xang Xung Kingdom.1800 years agoMahayana, Bon Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God~10,000,000Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Shamanism [lower-alpha 7] 萨满教 or Бөө мөргөлSpontaneous formationPrehistoric periodN/APrehistoric, polytheism, and pantheismN/AManchus, Mongols, Oroqens Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
Shintoism 神道Spontaneous formation Yayoi period [146] Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Prehistoric,pantheism,and polytheismN/AYamato Flag of Japan.svg
Musok/Muism 신도 or 무교Spontaneous formation900 years ago[ citation needed ]Musok sectsN/APrehistoric,pantheism,and polytheismN/AKoreans Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰Spontaneous formationN/AN/AN/APrehistoric,pantheism,and polytheismN/ARyukyuans Flag of Japan.svg ( Flag of Okinawa Prefecture.svg )

Festivals

FestivalNative NameOther nameCalendarDate Gregorian dateActivityReligious practicesFoodMajor ethnicitiesMajor states/territories
Chinese New Year 農曆新年/农历新年 or 春節/春节Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 121 Jan–20 FebFamily Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksWorship the King of Gods Nian gao Han, Manchus etc. Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Korean New Year 설날 or Seollal Korean Month 1 Day 121 Jan–20 FebAncestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb SweepingN/A Tteokguk Koreans Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Losar or Tsagaan Sar 藏历新年/ལོ་གསར་ or 查干萨日/Цагаан сарWhite Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 125 Jan – 2 MarFamily Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksN/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc. Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg
New Year 元旦Yuan DanGregorian1 Jan1 JanFireworksN/AN/AN/A Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节Upper Yuan Festival (上元节)ChineseMonth 1 Day 154 Feb – 6 MarLanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Sky-officerYuanxiaoHan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Daeboreum 대보름 or 정월 대보름Great Full Moon Korean Month 1 Day 154 Feb – 6 MarGreeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom)Bonfires (daljip taeugi) Ogok-bap, namul, nutsKorean Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Hanshi Festival 寒食節 or 寒食节Cold Food Festival Solar term Traditionally, on the 105th day after the Winter solstice. Revised to 1 day before the Qingming Festival by Johann Adam Schall von Bell (Chinese: 汤若望) during the Qing dynasty.April 3–5Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, No cooking hot meal/setting fire, Cold food only. Cuju, etc. (People used to mix this one with the Qingming Festival due to their close dates)In Memory of a loyal Ancient named Jie Zhitui (Chinese: 介子推), ordered by the Monarch of the Jin (Chinese state), Duke Wen of Jin (Chinese: 重耳)Cold Food, e.g. Qingtuan Han, Koreans, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Qingming Festival 清明節 or 清明节Tomb Sweeping Day Solar term 15th day after the Vernal Equinox. Just 1 day after the Hanshi Festival, but in much higher repute.April 4-6thAncestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Excursion, Planting trees, Flying kites, Tug of war, Cuju, etc. (Almost the same with the Hanshi Festival's, due to their close dates)Burning Hell money for deceased family members. Planting willow branches to keep ghosts away from houses.Boiled eggsHan, Koreans, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 or 단오Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal) Chinese / Korean Month 5 Day 5Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing coloured lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum)Worship various Gods Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs)Han, Koreans, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 or 백중Mid Yuan FestivalChineseMonth 7 Day 15Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Earth-officerHan, Koreans, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节中秋祭ChineseMonth 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon viewWorship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Chuseok 추석 or 한가위Hangawi Korean Month 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon viewN/A Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup)Koreans Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Tsukimi 月見 or お月見Tsukimi or Otsukimi Gregorian Month 8 Day 15Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon viewWorship the Moon Tsukimi Dango, Sweet Potato Yamato Flag of Japan.svg *
Double Ninth Festival重陽節 or 重阳节Double Positive FestivalChineseMonth 9 Day 09Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.Worship various GodsHan, Korean, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg *
Lower Yuan Festival下元節 or 下元节N/AChineseMonth 10 Day 15Ancestors Worship, Tomb SweepingBirthdate of the God of Water-officerCibaHan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Dongzhi Festival冬至 or 동지 or 冬至N/AGregorianBetween Dec 21 and Dec 23Between Dec 21 and Dec 23Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spiritsN/A Tangyuan, Patjuk, Zenzai, Kabocha Han, Koreans, Yamato Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Small New Year小年Jizao (祭灶)ChineseMonth 12 Day 23Cleaning HousesWorship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.
*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

Collaboration

East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games, it is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

It is one of five Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), the South Asian Games and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements

Name of agreementPartiesLeaders at the timeNegotiation beginsSigning dateStarting timeCurrent status
China–South Korea FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012Jun 01, 2015Dec 30, 2015Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013N/AN/A10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj -Feb 10, 2015-Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/AN/AN/AOfficially proposed
China-HK CEPA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Hong Kong.svg Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa -Jun 29, 2003-Enforced
China-Macau CEPA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Macau.svg Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah -Oct 18, 2003-Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015N/AN/ANegotiating
ECFA Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010Jun 29, 2010Aug 17, 2010Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011Jun 21, 2013N/AAbolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011N/AN/ASuspended

Military alliances

NameAbbr.Parties within the region
General Security of Military Information AgreementGSOMIA Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ( Flag of Hong Kong.svg Flag of Macau.svg ) Flag of North Korea.svg
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan - Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea - Flag of the United States.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1979)TRA (SAMDT) Flag of the United States.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO)- Flag of NATO.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg [147]

Major cities

 
Largest population centres of East Asia
RankCity name Country Pop.
Tokyo Skyline20210123.jpg
Tokyo

Seoul (South Korea).jpg
Seoul

1 Tokyo Japan 38,140,000 Pudong Shanghai November 2017 panorama.jpg
Shanghai

Parkview Green and CBD skyline (20210927131419).jpg
Beijing

2 Seoul South Korea 25,520,000
3 Shanghai China 24,484,000
4 Beijing China 21,240,000
5 Osaka Japan 20,337,000
6 Chongqing China 13,744,000
7 Guangzhou China 13,070,000
8 Tianjin China 11,558,000
9 Shenzhen China 10,828,000
10 Chengdu China 10,104,000

See also

Notes

  1. See [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36]
  2. [37] [38] [39] [40]
  3. Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).[ citation needed ]
  4. A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China." [124] [125]
  5. The Hui people also use the Arabic alphabet in the religious field.
  6. The Khotons also in Flag of Mongolia.svg .
  7. almost Manchu, Mongolian

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Asia</span> Continent

Asia is one of the world's most notable geographical regions, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, which shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Its 4.7 billion people constitute roughly 60% of the world's population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of China</span> Account of past events in the Chinese civilization

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the reign of king Wu Ding, referred to in the records as the twenty-first King of Shang. Ancient historical texts such as the Book of Documents, the Bamboo Annals and the Records of the Grand Historian mention and describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is among the world's oldest civilizations and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.

<i>Far East</i> Geographical term

The Far East is a European term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia as well as the Russian Far East to a lesser extent. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of East Asia</span> History of nations of eastern Asia

The History of East Asia generally encompasses the histories of China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Mongolia from prehistoric times to the present. East Asia is not a uniform term and each of its countries has a different national history, but scholars maintain that the region is also characterized by a distinct pattern of historical development. This is evident in the interrelationship among East Asian countries, which not only involve the sum total of historical patterns but also a specific set of patterns that has affected all or most of East Asia in successive layers. It is also argued that East Asia and Southeast Asia form a single ethno-cultural unit, sharing history and common ethnic roots.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Han Chinese</span> East Asian ethnic group native to China

The Han Chinese or Han people, are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population and consisting of various subgroups speaking distinctive varieties of the Chinese language. The estimated 1.4 billion Han Chinese people, worldwide, are primarily concentrated in the People's Republic of China where they make up about 92% of the total population. In the Republic of China (Taiwan), they make up about 97% of the population. People of Han Chinese descent also make up around 75% of the total population of Singapore.

Westernization, also Europeanisation or occidentalization, is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, science, education, politics, economics, lifestyle, law, norms, mores, customs, traditions, values, mentality, perceptions, diet, clothing, language, writing system, religion, and philosophy. During colonialism it often involved the spread of Christianity.

<i>Pax Sinica</i> Periods of regional peace maintained by Chinese hegemony

Pax Sinica is a historiographical term referring to periods of peace and stability in East Asia, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia led by China. A study on the Sinocentric world system reveals that the multiple periods of Pax Sinica, when taken together, amounted to a length of approximately two thousand years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">C-pop</span> Music genre by artists originating from mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan

C-pop is an abbreviation for Chinese popular music, a loosely defined musical genre by artists originating from mainland China,Hong Kong and Taiwan. This also includes countries where Chinese languages are used by parts of the population, such as Singapore and Malaysia. C-pop is used as an umbrella term covering not only Chinese pop but also R&B, ballads, Chinese rock, Chinese hip hop and Chinese ambient music, although Chinese rock diverged during the early 1990s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Culture of Asia</span> Overview of the culture of Asia

The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory. Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated. However, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like culture, religion, language and relative ethnic homogeneity. These regions are Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and West Asia.

Mandopop or Mandapop refers to Mandarin popular music. The genre has its origin in the jazz-influenced popular music of 1930s Shanghai known as Shidaiqu; with later influences coming from Japanese enka, Hong Kong's Cantopop, Taiwan's Hokkien pop, and in particular the Campus Song folk movement of the 1970s. 'Mandopop' may be used as a general term to describe popular songs performed in Mandarin. Though Mandopop predates Cantopop, the English term was coined around 1980 after "Cantopop" became a popular term for describing popular songs in Cantonese. "Mandopop" was used to describe Mandarin-language popular songs of that time, some of which were versions of Cantopop songs sung by the same singers with different lyrics to suit the different rhyme and tonal patterns of Mandarin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Asian cultural sphere</span> Areas historically influenced by Chinese culture

The East Asian cultural sphere, also known as the Sinosphere, the Sinic world, the Sinitic world, the Chinese cultural sphere, the Chinese character sphere encompasses multiple countries in East Asia and Southeast Asia that were historically influenced by Chinese culture. According to academic consensus, the East Asian cultural sphere is made up of four entities: Greater China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Other definitions sometimes include Singapore because of limited historical Chinese influences or increasing modern-day Chinese diaspora. The East Asian cultural sphere is not to be confused with the Sinophone world, which includes countries where the Chinese-speaking population is dominant.

De-Sinicization refers to a process of eliminating or reducing Chinese cultural elements, identity, or consciousness from a society or nation. In modern contexts, it is often used in tandem with decolonization and contrasted to the assimilation process of Sinicization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of East Asia</span> Overview of the economy of East Asia

The economy of East Asia comprises 1.6 billion people living in six different countries and regions. The region includes several of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Japan, South Korea, Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. It is home to some of the most economically dynamic places in the world, being the site of some of the world's most extended modern economic booms, including the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, the Taiwan miracle in Taiwan (1960–1996) and the current economic boom (1978–2015) in Mainland China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ethnic groups in Asia</span> Modern ethnolinguistic groups in the continent of Asia

The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centres – greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japanese colonial empire</span> Japanese territorial conquests (1895–1945)

The territorial conquests of the Empire of Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia regions began in 1895 with its victory over Qing China in the First Sino-Japanese War. Subsequent victories over the Russian Empire and German Empire expanded Japanese rule to Taiwan, Korea, Micronesia, southern Sakhalin, several concessions in China, and the South Manchuria Railway. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, resulting in the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo the following year; thereafter, Japan adopted a policy of founding and supporting puppet states in conquered regions. These conquered territories became the basis for the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in 1940.

East Asian people are the people from East Asia, which consists of China, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea. The total population of all countries within this region is estimated to be 1.677 billion and 21% of the world's population in 2020. However, large East Asian diasporas, such as the Chinese diaspora, Japanese diaspora, Korean diaspora, and Mongolian diaspora, as well as diasporas of other East Asian ethnic groups, mean that the 1.677 billion does not necessarily represent an accurate figure for the numbers of East Asian people worldwide.

East Asian literature is the diverse writings from the East Asian nations, China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. Literature from this area emerges as a distinct and unique field of prose and poetry that embodies the cultural, social and political factors of each nation. Prose within East Asian countries reflects the rich cultural heritage from which specificities of language, form and style shape writings. Similarly, East Asian poetry exemplifies how the diverse culture and distinct environments influence East Asian Literature. Reflected through the poetic forms, images and language employed in writings. The development of East Asian literature has been subjugated to both local and international influences. The presence of Western literature and the transnational exchange reflects an interrelationship in which East Asian Literature has benefited from the communication of ideas and perspectives as well as contributed to broader literature movements.

The term Sinosphere usually refers to the East Asian cultural sphere, states within East Asia and Southeast Asia that have been influenced significantly by various dynasties and republics of China in terms of literary traditions, cultures, religions, social norms, and political systems.

The Bamboo network or the Chinese Commonwealth is a term used to conceptualize connections between businesses operated by the Overseas Chinese community in Southeast Asia. The Overseas Chinese business networks constitute the single most dominant private business groups outside of East Asia. It links the Overseas Chinese business community of Southeast Asia, namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Myanmar with the economies of Greater China. The Overseas Chinese play a role in Southeast Asia's business sector.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eastern culture</span> Eastern culture

Eastern culture, also known as Eastern civilization and historically as Oriental culture, is an umbrella term for various cultural heritages of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, artifacts and technologies of the Eastern world.

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