Losar

Last updated

Losar
Also calledTibetan New Year
Lhochhar
Observed by Tibetans, Bhutanese, Tibetan Buddhists and certain ethnic groups in Pakistan [ citation needed ], Nepal and India
Type Tibetan culture, Tibetan Buddhist, new year
2019 date5 February, Boar/Pig/Deer [upper-alpha 1]
2020 date24 February, Rat
FrequencyAnnual
Related toOther lunisolar new year festivals in Asia

Losar (Tibetan : ལོ་གསར་, Wylie : lo-gsar; "new year" [2] ) is a festival in Tibetan Buddhism. [3] The holiday is celebrated on various dates depending on location (Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan [ failed verification ]) tradition. [4] [5] The holiday is a new year's festival, celebrated on the first day of the lunisolar Tibetan calendar, which corresponds to a date in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. [2] In 2020, the new year commenced on the 24th of February and celebrations ran until the 26th of the same month. It also commenced the Year of the Male Iron Rat. [6]

Contents

The variation of the festival in Nepal is called Lhochhar and is observed about eight weeks earlier than the Tibetan Losar. [7]

History

Losar celebration in Lhasa, 1938 Bundesarchiv Bild 135-S-16-20-16, Tibetexpedition, Neujahrsfest Lhasa.jpg
Losar celebration in Lhasa, 1938

Losar predates the arrival of Buddhism in Tibet and has its roots in a winter incense-burning custom of the Bon religion. During the reign of the ninth Tibetan king, Pude Gungyal (617-698), it is said that this custom merged with a harvest festival to form the annual Losar festival. [2]

The 14th Dalai Lama (1998: p. 233) frames the importance of consulting the Nechung Oracle for Losar:

For hundreds of years now, it has been traditional for the Dalai Lama, and the Government, to consult Nechung during the New Year festivals. [8]

Tenzin Wangyal (2002: p.xvii) frames his experience of Tibetan cultural practice of Losar in relation to elemental celebrations and offerings to Nāga (Tibetan: Klu):

During Losar, the Tibetan celebration of the new year, we did not drink champagne to celebrate. Instead, we went to the local spring to perform a ritual of gratitude. We made offerings to the nagas, the water spirits who activated the water element in the area. We made smoke offerings to the local spirits associated with the natural world around us. Beliefs and behaviors like ours evolved long ago and are often seen as primitive in the West. But they are not only projections of human fears onto the natural world, as some anthropologists and historians suggest. Our way of relating to the elements originated in the direct experiences by our sages and common people of the sacred nature of the external and internal elements. We call these elements earth, water, fire, air, and space. [9]

The Gumpa dance being performed in Lachung during the Buddhist festival of Losar Gumpa.jpg
The Gumpa dance being performed in Lachung during the Buddhist festival of Losar

Practice

Losar is celebrated for 15 days, with the main celebrations on the first three days. On the first day of Losar, a beverage called changkol is made from chhaang (a Tibetan cousin of beer). The second day of Losar is known as King's Losar (gyalpo losar). Losar is traditionally preceded by the five-day practice of Vajrakilaya. Because the Uyghurs adopted the Chinese calendar, and the Mongols and Tibetans adopted the Uyghur calendar, [10] Losar occurs near or on the same day as the Chinese New Year and the Mongolian New Year, but the traditions of Losar are unique to Tibet, and predate both Indian and Chinese influences. Originally, ancient celebrations of Losar occurred solely on the winter solstice, and was only moved to coincide with the Chinese and Mongolian New Year by a leader of the Gelug school of Buddhism. [11]

As well as that, the Sherpas are associated with Losar and enjoy Losar in the high altitudes of the Nepal Himalayan Range. Prior to the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950, Losar began with a morning ritual ceremony at Namgyal Monastery, led by the Dalai Lama and other high-ranking lamas, with government officials participating, to honor the Dharmapala (dharma-protector) Palden Lhamo. [12] After the Dalai Lama was exiled, many monasteries were destroyed and monks imprisoned. Since that time, Tibetan Buddhist practice in Tibet has been difficult to observe publicly.

In Tibet, various customs are associated with the holiday:

Families prepare for Losar some days in advance by thoroughly cleaning their homes; decorating with fragrant flowers and their walls with auspicious signs painted in flour such as the sun, moon, or a reversed swastika; and preparing cedar, rhododendron, and juniper branches for burning as incense. Debts are settled, quarrels are resolved, new clothes are acquired, and special foods such as kapse (fried twists) are made. A favorite drink is chang (barley beer) which is served warm. Because the words "sheep's head" and "beginning of the year" sound similar in Tibetan, it is customary to fashion a sheep's head from colored butter as a decoration. Another traditional decoration that symbolizes a good harvest is the phyemar ("five-grain bucket"), a bucket with a wooden board that creates two vertical halves within. This bucket is filled with zanba (also known as tsamba, roasted qingke barley flour) and barley seeds, then decorated with barley ears and colored butter. [2]

Losar customs in Bhutan are similar to, but distinct from, customs in neighboring Tibet. [13] Modern celebration of the holiday began in Bhutan in 1637, when Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal commemorated the completion of the Punakha Dzong with an inaugural ceremony, in which "Bhutanese came from all over the country to bring offerings of produce from their various regions, a tradition that is still reflected in the wide variety of foods consumed during the ritual Losar meals." [13] Traditional foods consumed on the occasion include sugarcane and green bananas, which are considered auspicious. [13] In Bhutan, picnicking, dancing, singing, dart-playing, archery (see archery in Bhutan), and the giving of offerings are all traditions. [13]

Dates

The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Losar is celebrated on the first through third days of the first lunar month.

Gregorian Year Year of Rabjung 60-year Cycle Tibetan Year Losar Date***Gender, Element, and Animal
2008rab byung 17 lo 222135February 7Male Earth Mouse/Rat**
2009rab byung 17 lo 232136February 25Female Earth Ox [14]
2010rab byung 17 lo 242137February 14Male Iron Tiger [15]
2011rab byung 17 lo 252138March 5Female Iron Hare/Rabbit** [16]
2012rab byung 17 lo 262139February 22Male Water Dragon
2013rab byung 17 lo 272140February 11Female Water Snake
2014rab byung 17 lo 282141March 2Male Wood Horse
2015rab byung 17 lo 292142February 18/19Female Wood Sheep/Goat**
2016rab byung 17 lo 302143February 9 [17] Male Fire Monkey
2017rab byung 17 lo 312144February 27Female Fire Bird/Rooster
2018rab byung 17 lo 322145February 16Male Earth Dog
2019rab byung 17 lo 332146February 5Female Earth Pig/Boar**
2020rab byung 17 lo 342147February 24Male Iron Mouse/Rat**
* Note: Rabjung (Wylie: rab byung) is the name of the 60-year cycle of the Tibetan calendar that started in 1027 CE, and is currently in its 17th cycle.
** Note: These year names have more than one translation into English with different terms used by different groups.
*** Note: Losar is celebrated by some international communities at more or less the same time it is celebrated in Asia. For example, for a year when Losar starts on February 1 in Asia time zones, it may be celebrated by some in United States time zones on January 31. Losar celebrations are normally for three days.

See also

Notes

  1. In the Tibetan zodiac, the boar is the ninth zodiac and thus will be considered the "Year of the Boar". In the Gurung zodiac, the deer is the twelfth zodiac and thus will be considered the "Year of the Deer". The Gurungs will celebrate the "Year of the Deer" in December 2018. [1]

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References

  1. "Tamu (Gurung) Losar Festival | Culture | ECSNEPAL - The Nepali Way". Ecs.com.np. July 11, 2010. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 William D. Crump, "Losar" in Encyclopedia of New Year's Holidays Worldwide (McFarland & Co.: 2008), pp. 237-38.
  3. "Buddhism: Losar". BBC. September 8, 2004.
  4. Peter Glen Harle, Thinking with Things: Objects and Identity among Tibetans in the Twin Cities (Ph.D dissertation: Indiana University, 2003), p. 132: "In Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, India and other areas where Tibetan Buddhism is practiced, the dates for Losar are often calculated locally, and often vary from region.".
  5. William D. Crump, Encyclopedia of New Year's Holidays Worldwide (McFarland & Co.: 2008), pp. 237: ""Different traditions have observed Losar on different dates."
  6. "Losar 2020 - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  7. Tibetan Borderlands: PIATS 2003: Proceedings of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, Oxford, 2003, p. 121: "Yet though their Lhochhar is observed about eight weeks earlier than the Tibetan Losar, the festival is clearly borrowed, and their practice of Buddhism comes increasingly in a Tibetan idiom."
  8. Gyatso, Tenzin (1988). Freedom in Exile: the Autobiography of the Dalai Lama of Tibet (rev. ed.: Abacus Books, London. ISBN   0-349-11111-1
  9. Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2002). Healing with Form, Energy, and Light. Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN   1-55939-176-6
  10. Ligeti, Louis (1984). Tibetan and Buddhist Studies: Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the Birth of Alexander Csoma De Koros. 2. University of California Press. p. 344. ISBN   9789630535731.
  11. Hastings, James (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 10. Kessinger Publishing. p. 892. ISBN   9780766136823.
  12. J. Gordon Melton, "Losar" in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations, Vol. 1 (ABC-CLIO), 2011), pp. 530-31.
  13. 1 2 3 4 James Mayer, Losar: Community Building and the Bhutanese New Year Archived February 28, 2017, at the Wayback Machine , Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Smithsonian Institution (February 15, 2013).
  14. "Kālacakra Calendar". Kalacakra.org. July 27, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  15. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. "Losar, Nouvel An tibétain en 2011 : année 2138 du Lièvre de Fer". Tibet-info.net. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  17. "Tibetan Medical and Astrological Institute". Tibetan Medical and Astrological Institute. Retrieved January 27, 2016.