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Berber Calendars.jpg
Three Berber calendars, all of them refer to the Shoshenq era (Gregorian + 950).
Official nameAseggwas Amaziɣ
Also calledAmazigh New Year
Observed byFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya
Flag of the Canary Islands.svg  Canarias
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger
MNLA flag.svg  Azawad
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Western Sahara
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt (Siwa Oasis)
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania
Begins12 January
Ends13 January

Yennayer is the first month of the Amazigh Year (Berber languages : Aseggwas Amaziɣ, ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ) or the Amazigh year used since antiquity by the Imazighen in North Africa. Its first day corresponds to the first day of January of the Julian Calendar, which is shifted thirteen days compared to the Gregorian calendar, i.e. 14 January of every year. The Amazigh calendar was created in 1980 by Ammar Negadi  [ fr ], a Paris-based Algerian scholar. [1] He chose 943 BC, the year in which the Amazigh Shoshenq I conquered Ramesses II of Egypt, as the first year of the Amazigh calendar. [1]


Probably due to a mistake of the first cultural associations asking to return to this traditional celebration, the opinion that the traditional date is the evening of 13 January which is very widespread especially in Morocco, Libya and the Canary Islands. Whereas in Algeria is 12 January. On 27 December 2017, Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika decided to recognize Yennayer as a public holiday celebrated on 12 January of every year. [2]


The Berber Academy was based on the fact that North Africans used to celebrate Yennayer every year, decreeing it as "Amazigh New Year". It was Ammar Negadi [3] who put forward a Berber calendar in 1980, based on a landmark event in the history of the Amazigh people, an undeniable historical fact to make it the zero point of the calendar. His choice fell on the year 950 BC, which corresponds to the date when the Berber king Shoshenq I (ⵛⵛⵏⵈ) (also spelled Chichnaq or Chichneq) was enthroned Pharaoh of Egypt and founded the XXII Dynasty which reigned over Egypt until the year 715 BC. This Berber king had managed to unify Egypt and then invade Judah. It is said of him that he seized the treasures of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem in 926 BC. This date is mentioned in the Bible and would be, therefore, the first date of Berber history on written support. King Sheshonq is mentioned in the Bible under the name of Sésaq and Shishaq (שִׁישַׁק) in ancient Hebrew this version remains highly contested. Another version that indicates that the origin of this festival is only a tradition that celebrates the day when we begin to pick the olives


According to one theory, Yennayer means first month, deriving from Amazigh, Yan = One and Ayyur = month. [4] [5] [6] However, because the Julian Berber calendar uses Latin-derived names for all the other months like most European languages, it is perhaps more likely that it derives from Latin Januarius, and is cognate to English "January", Italian gennaio, Spanish enero, and Maltese jannar, and it being derived from yan ayyur is a folk etymology [ citation needed ].

The celebration and the tradition

Algerian women celebrating Yennayer Celebrations du nouvel an berbere a Bejaia (Algerie).jpg
Algerian women celebrating Yennayer

Yennayer is very widespread in the Berber world. It is considered as national celebration. The Berber year 2972 corresponds to the present year 2022. It is a bank holiday in Algeria.

Imensi umenzu n yennayer (Dinner of the first day of January)

The meal prepared for this circumstance is hearty and different from the everyday ones. The rites are done in a symbolic manner. They aim to eliminate the famine, to augur the future and the change, and to warm welcome the invisible forces the Berber believed in.

For the preparation of " imensi n yennayer ", meaning dinner of January, the Kabyle uses the meat of the sacrificed animal (asfel) to complement the couscous, a fundamental element of the Berber culinary art. The participants of the evening in the Souss area (South Morocco) will be able to enjoy the Berber gastronomy by feasting of Tagula, a dish made of barley with rancid butter and Argan oil. And Berkukes, a dish prepared with vegetable and pasta in the form of grains.

An opportunity to exchange wishes for prosperity

Yennayer symbolizes longevity, and it is often the occasion to include other familiar events:


See also

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  1. 1 2 Aidi, Hisham. "An unlikely celebration of North Africa diversity". Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  2. "Algeria sets Berber New Year as public holiday". Middle East Monitor. 28 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  3. "Ammar Negadi, ce symbole amazigh de l'Aurès authentique".
  4. "Que signifie " Yennayer ", le Nouvel An berbère ? – Jeune Afrique". (in French). 24 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  5. Zmirli, Amayas (12 January 2018). "Algérie - Yennayer : le nouvel an berbère change de dimension". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  6. "Au fait, c'est quoi Yennayer ?". TSA (in French). 28 December 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2021.