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A crescent moon can be seen over palm trees at Manama, marking the beginning of the Islamic month of Ramadan in Bahrain
Observed by Muslims
Type Religious
CelebrationsCommunity iftars and Community prayers
Begins1 Ramadan
Ends29 or 30 Ramadan
DateVariable (follows the Islamic lunar calendar)
2018 date17 May – 14 June [1]
2019 date6 May – 3 June [1]
Frequencyevery year (lunar calendar)
Related to Eid al-Fitr, Laylat al-Qadr

Ramadan ( /ˌræməˈdɑːn/ ; Arabic : رمضانRamaḍān, IPA:  [ramaˈdˤaːn] ; [note 1] also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, [2] and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. [3] [4] This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. [5] The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths. [6] [7]

The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.

Ramadan or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Islamic calendar lunar calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, whch use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar.


The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. [8] Fasting is fard (obligatory) for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, travelling, are elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, chronically ill or menstruating. [9] Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory (wājib) during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, [10] but the more commonly accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day. [11] [12] [13]

Farḍ or farīḍah (فريضة) in Islam is a religious duty commanded by Allah (God). The word is also used in Persian, Pashto, Turkish, and Urdu in the same meaning. Muslims who obey such commands or duties are said to receive hasanat, ajr or thawab each time for each good deed. Farz can also mean ‘the ruling means the thing which is so obligatory that one is not relieved of the obligation until he fulfills it, it is called farz. If this thing is a part of worship, the worship will be void without it, leaving it out is a major sin’.

Breastfeeding Known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a womans breast

Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours and the duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast. Older children feed less often. Mothers may pump milk so that it can be used later when breastfeeding is not possible. Breastfeeding has a number of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks.

Diabetes mellitus a disease characterized by long term high blood sugar

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are also instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech (insulting, backbiting, cursing, lying, etc.) and fighting except in self-defense. [14] [15] Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor , while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar . [16] [17] Spiritual rewards ( thawab ) for fasting are also believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. [18] Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan typically includes the increased offering of salat (prayers), recitation of the Quran [19] [20] and an increase of doing good deeds and charity.

Sin is an important concept in Islamic ethics. Muslims see sin as anything that goes against the commands of Allah (God), a breach of the laws and norms laid down by religion. Islam teaches that sin is an act and not a state of being. It is believed that Allah weighs an individual's good deeds and against his or her sins on the Day of Judgement and punishes those individuals whose evil deeds outweigh their good deeds. These individuals are thought to be sentenced to afterlife in the fires of جهنم jahannum (Hell).

Backbiting, backstabbing, or tale-bearing is slandering someone in their absence — to bite them behind their back. Originally, backbiting referred to an unsporting attack from the rear in the blood sport of bearbaiting.

Iftar meal after fasting

Iftar is the evening meal with which Muslims end their daily Ramadan fast at sunset. Muslims break their fast at the time of the call to prayer for the evening prayer. This is their second meal of the day; the daily fast during Ramadan begins immediately after the pre-dawn meal of Suhur and continues during the daylight hours, ending with sunset with the evening meal of Iftar.


Chapter 2, Verse 185 in Arabic. 002185 Al-Baqarah UsmaniScript.png
Chapter 2, Verse 185 in Arabic.

Chapter 2, Verse 185, of the Quran states:

The month of Ramadan is that in which was revealed the Quran; a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah desires for you ease; He desires not hardship for you; and that you should complete the period, and that you should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that perhaps you may be thankful.[Quran   2:185]

Quran the central religious text of Islam

The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters, which are subdivided into verses.

It is believed that the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan which has been referred to as the "best of times". The first revelation was sent down on Laylat al-Qadr (The night of Power) which is one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. [21] According to hadith, all holy scriptures were sent down during Ramadan. It is further believed that the tablets of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and the Quran were sent down on 1st, 6th, 12th, 13th [note 2] and 24th Ramadan, respectively. [22]

Revelation revealing or disclosure of information or religious truth

In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

Laylat al-Qadr anniversary of two very important dates in Islam

Laylat al-Qadr, variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is in Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is one of the nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. Muslims believe that on this night the blessings and mercy of God are abundant, sins are forgiven, supplications are accepted, and that the annual decree is revealed to the angels who also descend to earth, specially the Angel Gabriel, referred to as "the Spirit", to perform every and any errand decreed by God. Islam holds that God Almighty alone answers our supplications and that He alone receives them and forgives humanity and gives them what they ask for and that on this particular night Muslims should actively seek God's forgiveness and engage in various acts of worship.

Hadith collections of sayings and teachings of Muhammad

Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, supposedly of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of Ḥadīth as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Qur'an. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgements, providing scriptural authority for ahadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is relatively few, ahadith give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves. Thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Qur'an.

According to the Quran, fasting was also obligatory for prior nations, and is a way to attain taqwa , fear of God. [23] [Quran   2:183] God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake was not a new innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those truly devoted to the oneness of God. [24] The pagans of Mecca also fasted, but only on tenth day of Muharram to expiate sins and avoid droughts. [25]


Taqwa is an Islamic term for being conscious and cognizant of God, of truth, of the rational reality, "piety, fear of God". It is often found in the Quran. Al-Muttaqin refers to those who practice taqwa, or in the words of Ibn Abbas -- "believers who avoid Shirk with Allah and who work in His obedience."

Allah deity of Islam

Allah is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means "the god", and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God.

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia Religions practiced by Arabs before Islam

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia included polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions. Arabian polytheism, the dominant form of religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, was based on veneration of deities and spirits. Worship was directed to various gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt, at local shrines and temples such as the Kaaba in Mecca. Deities were venerated and invoked through a variety of rituals, including pilgrimages and divination, as well as ritual sacrifice. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion. Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols, especially near the Kaaba, which is said to have contained up to 360 of them.

The ruling to observe fasting during Ramadan was sent down 18 months after Hijra, during the month of Sha'ban in the second year of Hijra in 624 CE. [22]

Abu Zanad, an Arabic writer from Iraq who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean community located in al-Jazira (modern northern Iraq) observed Ramadan before converting to Islam. [26] [ not in citation given ]

According to historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan comes "from the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches", a postulation corroborated by other scholars, such as the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler. [27] [28] This suggestion is based on the Orientalist idea that the Quran itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim academics such as M. Al-Azami, object. [29] With professional athletes sharing their experiences of fasting during this religious period, Ramadan is more in the public eye than ever before - and while tradition, culture and religion remain at the forefront, more and more Muslims are finding ways to fit their lifestyle around their faith. [30]

Important dates

The beginning and end of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar.


Ramadan beginning dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038. Ramadan100years1938-2037.png
Ramadan beginning dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038.

Hilāl (the crescent) is typically a day (or more) after the astronomical new moon. Since the new moon marks the beginning of the new month, Muslims can usually safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan. [31] However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended. The consistent variations of a day have existed since the time of Muhammad. [32]

Night of Power

The Arabic Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is "the night of power" or "the night of decree", is considered the holiest night of the year. [33] [34] This is the night in which Muslims believe the first revelation of the Quran was sent down to Muhammad stating that this night was "better than one thousand months [of proper worship]", as stated in Chapter 97:3 of the Qu'ran.

Also, generally, Laylat al-Qadr is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e., the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th. The Dawoodi Bohra Community believe that the 23rd night is Laylat al-Qadr. [35] [36]


The holiday of Eid al-Fitr (Arabic:عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of the next lunar month, Shawwal. This first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the completion of 30 days of fasting if no visual sighting is possible due to weather conditions. This first day of Shawwal is called Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Fitr may also be a reference towards the festive nature of having endured the month of fasting successfully and returning to the more natural disposition (fitra) of being able to eat, drink and resume intimacy with spouses during the day. [37]

Religious practices

Azim Azimzade. Ramadan of the poor people. 1938 Ramazan with the poor.jpg
Azim Azimzade. Ramadan of the poor people. 1938

The common practice during Ramadan is fasting from dawn to sunset. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called the suhur , while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is the iftar .

Muslims also engage in increased prayer and charity during Ramadan. Ramadan is also a month where Muslims try to practice increased self-discipline. This is motivated by the Hadith, especially in Al-Bukhari [38] [39] that "When Ramadan arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of hell are locked up and devils are put in chains." [40]


Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection, improvement and increased devotion and worship. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam. The fast (sawm) begins at dawn and ends at sunset. In addition to abstaining from eating and drinking, Muslims also increase restraint, such as abstaining from sexual relations [41] and generally sinful speech and behavior. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from harmful impurities. Ramadan also teaches Muslims how to better practice self-discipline, self-control, [42] sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging actions of generosity and compulsory charity (zakat). [43]

It becomes compulsory for Muslims to start fasting when they reach puberty, so long as they are healthy and sane, and have no disabilities or illnesses. Many children endeavour to complete as many fasts as possible as practice for later life.

Exemptions to fasting are travel, menstruation, severe illness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. However, many Muslims with medical conditions insist on fasting to satisfy their spiritual needs, although it is not recommended by the hadith. Professionals should closely monitor such individuals who decide to persist with fasting. [44] Those who were unable to fast still must make up the days missed later. [45]


Iftar at Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey Iftar in Istanbul Turkey.jpg
Iftar at Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey

Each day, before dawn, Muslims observe a pre-fast meal called the suhur. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of the day, Fajr. [46] [47]


At sunset, families hasten for the fast-breaking meal known as iftar. Dates are usually the first food to break the fast; according to tradition, Muhammad broke fast with three dates. Following that, Muslims generally adjourn for the Maghrib prayer, the fourth of the five daily prayers, after which the main meal is served. [48]

Social gatherings, many times in a buffet style, are frequent at iftar. Traditional dishes are often highlighted, including traditional desserts, and particularly those made only during Ramadan. Water is usually the beverage of choice, but juice and milk are also often available, as are soft drinks and caffeinated beverages. [44]

In the Middle East, the iftar meal consists of water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers, one or more main dishes, and various kinds of desserts. Usually, the dessert is the most important part during iftar. Typical main dishes are lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled vegetables, or roast chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf. A rich dessert, such as luqaimat, baklava or kunafeh (a buttery, syrup-sweetened kadaifi noodle pastry filled with cheese), concludes the meal. [49]

Over time, iftar has grown into banquet festivals. This is a time of fellowship with families, friends and surrounding communities, but may also occupy larger spaces at masjid or banquet halls for 100 or more diners. [50]


Men praying during Ramadan at the Shrine of Ali or "Blue Mosque" in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan Men praying in Afghanistan.jpg
Men praying during Ramadan at the Shrine of Ali or "Blue Mosque" in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan

Charity is very important in Islam, and even more so during Ramadan. Zakāt, often translated as "the poor-rate", is obligatory as one of the pillars of Islam; a fixed percentage of the person's savings is required to be given to the poor. Sadaqah is voluntary charity in giving above and beyond what is required from the obligation of zakāt. In Islam, all good deeds are more handsomely rewarded during Ramadan than in any other month of the year. Consequently, many will choose this time to give a larger portion, if not all, of the zakāt that they are obligated to give. In addition, many will also use this time to give a larger portion of sadaqah in order to maximize the reward that will await them at the Last Judgment.[ citation needed ]

Nightly prayers

Tarawih (Arabic : تراويح) refers to extra prayers performed by Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan. Contrary to popular belief, they are not compulsory. [51] However, many Muslims pray these prayers in the evening during Ramadan. Some scholars[ who? ] maintain that Tarawih is neither fard or a Sunnah , but is the preponed Tahajjud (night prayer) prayer shifted to post- Isha' for the ease of believers. But a majority of Sunni scholars regard the Tarawih prayers as Sunnat al-Mu'akkadah, a salaat that was performed by the Islamic prophet Muhammad very consistently.

Recitation of the Quran

In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran. Some Muslims perform the recitation of the entire Quran by means of special prayers, called Tarawih. These voluntary prayers are held in the mosques every night of the month, during which a whole section of the Quran ( juz' , which is 1/30 of the Quran) is recited. Therefore, the entire Quran would be completed at the end of the month. Although it is not required to read the whole Quran in the Tarawih prayers, it is common.

Cultural practices

Striking the bedug in Indonesia COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Oproep tot het gebed op vrijdag via de trom bij de moskee Tulehu TMnr 20018271.jpg
Striking the bedug in Indonesia
Fanous Ramadan decorations in Cairo, Egypt Lanterns from below.JPG
Fanous Ramadan decorations in Cairo, Egypt
Crescent is colourfully decorated and beautifully illuminated during Ramadan in Jordan hll rmDn.jpg
Crescent is colourfully decorated and beautifully illuminated during Ramadan in Jordan
Ramadan in the Old City of Jerusalem Ramadan jerusalem kmhad.jpg
Ramadan in the Old City of Jerusalem

In some Muslim countries today, lights are strung up in public squares, and across city streets, to add to the festivities of the month. Lanterns have become symbolic decorations welcoming the month of Ramadan. In a growing number of countries, they are hung on city streets. [52] [53] [54] The tradition of lanterns as a decoration becoming associated with Ramadan is believed to have originated during the Fatimid Caliphate primarily centered in Egypt, where Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah was greeted by people holding lanterns to celebrate his ruling. From that time, lanterns were used to light mosques and houses throughout the capital city of Cairo. Shopping malls, places of business, and people's homes can be seen with stars and crescents and various lighting effects, as well.

As the nation with the world's largest Muslim population, Indonesia has diverse Ramadan traditions. On the island of Java, many Javanese Indonesians bathe in holy springs to prepare for fasting, a ritual known as Padusan. The city of Semarang marks the beginning of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the Warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly inspired by the Buraq. In the Chinese-influenced capital city of Jakarta, fire crackers were traditionally used to wake people up for morning prayer, until the 19th century. Towards the end of Ramadan, most employees receive a one-month bonus known as Tunjangan Hari Raya. Certain kinds of food are especially popular during Ramadan, such as beef in Aceh, and snails in Central Java. The iftar meal is announced every evening by striking the bedug, a giant drum, in the mosque.

Common greetings during Ramadan are "Ramadan Mubarak" or "Ramadan Kareem", which wish the recipient a blessed or generous Ramadan. [55]

Observance rates

According to a 2012 Pew Research Centre study of 39 countries and territories, there is widespread Ramadan observance, with a median of 93%. [56] Regions with high percentages of fasting among Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, MENA and most of Sub-Saharan Africa. [56] Percentages are lower in Central Asia and Southeast Europe. [56] According to The Economist , relatively few Iranians are believed to fast during Ramadan. [57]


In some Muslim countries, failing to fast during Ramadan is considered a crime and is prosecuted as such. For instance, in Algeria, in October 2008 the court of Biskra condemned six people to four years in prison and heavy fines. [58]

In Kuwait, according to law number 44 of 1968, the penalty is a fine of no more than 100 Kuwaiti dinars, (about US$330, GB£260 in May 2017) or jail for no more than one month, or both penalties, for those seen eating, drinking or smoking during Ramadan daytime. [59] [60] In some places in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), eating or drinking in public during the daytime of Ramadan is considered a minor offence and would be punished by up to 150 hours of community service. [61] In neighbouring Saudi Arabia, described by The Economist as taking Ramadan "more seriously than anywhere else", [62] there are harsher punishments including flogging, imprisonment and, for foreigners, deportation. [63] In Malaysia, however, there are no such punishments.

Some countries have laws that amend work schedules during Ramadan. Under UAE labor law, the maximum working hours are to be six hours per day and 36 hours per week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait have similar laws. [64]

In Egypt, alcohol sales are banned during Ramadan. [65]


Ramadan fasting is safe for healthy people, but those with medical conditions should seek medical advice if they were to encounter health problems before or during fasting. [66] The fasting period is usually associated with modest weight loss, but weight can return afterwards. [67]

The education departments of Berlin and the United Kingdom have tried to discourage students from fasting during Ramadan, as they claim that not eating or drinking can lead to concentration problems and bad grades, according to their own research. [68] [69]

A review of the literature by an Iranian group suggested fasting during Ramadan might produce renal injury in patients with moderate (GFR <60 ml/min) or worse kidney disease, but was not injurious to renal transplant patients with good function or most stone-forming patients. [70]

Crime rates

The correlation of Ramadan with crime rates is mixed: some statistics show that crime rates drop during Ramadan, while others show that it rises. Decreases in crime rates have been reported by the police in some cities in Turkey (Istanbul [71] and Konya [72] ) and the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. [73] A 2012 study showed that crime rates decreased in Iran during Ramadan, and that the decrease was statistically significant. [74] A 2005 study found that there was a decrease in assault, robbery and alcohol-related crimes during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia, but only the decrease in alcohol-related crimes was statistically significant. [75] Increases in crime rates during Ramadan have been reported in Turkey, [76] Jakarta, [77] [78] [79] parts of Algeria, [80] Yemen [81] and Egypt. [82]

Various mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of Ramadan on crime:

Ramadan in polar regions

During 2010 Middle East negotiations in the United States, Hosni Mubarak and Benjamin Netanyahu check their watches to see if the sun has set. Netanyahu and Mubarak checking their watches.jpg
During 2010 Middle East negotiations in the United States, Hosni Mubarak and Benjamin Netanyahu check their watches to see if the sun has set.

The length of the dawn to sunset time varies in different parts of the world according to summer or winter solstices of the sun. Most Muslims fast for 11–16 hours during Ramadan. However, in polar regions, the period between dawn and sunset may exceed 22 hours in summers. For example, in 2014, Muslims in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Trondheim, Norway, fasted almost 22 hours, while Muslims in Sydney, Australia, fasted for only about 11 hours. Muslims in areas where continuous night or day is observed during Ramadan follow the fasting hours in the nearest city where fasting is observed at dawn and sunset. Alternatively, Muslims may follow Mecca time. [11] [12] [13]

Employment during Ramadan

Muslims will continue to work during Ramadan. The prophet Muhammad said that it is important to keep a balance between worship and work. In some Muslim countries, such as Oman, however, working hours are shortened during Ramadan. [84] [85] It is often recommended that working Muslims inform their employers if they are fasting, given the potential for the observance to impact performance at work. [86] The extent to which Ramadan observers are protected by religious accommodation varies by country. Policies putting them at a disadvantage compared to other employees have been met with discrimination claims in the United Kingdom and the United States. [87] [88] [89]

See also


  1. In Arabic phonology, it can be [rɑmɑˈdˤɑːn, ramadˤɑːn, ræmæˈdˤɑːn], depending on the region.
  2. The hadith of Jabir ibn Abdullah mentions that the Gospel was sent down on the 18th of Ramadan. Aliyev, Rafig Y. (June 2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. ISBN   9781490705217.

Related Research Articles

Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of Resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Dīn. It is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will then be followed by its resurrection and judgment by God. When al-Qiyamah will happen is not specified, but according to prophecy, primarily elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Many verses in the Quran mention the Last Judgment.

Names of God in Islam names of God described in the Quran

According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Attributes of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā. The names are also called 99 Attributes of Allah.

Dua act of supplication

In Islam, duʿāʾ, literally meaning "invocation", is an act of supplication. The term is derived from an Arabic word meaning to 'call out' or to 'summon', and Muslims regard this as a profound act of worship. Muhammad is reported to have said, "Dua is the very essence of worship."

Battle of Badr battle in the early days of Islam

The Battle of Badr, fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE in the Hejaz region of western Arabia, was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th century.

Quba Mosque mosque in Saudi Arabia

The Quba Mosque is a mosque in the outlying environs of Medina, Saudi Arabia.Quba mosque was built six kilometer off Medina in village of Quba, which is currently part of Medina. Depending on whether the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa is older or not, it may be the first mosque in the world that dates to the lifetime of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad in the 7th century CE. According to legend, its first stones were positioned by Muhammad as soon as he arrived on his emigration from the city of Mecca to Medina, and the mosque was completed by his companions. Muhammad spent 14 days in this mosque praying qaṣr while waiting for Ali to arrive in Medina, after the latter stayed behind in Mecca to carry out a couple of tasks entrusted to him by the Prophet.

Al Fātiḥah 1st chapter of the Quran

Al-Fātiḥah is the first chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. Its seven verses (āyāt) are a prayer for the guidance, lordship and mercy of God. This chapter has an essential role in Islamic prayer (salāt). The primary literal meaning of the expression "al-Fātiḥah" is "The Opener," which could refer to this Surah being "the opener of the Book", to its being the first Surah recited in full in every prayer cycle (rakʿah), or to the manner in which it serves as an opening for many functions in everyday Islamic life. Some Muslims interpret it as a reference to an implied ability of the Surah to open a person to faith in God.

The Fajr prayer is an obligatory prayer with two rakat, and one of the five daily prayers offered by practising Muslims. Fajr means dawn in the Arabic language. The five daily prayers collectively form one pillar of the Five Pillars of Islam, in Sunni Islam, and one of the ten Practices of the Religion according to Shia Islam.

Witr is an Islamic prayer (salat) that is performed at night after isha'a or before fajr. According to the Hanafi Fiqh witr prayer is wajib. The status of wajib is very close to that of fard. There are a few distinguishing factors of the witr prayer that sets it apart from the fard (mandatory) and sunnah (recommended) prayers. Witr has an odd number of rakat prayed in pairs, with the final raka'ah prayed separately. Therefore, as little as one rakat can be prayed, and eleven at most. This differs from the usual trend of two, three and four rakat of the fard and sunnah prayers.

<i>Sahih al-Bukhari</i> most famous collection of hadith in Sunni Islam

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, also known as Bukhari Sharif, is one of the Kutub al-Sittah of Sunni Islam. These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Bukhari, after being transmitted orally for generations. It was completed around 846 AD / 232 AH. Sunni Muslims view this as one of the two most trusted collections of hadith along with Sahih Muslim. The Arabic word sahih translates as authentic or correct. Sahih al-Bukhari, together with Sahih Muslim is known as Sahihayn.

Suhur in Islam, meal before fasting, eaten in the morning before sunrise, during Ramadan

Suhūr or Suhoor (Arabic: سحور‎ saḥūr, lit. "of the dawn", "pre-dawn meal"; is an Islamic term referring to the meal consumed early in the morning by Muslims before fasting, sawm, before dawn during or outside the Islamic month of Ramadan. It is usually done around 4:00 AM. The meal is eaten before fajr prayer.Also, Fajr Prayer can be prayed after Suhoor. Suhur is matched to iftar as the evening meal, during Ramadan, replacing the traditional three meals a day, although in some places dinner is also consumed after Iftar later during the night. Being the last meal eaten by Muslims before fasting from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan, sahur is regarded by Islamic traditions as a benefit of the blessings in that it allows the person fasting to avoid the crankiness or the weakness caused by the fast.

Tarawih addendum of a varying number of rakaat to Isha prayer during Ramadan

Tarawih refers to extra prayers performed by Sunni Muslims at night in the Islamic Every Third Part Of Night.

In Islam, bid‘ah refers to innovation in religious matters. Linguistically the term means "innovation, novelty, heretical doctrine, heresy".

The hadith of the twelve successors, or twelve caliphs is an Islamic prophecy, attributed to Muhammad. It is most popular among Twelver Shiites, as they interpret the prophecy was fulfilled by The Twelve Imams. The hadith is widely accepted by all Muslim groups but its interpretation varies heavily.

Hadith of the pen and paper Wikimedia list article

The Hadith of the pen and paper refers to an event where the Islamic prophet Muhammad expressed a wish to write something down shortly before his death, but was refused and insulted by Umar. The hadith is referenced in both Shia and Sunni traditions, and the event has been called "one of the most hideous scenes in the history of Islam."

Sunnah prayer optional Islamic prayers that were performed regularly by Muhammad

Sunnah prayer is an optional or supererogatory salah that can be performed by Muslims at almost any time of the day. These prayers are performed in addition to the five daily prayers, which are compulsory for all Muslims. There are a range of prayers available: some are done at the same time as the compulsory prayers, some are done only at certain times, e.g. late at night, and some are only done for specific occasions such as during a drought. All of these optional prayers were originally performed by Muhammad.

A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims is about comment made by Imran ibn Husain, one of the companions of Muhammad and a Narrator of hadith. The comment was regarding the prohibition of Mut'ah, a word with several meanings.

Humour in Islam

Humour in Islam, is an accepted tradition dating back to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Miracles of Muhammad

The Miracles of Muhammad are a number of supernatural occurrences, which as claimed by Islamic tradition were made by Muhammad during his lifetime. These miracles are shown either in the Quran or, in the vast majority of cases, in the hadith. Muhammad's miracles encompass a broad range, such as the multiplication of food, manifestation of water, hidden knowledge, prophesies, healing, punishment, and power over nature.

Al-Masad 111th chapter of the Quran

Sūrat al-Masad is the 111th chapter (sura) of the Quran with 5 verses. Verse 1 mentions one of Muhammad's adversaries named Abū Lahab. This surah takes its name from verse 5 in which the phrase “ḥablun min masad” occurs that mentions the palm fibre rope that in hellfire shall be twisted around the neck of the wife of Muhammad’s uncle, who bitterly opposed Islam; for she took great pride in wearing an ostentatious necklace she became known for and would slip by night to strew thorns and prickly plants in Muhammad’s path to injure his feet.


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