Common Era

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Common Era or Current Era (CE) [1] is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era. BCE (Before the Common Era or Before the Current Era) is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian BC and AD system respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord") [2] and BC ("before Christ"). Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, "2019 CE" corresponds to "AD 2019" and "500 BCE" corresponds to "500 BC". [2] [3] [4] [lower-alpha 1] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar). The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars. [5]

A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era. The instant, date, or year from which time is marked is called the epoch of the era. There are many different calendar eras such as Saka Era.

<i>Anno Domini</i> Western calendar era

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ".

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.


The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin usage annus aerae nostrae vulgaris, [6] [7] and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar [lower-alpha 2] Era". The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, [8] and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish religious scholars. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications, and more generally by authors and publishers wishing to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians, by not explicitly referencing Jesus as "Christ" and Dominus ("Lord") through use of the abbreviation [lower-alpha 3] "AD". [10] [11]

Johannes Kepler 17th-century German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer

Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer. He is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae. These works also provided one of the foundations for Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

Jesus Central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

<i>Christ</i> (title) messianic dimension of Jesus, biblical figure

In Christianity, Christ is a title for the saviour and redeemer who would bring salvation to the whole House of Israel. Christians believe Jesus is the Israelite messiah foretold in both the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. Christ, used by Christians as both a name and a title, is synonymous with Jesus.



The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. [12] He attempted to number years from an initial reference date ("epoch"), an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. [12] [13] [14] Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi". [15]

Dionysius Exiguus was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor. He was a member of a community of Scythian monks concentrated in Tomis, the major city of Scythia Minor. Dionysius is best known as the inventor of the Anno Domini (AD) era, which is used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar and the (Christianised) Julian calendar. Some churches adopted his computus (calculation) for the dates of Easter.

Incarnation (Christianity)

In Christian theology, the incarnation is the belief that Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, also known as God the Son or the Logos, "was made flesh" by being conceived in the womb of a woman, the Virgin Mary, also known as the Theotokos. The doctrine of the incarnation, then, entails that Jesus is fully God and fully human.

Numbering years in this manner became more widespread in Europe with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, [16] and the practice of not using a year zero. [lower-alpha 4] In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius. [17]

Bede 7th and 8th-century Anglo-Saxon monk, writer, and saint

Bede, also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands likely belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present-day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and later joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles, even visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria. He is well known as an author, teacher, and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates. One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort that was mired with controversy. He also helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which eventually became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Western Europe region comprising the westerly countries of Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is commonly used, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses.

Vulgar Era

Johannes Kepler first used "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Christian calendar from the regnal year typically used in national law. Johannes Kepler 1610.jpg
Johannes Kepler first used "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Christian calendar from the regnal year typically used in national law.

The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year, the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. (The word 'vulgar' originally meant 'of the ordinary people', with no derogatory associations).

A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule. Regnal years considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.

The first use of the Latin term anno aerae nostrae vulgaris [lower-alpha 5] discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler. [7] Kepler uses it again, as ab Anno vulgaris aerae, in a 1616 table of ephemerides, [18] and again, as ab anno vulgaris aerae, in 1617. [19] A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found usage of Vulgar Era in English. [20] A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". [21] A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." [22] [23] A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity". [24]

In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris gives the trajectory of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky, i.e., the position over time. The etymology is from Latin ephemeris, meaning 'diary' and from Greek, Modern εφημερίς (ephemeris), meaning 'diary, journal'. Historically, positions were given as printed tables of values, given at regular intervals of date and time. The calculation of these tables was one of the first applications of mechanical computers. Modern ephemerides are often computed electronically, from mathematical models of the motion of astronomical objects and the Earth. However, printed ephemerides are still produced, as they are useful when computational devices are not available.

Humphrey Prideaux Dean of Norwich

Humphrey Prideaux was an English churchman and orientalist, Dean of Norwich from 1702. His sympathies inclined to Low Churchism in religion and to Whiggism in politics.

The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase annus aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book. [25] In 1649, the Latin phrase annus æræ Christianæ appeared in the title of an English almanac. [26] A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era". [27]

The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, [8] and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". [28] A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews. [29] The first-so-far found usage of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that also uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms, in a translation of a book originally written in German. [30] The 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously. [31] In 1835, in his book Living Oracles , Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days", [32] and also refers to the common era as a synonym for vulgar era with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..." [33] The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) in at least one article reports all three terms (Christian, Vulgar, Common Era) being commonly understood by the early 20th century. [34]

The phrase "common era", in lower case, also appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", [35] [36] "the common era of the Mahometans", [37] "common era of the world", [38] "the common era of the foundation of Rome". [39] When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation", [40] "common era of the Nativity", [41] or "common era of the birth of Christ". [42]

An adapted translation of Common Era into pseudo-Latin [lower-alpha 6] as Era Vulgaris was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD. [44]

History of the use of the CE/BCE abbreviation

Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they often use the Gregorian calendar, without the AD prefix. [45] As early as 1825, the abbreviation VE (for Vulgar Era) was in use among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar. [46] Common Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for "more than a century".[ when? ] [47] Some Jewish academics were already using the CE and BCE abbreviations by the mid-19th century, such as in 1856, when Rabbi and historian Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviation in his book Post-Biblical History of The Jews. [48] [lower-alpha 7]

In general publications, in the 200 years between 1808 and 2008 the ratio of usage of BCE to BC has increased by about 20% and CE to AD by about 50%, primarily since 1980. [50]

Contemporary usage

Some academics in the fields of theology, education and history have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement. [51]

More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. [52] Even some style guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the Episcopal Diocese Maryland Church News. [53]

In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is growing. [47] Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the College Board in its history tests, [54] and by the Norton Anthology of English Literature. Others have taken a different approach. The US-based History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism. [55]

In 2002, England and Wales introduced the BCE/CE notation system into the official school curriculum. [56]

In June 2006, in the United States, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision to use BCE and CE in the state's new Program of Studies, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level. [57] [58] [59]

Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation. [60] The story became national news and drew opposition from some politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority denied the rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and BCE as an optional suggested learning activity. [61]



The use of CE in Jewish scholarship was historically motivated by the desire to avoid the implicit "Our Lord" in the abbreviation AD.[ citation needed ] Although other aspects of dating systems are based in Christian origins, AD is a direct reference to Jesus as Lord. [62] [63]

Proponents of the Common Era notation assert that the use of BCE/CE shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians, but who are not themselves Christian. [64]

Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan [65] has argued:

[T]he Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures – different civilizations, if you like – that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era. [66]

Adena K. Berkowitz, when arguing at the Supreme Court opted to use BCE and CE because "Given the multicultural society that we live in, the traditional Jewish designations – B.C.E. and C.E. – cast a wider net of inclusion". [67]


Some oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons. Because the BC/AD notation is based on the traditional year of the conception or birth of Jesus, some Christians are offended by the removal of the reference to him in era notation. [68] The Southern Baptist Convention supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations. [69] Roman Catholic priest and writer on interfaith issues Raimon Panikkar argued that the BCE/CE usage is the less inclusive option as, in his view, using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most bigoted Christian colonialism" towards non-Christians, who do not necessarily consider the time period following the beginning of the calendar to be a "common era". [70]

There are also secular concerns. English language expert Kenneth G. Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting aside the AD/BC convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system [that is, the method of numbering years] itself, given its Christian basis." [71] The short lived French Republican Calendar, for example, began with the first year of the French First Republic and rejected the seven-day week (with its connections to the Book of Genesis) for a ten-day week.

According to a Los Angeles Times report, it was a student's use of BCE/CE notation, inspired by its use within Wikipedia, which prompted the teacher and politician Andrew Schlafly to found Conservapedia, a cultural conservative wiki. [72] One of its "Conservapedia Commandments" is that users must always apply BC/AD notation, since its sponsors perceive BCE/CE notation to "deny the historical basis" of the dating system. [73]

Conventions in style guides

The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all). [71] Thus, the current year is written as 2019 in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as 2019 CE, or as AD 2019), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with periods (e.g., "B.C.E." or "C.E."). [74] Style guides for academic texts on religion generally prefer BCE/CE to BC/AD. [75]

Similar conventions in other languages

See also


  1. Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the astronomical system and the ISO 8601 standard, do use a year zero. The year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601 dating requires use of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however, whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow use of either the Gregorian or Julian calendars.
  2. From the Latin word vulgus , the common people — to contrast it with the regnal year system of dating used by the Government.
  3. AD is shortened from anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi ("in the year of Our Lord Jesus Christ"). [9]
  4. As noted in History of the zero, the use of zero in Western civilization was uncommon before the twelfth century.
  5. In Latin, Common Era is written as Aera Vulgaris. It also occasionally appears, in Latin declination, as æræ vulgaris, aerae vulgaris, aeram vulgarem, anni vulgaris, vulgaris aerae Christianae, and anni vulgatae nostrae aerae Christianas.
  6. Unfortunately the Latin word era means 'mistress' (the English word 'era' translates to Latin as aera), so Era Vulgaris translates to English as "Common Mistress". [43]
  7. The term common era does not appear in this book; the term Christian era [lowercase] does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly. [49]

Related Research Articles

Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. Thus, it has a year 0; the years before that are designated with negative numbers and the years after that are designated with positive numbers. Astronomers use the Julian calendar for years before 1582, including the year 0, and the Gregorian calendar for years after 1582, as exemplified by Jacques Cassini (1740), Simon Newcomb (1898) and Fred Espenak (2007).

An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.

Year Orbital period of the Earth around the Sun

A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by change in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions, several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked.

AD 1 Year

AD 1 (I), 1 AD or 1 CE is the epoch year for the Anno Domini calendar era. It was the first year of the Common Era (CE), of the 1st millennium and of the 1st century. It was a common year starting on Saturday or Sunday, a common year starting on Saturday by the proleptic Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Monday by the proleptic Gregorian calendar. In its time, year 1 was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caesar and Paullus, named after Roman consuls Gaius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and less frequently, as year 754 AUC within the Roman Empire. The denomination "AD 1" for this year has been in consistent use since the mid-medieval period when the anno Domini (AD) calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. It was the beginning of the Christian/Common era. The preceding year is 1 BC; there is no year 0 in this numbering scheme. The Anno Domini dating system was devised in AD 525 by Dionysius Exiguus.

An epoch, for the purposes of chronology and periodization, is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The "epoch" serves as a reference point from which time is measured.

Year 1 BC was a common year starting on Friday or Saturday of the Julian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. It is also a leap year starting on Saturday, in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lentulus and Piso. The denomination 1 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. The following year is 1 AD in the widely used Julian calendar, which does not have a "year zero".

Thai solar calendar

The Thai solar calendar was adopted by King Chulalongkorn in 1888 CE as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand. Years are now counted in the Buddhist Era (B.E.): พุทธศักราช, พ.ศ., which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar.

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in archaeology, geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the origin of practical radiocarbon dating in the 1950s. The abbreviation "BP" has alternatively been interpreted as "Before Physics"; that is, before nuclear weapons testing artificially altered the proportion of the carbon isotopes in the atmosphere, making dating after that time likely to be unreliable.

The Era of the Martyrs, also known as the Diocletian era, is a method of numbering years used by the Church of Alexandria beginning in the 4th century AD and by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the 5th century to the present. Western Christians were aware of it but did not use it. It was named for the Roman Emperor Diocletian who instigated the last major persecution against Christians in the Empire. Diocletian began his reign 20 November 284 during the Alexandrian year that began on 1 Thoth, the Egyptian New Year, or 29 August 284, so that date was used as the epoch: year one of the Diocletian era began on that date. This era was used to number the year in Easter tables produced by the Church of Alexandria.

Anno Mundi calendar era

Anno Mundi, abbreviated as AM, or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history. Two such calendar eras have seen notable use historically:

Shaka era historical calendar era

The Shaka era is a historical calendar era, corresponding to Julian year 78. It is commonly known in Indian languages as Shalivahana Śaka or RTGS: Mahasakkarat "Greater Era").

The Hijri year or era is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib. This event, known as the Hijra, is commemorated in Islam for its role in the founding of the first Muslim community (ummah).

The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements. The year 2019 in the Holocene calendar is 12019 HE. The HE scheme was first proposed by Cesare Emiliani in 1993.

Anno Lucis Dating system used in Freemasonry

Anno Lucis is a dating system used in Masonic ceremonial or commemorative proceedings, which is equivalent to the Gregorian year plus 4000. It is similar to Anno Mundi.

Year zero does not exist in the anno Domini system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar. In this system, the year 1 BC is followed by AD 1. However, there is a year zero in astronomical year numbering and in ISO 8601:2004 as well as in all Buddhist and Hindu calendars.

The Spanish era or era of Caesar was a dating system commonly used in the states of the Iberian Peninsula from the 3rd century until the 14th–15th centuries, when it was phased out in favour of the Anno Domini system. Year one of this calendar era coincides with what is now known as 38 BC, possibly the date of a new tax imposed by the Roman Republic on the subdued population of Iberia. Whatever the case, the date signifies the beginning of the Pax Romana in Iberia.

Byzantine calendar The calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728

The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World", was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. It was also the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire from 988 to 1453, and of Kievan Rus' and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. Since "Byzantine" is a historiographical term, the original name uses the adjective "Roman" as it was what the Eastern Roman Empire continued calling itself.

The Sardica paschal table or Sardica document is a document from a Latin manuscript of the 7th/8th century AD. It is a copy in Latin translation of the creed of the Eastern Christian bishops attending the Council of Sardica who, fearing that their deliberations would be dominated by Western bishops, met separately at Philippopolis. Appended to the creed and anathemas is a table of Paschal full moon dates, given as dates in the Julian calendar, for the years 328 to 357, together with a list of dates of 14 Nisan in the Jewish calendar, also referred to the Julian calendar, for the years 328 to 343, the year of the Council. The calendrical information contained in the document has been used by scholars in tracing the history of the computus and of the Hebrew calendar.


  1. BBC Team (8 February 2005). "History of Judaism 63 BCE – 1086 CE". BBC Religion & Ethics. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  2. 1 2 "Anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. Retrieved 2011-10-04. Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord
  3. "Controversy over the use of the "CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating notation/". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
  4. "Common Era". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1992.
  5. Richards, E. G. (2012). "Calendars" (PDF). In Urban, S. E.; Seidelmann, P. K. (eds.). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd ed.). Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. p. 585.
  6. Coolman, Robert. "Keeping Time: The Origin of B.C. & A.D." Live Science. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  7. 1 2 "Earliest-found use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1615)" . Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler (1615). Joannis Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum & suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum (in Latin). Francofurti:Tampach. anno aerae nostrae vulgaris
  8. 1 2 first so-far-found use of common era in English (1708). Printed for H. Rhodes. 1708. Retrieved 2011-05-18.The History of the Works of the Learned. 10. London. January 1708. p. 513.
  9. Irvin, Dale T.; Sunquist, Scott (2001). History of the World Christian Movement. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN   0-567-08866-9 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. The influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely used one across the globe today. Many scholars in historical and religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating. For this reason the terms common era and before the common era, abbreviated as CE and BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian historical research.
  10. Andrew Herrmann (27 May 2006). "BCE date designation called more sensitive". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 2016-09-18. Herrmann observes, "The changes – showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks – have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes, "The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians"
  11. McKim, Donald K (1996). Common Era entry. Westminster dictionary of theological terms. ISBN   978-0-664-25511-4 . Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  12. 1 2 Pedersen, O. (1983). "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church". In Coyne, G.V.; et al. (eds.). The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar. Vatican Observatory. p. 50. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  13. Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Sausalito CA: University Science Books, 2.1
  14. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN   978-0-8028-3781-3 . Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  15. Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 52.
  16. Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 778.
  17. "General Chronology". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III. Robert Appleton Company, New York. 1908. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  18. Kepler, Johann (1616). Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1616). Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18.Kepler, Johann (1616). Ephemerides novae motuum caelestium, ab Ānno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII en observationibus potissimum Tychonis Brahei hypothesibus physicis, et tabulis Rudolphinis... Plancus.
  19. Kepler, Johannes; Fabricus, David (1617). Third use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617). sumptibus authoris, excudebat Iohannes Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler, Jakob Bartsch (1617). Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII[-XXXVI]... Johannes Plancus. Part 3 has title: Tomi L Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX. in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M.DC.XXX. * Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636
  20. Kepler, Johann; Vlacq, Adriaan (1635). Earliest so-far-found use of vulgar era in English (1635) . Retrieved 2011-05-18.Johann Kepler; Adriaan Vlacq (1635). Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633...
  21. Clerc, Jean Le (1701). vulgar era in English (1701) . Retrieved 2011-05-18. John LeClerc, ed. (1701). The Harmony of the Evangelists. London: Sam Buckley. p. 5. Before Christ according to the Vulgar AEra, 6
  22. Prideaux, Humphrey (1799). Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716) (reprint ed.). Retrieved 2011-05-18. reckoning it backward from the vulgar era of Christ's incarnation Humphrey Prideaux, D.D. (1716) [from Oxford University Press 1799 (1716 edition not online, 1749 online is Vol 2)]. The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations. 1. Edinburgh. p. 1. This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation.
  23. Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the source. "Merriam Webster Online entry for Vulgar Era" . Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  24. Robert Walker (Rector of Shingham); Newton, Sir Isaac; Falconer, Thomas (1796). "vulgar era of the nativity" (1796). T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies. Retrieved 2011-05-18.Rev. Robert Walker; Isaac Newton; Thomas Falconer (1796). Analysis of Researches Into the Origin and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to ... London: T. Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. p. 10. Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years.
  25. "1584 Latin use of aerae christianae" . Retrieved 2011-05-18. Grynaeus, Johann Jacob; Beumler, Marcus (1584). De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris & administratoris Electoralis Palatinatus, octonis publicis disputationibus (quarum prima est habita 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584, Marco Beumlero respondente) praeses Iohannes Iacobus Grynaeus, orthodoxae fidei rationem interrogantibus placidè reddidit; accessit eiusdem Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit (in Latin) (Editio tertia ed.). Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij. OCLC   123471534. 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584
  26. "1649 use of æræ Christianæ in English book – 1st usage found in English" . Retrieved 2011-05-18.WING, Vincent (1649). Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598, wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations, and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the meridian and latitude of the ancient borough town of Stamford in Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. London: J.L. for the Company of Stationers. anni æræ Christianæ, 1649
  27. first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652) . Retrieved 2016-11-02.Sliter, Robert (1652). A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers.
  28. Gregory, David; John Nicholson; John Morphew (1715). The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. 1. London: printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. p. 252. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of ChristBefore Christ and Christian Era appear on the same page 252, while Vulgar Era appears on page 250
  29. Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). 1759 use of common æra. Printed for C. Bathurst. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). An Universal History: From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time . 13. London: C. Bathurst [etc.] p. 130. at which time they fixed that for their common era In this case, their refers to the Jews.
  30. Von), Jakob Friedrich Bielfeld (Freiherr; Hooper, William (1770). First-so-far found English usage of "before the common era", with "vulgar era" synonymous with "common era" (1770). Printed by G. Scott, for J. Robson and B. Law. Retrieved 2011-05-18.Hooper, William; Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich (1770). The Elements of Universal Erudition: Containing an Analytical Abridgment of the Sciences, Polite Arts, and Belles Lettres. 2. London: G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. pp. 105, 63. in the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era.... The Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years before the common era (p63)
  31. MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "vulgar era" in 1797 EB. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Peter). Retrieved 2011-05-18. St Peter died in the 66th year of the vulgar era
    MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "common era" in 1797 EB. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul). Retrieved 2011-05-18. This happened in the 33rd year of the common era, fome time after our Saviour's death.
    George Gleig, ed. (1797). Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18 volumes). Edinburgh. v. 14 pt. 1 P.
  32. Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 16–20. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  33. Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  34. "Foremost among these [various eras] is that which is now adopted by all civilized peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the twentieth century of which we are now living".
  35. Encyclopedia, Popular (1874). "common era of the Jews" (1874) . Retrieved 2011-05-18. the common era of the Jews places the creation in BC 3760 A. Whitelaw, ed. (1874). Conversations Lexicon. The Popular Encyclopedia. V. Oxford University Press. p. 207.
  36. "common era of the Jews" (1858). Wertheim, MacIntosh & Hunt. 1858. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hence the present year, 1858, in the common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200 years from our commonly-received chronology.Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile, MA (1858). The first and second Advent: or, The past and the future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God. London: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. p. 176.
  37. Gumpach, Johannes von (1856). "common era of the Mahometans" (1856) . Retrieved 2011-05-18. Its epoch is the first of March old style. The common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of the flight of Mahomet.Johannes von Gumpach (1856). Practical tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar. Oxford University. p. 4.
  38. Jones, William (1801). "common era of the world" (1801). F. and C. Rivington. Retrieved 2011-05-18.Jones, William (1801). The Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William Jones. London: Rivington.
  39. Alexander Fraser Tytler, HON (1854). "common era of the foundation of Rome" (1854) . Retrieved 2011-05-18. Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (1854). Universal History: From the Creation of the World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century. Boston: Fetridge and Company. p. 284.
  40. Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1833). "common era of the Incarnation" (1833). A. & C. Black. Retrieved 2011-05-18.The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. V (9 ed.). New York: Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833. p. 711.
  41. Todd, James Henthorn (1864). "common era" "of the Nativity" (1864). Hodges, Smith & co. Retrieved 2011-05-18. It should be observed, however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being, therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our Lord. James Henthorn Todd (1864). St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission. Dublin: Hodges, Smith & Co, Publishers to the University. pp. 495, 496, 497.
  42. "common era of the birth of Christ" (1812). printed by A.J. Valpy for T. Payne. 1812. Retrieved 2011-05-18.Heneage Elsley (1812). Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd edition) (2nd ed.). London: A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. xvi.
  43. C.f. every good Latin dictionary, e.g.,,, pons (English/German) Archived 2013-12-27 at the Wayback Machine , pons (German) or (German)
  44. "What is Thelema?" . Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  45. Tracey R Rich. "Judaism 101" . Retrieved 2011-05-18. Jews do not generally use the words "A.D." and "B.C." to refer to the years on the Gregorian calendar. "A.D." means "the year of our L-rd," and we do not believe Jesus is the L-rd. Instead, we use the abbreviations C.E. (Common or Christian Era) and B.C.E. (Before the Common Era).
  46. "Plymouth, England Tombstone inscriptions". Jewish Communities & Records. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Here is buried his honour Judah ben his honour Joseph, a prince and honoured amongst philanthropists, who executed good deeds, died in his house in the City of Bath, Tuesday, and was buried here on Sunday, 19 Sivan in the year 5585. In memory of Lyon Joseph Esq (merchant of Falmouth, Cornwall). who died at Bath June AM 5585/VE 1825. Beloved and respected.[19 Sivan 5585 AM is June 5, 1825. VE is likely an abbreviation for Vulgar Era.]
  47. 1 2 Gormley, Michael (24 April 2005). "Use of B.C. and A.D. faces changing times". Houston Chronicle. p. A–13. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  48. Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Post-Biblical History of The Jews. Retrieved from
  49. Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Search for era in this book. Moss & Brother. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  50. "Google Ngram Viewer".
  51. See, for example, the Society for Historical Archaeology states in its more recent style guide "Do not use C.E. (common era), B.P. (before present), or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C." (In section I 5 the Society explains how to use "years B.P." in connection with radiocarbon ages.) Society for Historical Archaeology (December 2006). "Style Guide" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2017-01-16. whereas the American Anthropological Association style guide takes a different approach calling for "C.E." and "B.C.E." American Anthropological Society (2009). "AAA Style Guide" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
  52. "Submission Guidelines for The Ostracon". The Ostracon – Journal of the Egyptian Studies Society. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18. For dates, please use the now-standard "BCE–CE" notation, rather than "BC–AD." Authors with strong religious preferences may use "BC–AD," however.
  53. "Maryland Church News Submission Guide & Style Manual" (PDF). Maryland Church News. 1 April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  54. "AP: World History" . Retrieved 2011-05-18.
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  56. "AD and BC become CE/BCE". 9 February 2002. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
  57. "State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy". Family Foundation of Kentucky. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  58. Joe Biesk (15 June 2006). "School board keeps traditional historic designations". Louisville Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  59. "Kentucky Board of Education Report" (PDF). Kentucky Board of Education Report. 10 June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  60. "Australia goes all PC with a ban on BC: Birth of Jesus to be removed as reference point for dates in school history books". Daily Mail. London. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
  61. "AD/BC rock solid in curriculum". The Age. Melbourne. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
  62. The American and English Encyclopedia of Law and Practice. 1910. p. 1116. It has been said of the Latin words anno Domini, meaning in the year of our Lord [...]
  63. Michael McDowell; Nathan Robert Brown (2009). World Religions At Your Fingertips. Penguin. p. 38. ISBN   978-1-101-01469-1. Marked by the turn of the Common Era, C.E., originally referred to as A.D., an abbreviation of the Latin Anno Domini, meaning "Year of our God/Lord." This was a shortening of Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, meaning "Year of our God/Lord Jesus Christ."
  64. "Comments on the use of CE and BCE to identify dates in history". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  65. Lefevere, Patricia (11 December 1998). "Annan: 'Peace is never a perfect achievement' – United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  66. Annan, Kofi A., (then Secretary-General of the United Nations) (28 June 1999). "Common values for a common era: Even as we cherish our diversity, we need to discover our shared values". Civilization: The Magazine of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  67. |author=Safire, William |date=17 August 1997
  68. Whitney, Susan (2 December 2006). "Altering history? Changes have some asking 'Before what?'". The Deseret News. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18. I find this attempt to restructure history offensive," Lori Weintz wrote, in a letter to National Geographic publishers.... The forward to your book says B.C. and A.D. were removed so as to 'not impose the standards of one culture on others.'... It's 2006 this year for anyone on Earth that is participating in day-to-day world commerce and communication. Two thousand six years since what? Most people know, regardless of their belief system, and aren't offended by a historical fact.
  69. "On Retaining The Traditional Method Of Calendar Dating (B.C./A.D.)". Southern Baptist Convention. June 2000. Retrieved 2011-05-18. This practice [of BCE/CE] is the result of the secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness pervasive in our society... retention [of BC/AD] is a reminder to those in this secular age of the importance of Christ's life and mission and emphasizes to all that history is ultimately His Story.
  70. Panikkar, Raimon (2004). "Christophany: The Fullness of Man". Maryville, NY: Orbis Books: 173. ISBN   978-1-57075-564-4 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. To call our age "the Common Era," even though for the Jews, the Chinese, the Tamil, the Muslims, and many others it is not a common era, constitutes the acme of colonialism.
  71. 1 2 Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia Guide to Standard American English – A.D., B.C., (A.)C.E., B.C.E. Columbia University Press. ISBN   978-0-231-06989-2 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. A.D. appears either before or after the number of the year... although conservative use has long preferred before only; B.C. always follows the number of the year.... Common era (C.E.) itself needs a good deal of further justification, in view of its clearly Christian numbering. Most conservatives still prefer A.D. and B.C. Best advice: don't use B.C.E., C.E., or A.C.E. to replace B.C. and A.D. without translating the new terms for the very large number of readers who will not understand them. Note too that if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given its Christian basis.
  72. Simon, Stephanie (22 June 2007). "A conservative's answer to Wikipedia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
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  74. "Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition". University of Chicago Press. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Certain abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps (AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option.
  75. SBL Handbook of Style Society of Biblical Literature 1999 "8.1.2 ERAS – The preferred style is B.C.E. and C.E. (with periods). If you use A.D. and B.C., remember that A.D. precedes the date and B.C. follows it. (For the use of these abbreviations in titles, see §"
  76. 1 2 "GERMANY: Jewish Joke". Time. 7 March 1938. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
  77. Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Ein unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse, II. Jahrgang, No. 60, Leipzig, 19. Mai 1838 (19 May 1838). See page 175 in Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums: Ein unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse in Betreff von Politik, Religion, Literatur, Geschichte, Sprachkunde und Belletristik, Volume 2 (Leipzig 1838).
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  79. von und zu Guttenberg, Karl Ludwig Freiherr (May 1938). "Weiße Blätter: Monatschrift für Geschichte, Tradition u. Staat" (PDF). p. 149. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
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