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A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarchs and popes during their reigns and, subsequently, historically. Since ancient times, some monarchs have chosen to use a different name from their original name when they accede to the monarchy.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication.
The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.
A reign is the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation, of a people or of a spiritual community. In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency, nor is there a term of office. Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed.
The regnal name is usually followed by a regnal number, written as a Roman numeral, to differentiate that monarch from others who have used the same name while ruling the same realm. In some cases, the monarch has more than one regnal name, but the regnal number is based on only one of those names, for example Charles X Gustav of Sweden, George Tupou V of Tonga. If a monarch reigns in more than one realm, he or she may carry different ordinals in each one, as some realms may have had different numbers of rulers of the same regnal name. For example, the same person was both King James I of England and King James VI of Scotland.
Regnal numbers are ordinal numbers used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office. Most importantly, they are used to distinguish monarchs. An ordinal is the number placed after a monarch's regnal name to differentiate between a number of kings, queens or princes reigning the same territory with the same regnal name.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he also succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless king Christopher of Bavaria (1441–1448) and he was the first king of the Swedish Caroline era, which had its peak during the end of the reign of his son, Charles XI. He led Sweden during the Second Northern War, enlarging the Swedish Empire. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland (Öland) before ascending to the Swedish throne.
George Tupou V was the King of Tonga from the death of his father Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV in 2006 until his own death six years later.
The ordinal is not normally used for the first ruler of the name, but is used in historical references once the name is used again. Thus, Queen Elizabeth I of England was called simply "Elizabeth of England" until the accession of Queen Elizabeth II almost four centuries later in 1952; subsequent historical references to the earlier queen retroactively refer to her as Elizabeth I. However, Tsar Paul I of Russia, King Umberto I of Italy, King Juan Carlos I of Spain, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia and Pope John Paul I all used the ordinal I (first) during their reigns, while Pope Francis does not. In spoken English, such names are pronounced as "Elizabeth the First", "George the Sixth", etc.
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who also had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova.
In some countries in Asia, monarchs took or take era names. While era names as such are not used in many monarchies, sometimes eras are named after a monarch (usually long-lived), or a succession of monarchs of the same name. This is customary; there is no formal or general rule. For example, the whole period during which a succession of four Georges (George I, II, III, and IV) of the Hanoverian dynasty reigned in Great Britain became known as the Georgian era. Conversely, although there were many Edwards, the Edwardian era always refers to the reign of Edward VII at the beginning of the 20th century.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers. Some emperors have several era names, one after another, where each beginning of a new era resets the numbering of the year back to year one or yuán (元). The numbering of the year increases on the first day of the Chinese calendar each year. The era name originated as a motto or slogan chosen by an emperor.
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death in 1727.
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
Ancient rulers in many parts of the world took regnal names or throne names which were different from their personal name. This is known to be true, for instance, of several kings of Assyria, and appears to be the case for several Kings of Judah. In Ancient Egypt, Pharaohs took a number of names – the praenomen being the most commonly used, on occasion in conjunction with their personal name.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant. It existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.
The Kingdom of Judah was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant. The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul, David and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms, Judah and Israel; however, historians are divided about the veracity of this account. For the parallel history of the southern Kingdom of Judah and its northern neighbour, the Kingdom of Israel, see History of ancient Israel and Judah.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
In the Ethiopian Empire, especially during the Solomonic dynasty, many Emperors would take a throne name, though this was not a general practice; a great number of rulers would remain known during their reign by their birth names. Yekuno Amlak, the founder of the Solomonic dynasty, took his father's name, Tasfa Iyasus, as his throne name. Yagbe'u Seyon, his son and heir, took the throne name Salomon after the biblical figure. Amda Seyon took the throne name Gebre Mesqel, "slave of the cross"; Tewodros I was Walda Ambasa, "son of the lion"; Sarwe Iyasus was Mehreka Nañ "distributor of your [the Lord's] mercy"; etc. Tafari Makonnen, the last sovereign Emperor of Ethiopia, took as his throne name Haile Selassie, meaning "Power of the Trinity".
The Ethiopian Empire, also known as Abyssinia, was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current states of Eritrea and Ethiopia. It began with the establishment of the Solomonic dynasty from approximately 1270 and lasted until 1974, when the ruling Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d'état by the Derg.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire. The dynasty's members claim lineal descent from the biblical King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Tradition asserts that the Queen gave birth to Menelik I after her biblically described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty of Ethiopia was overthrown by Yekuno Amlak, who claimed descent from Solomon and reinitiated the Solomonic era of Ethiopia. The dynasty would last until 1974, ended by a coup d'état and deposition of the emperor Haile Selassie.
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity. It is related to the crucifix and to the more general family of cross symbols, the term cross itself being detached from the original specifically Christian meaning in modern English.
In the various extant traditional states of Nigeria, the regnal names of the titled monarchs, who are known locally as the traditional rulers, serve two very important functions within the monarchical system. Firstly, seeing as how most states are organised in such a way as to mean that all of the legitimate descendants of the first man or woman to arrive at the site of any given community are considered its dynastic heirs, their thrones are usually rotated amongst almost endless pools of contending cousins who all share the names of the founders of their houses as primary surnames. In order to tell them all apart from one another, secondary surnames are also used for the septs of each of the royal families that are eligible for the aforementioned rotations, names that often come from the names of state of the first members of their immediate lineages to rule in their lands. Whenever any of their direct heirs ascend the thrones, they often use their septs' names as reign names as well, using the appropriate ordinals to differentiate themselves from the founders of the said septs. An example of this is found in the kingdom of Lagos, where the Adeniji-Adele family is distinguished from their numerous Adele cousins by the word Adeniji, which was actually the first name of the reigning founder of their branch of the dynasty, the Oba Adeniji Adele II. This distinction notwithstanding, both groups of dynasts (as well as a number of other ones that don't have the name Adele as an official surname, such as that of the Oloye Adekunle Ojora, a prominent nobleman of royal descent) are part of what is known as the Adele Ajosun Ruling House of Lagos.
Beyond that which is described above, regnal names also serve in Nigeria and indeed in much of Africa as chronological markers in much the same way that those of Europe do (e.g. the Victorian era). Whenever one hears of a person describing what happened at the time when so and so ruled over any particular place or people, what he or she is actually saying is that an event happened within a finite period of time, one that is equal to the duration of the reign of the monarch in question. Now seeing as how it is possible (and in fact common, particularly among the southern tribes) for one individual to have several different names and aliases in a single life, a certain degree of uniformity in usage is required if the history of an entire state is to be tied to his or her name. It is for this reason that when new monarchs are enthroned, the uniqueness of their names is usually considered to be a matter of considerable importance (even when it is caused by nothing more than the adding of ordinals to them or the allowing of more than a generation to pass before their subsequent usage). An example of this can be found in the kingdom of Benin, where the throne name of Erediauwa I became the surname of all of his immediate family in the Eweka royal house of the state, thus nominally tying them and their descendants to the era of his reign. This is especially obvious when their branch's name is compared to the last names of the said king's brothers and their heirs, named the Akenzuas after his father Akenzua II, and his uncles and their heirs, named the Ewekas after his grandfather Eweka II.
In the case of the comparatively small number of Nigerian monarchs, such as Obi Nnaemeka Achebe of Onitsha, who do not make use of regnal names as a result of a variety of reasons, pre-coronation names are maintained during their reigns.
In parts of East Asia, it is more a rule than an exception that monarchs take additional names when ascending, and quite often discard the name they were known by as princes. Often the assumed name is different from the childhood name, and a new temple name could be assumed. A posthumous name is sometimes accorded to a deceased monarch. Rebel leaders may also take regnal names. The regnal names of some monarchs were long, for example Lý Thái Tổ, Emperor Shizong of Ming and Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire. While many rulers in east Asia (including in China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan) took regnal names based on Chinese characters, some monarchs of Xu, Xiongnu, Tuyuhun Kingdom, Rouran Khaganate, Göktürks, Uyghur Khaganate and Mongol took Chinese transliterated non-Chinese regnal names. For details on the multiple names assumed by individual East Asian monarchs, see:
Some royal family members may receive honorary names such as Huihao and Miyagō.
During the Medieval Age, when the House of Árpád disappeared in 1301, two of the monarchs that claimed the throne and were crowned chose a different name. Otto III, Duke of Bavaria became Bela V of Hungary, taking the name of his maternal grandfather, Béla IV of Hungary. In the other hand, Wenceslaus III of Bohemia signed his royal documents in Hungary as Ladislas, this being a very traditional name in the Kingdom.
Later during the first half of the 14th century, Charles I of Hungary signed as "Carolus rex", but in fact his birth name was the Italian Caroberto. This is why he is often referred to by Hungarian historians as "Charles Robert of Hungary".
All ruling male members of the House of Orange-Nassau bore the name Willem (William). The current king of the Netherlands was christened Willem-Alexander. During an interview in 1997 he said he intended to rule under the name of Willem IV, but he had a change of mind. In a televised interview just before his inauguration, he announced he would continue to use the name Willem-Alexander, saying "I spent 46 years of my life under the name Willem-Alexander, and specifically under the nickname of Alexander. I think it would be weird to discard that because I become king of the country." Furthermore, he said he did not consider himself "a mere number", adding that regnal numbers reminded him of Dutch cattle naming conventions.
When the House of Piast disappeared and the Lithuanian House of Jagiellon was elected in the figure of the High Duke Jogaila, this monarch took the name of Władysław II, in honour of the previous Polish king (Władysław I the Elbow-high) with this traditional name. Similarly, when the Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus I, was elected king in 1697, he took the name of Augustus II. His son Frederick Augustus II crowned in 1734, also took the name of Augustus, becoming Augustus III.
The monarchs of Portugal have traditionally used their first baptismal name as their regnal name upon their accession. The only notable exception was Sancho I, who was born Martin of Burgundy (Martinho de Borgonha, in Portuguese). As he was a younger son, Martin was expected to join the clergy, and was named after Saint Martin of Tours, on whose feast day he had been born. When the heir apparent, Henry, died, the prince's name was changed to Sancho, one with a more established royal tradition in the other Iberian monarchies (Navarre, Castile and Aragon).[ citation needed ]
Though most monarchs of the United Kingdom have used their first baptismal name as their regnal name, on three occasions monarchs have chosen a different name.
First, Queen Victoria had been christened Alexandrina Victoria, but took the throne under the name Victoria.
When Victoria's son, Prince Albert Edward, became king in 1901, he took the regnal name Edward VII, against the wish of his late mother.The new king declared that he chose the name Edward alone as an honoured name borne by six of his predecessors, and that he did not wish to diminish the status of his father, with whom alone among royalty the name Albert should be associated.
In 1936, after the abdication crisis, Prince Albert, Duke of York, assumed the throne as King George VI rather than "King Albert". His full name was Albert Frederick Arthur George; like Edward VII and Victoria he used another of his names.
There has been speculation that the current heir apparent to the British throne, Charles, Prince of Wales, whose full name is Charles Philip Arthur George, may elect not to be known as "Charles III" out of concern about comparisons with Charles II of England (who was known for his Catholic sympathies), Charles I of England (who was executed after the English Civil War) and the Jacobite memory of the "Young Pretender" Charles Edward Stuart (who claimed the title "Charles III").He may instead choose to be known as George VII in honour of his grandfather. However, the Prince has not as yet announced any decision.
When John, Earl of Carrick ascended the Scottish throne in 1390, it was deemed imprudent for him to take the regnal name of "John II", as recent kings named John had turned out badly: in England as well as in Scotland. Furthermore, royal propaganda of the time held that John Balliol had not been a legitimate king of Scotland, making the new king's regnal number also a tricky issue. To avoid these problems, John took the regnal name of Robert III, honouring his father and great-grandfather.
Upon the accession, in 1952, of Elizabeth II the title Elizabeth II caused controversy in Scotland as there had never been a Scottish Elizabeth I. The Prime Minister Winston Churchill informed the British House of Commons that the practice since the Union was to use the higher numeral. New Royal Mail post boxes in Scotland, bearing the cypher EIIR, were vandalised, after which, to avoid further problems, post boxes and Royal Mail vehicles in Scotland bore only the Crown of Scotland. A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), contested the right of the Queen to title herself Elizabeth II in Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of the Act of Union. The case, however, was lost on the grounds that the pursuers had no title to sue the Crown, and also that the numbering of monarchs was part of the royal prerogative, and thus not governed by the Act of Union.
The Roman Emperors usually had the titles of Imperator Caesar Augustus in their names. (which made their regnal names) Caesar came from the cognomen of Gaius Julius Caesar, Imperator meant Commander and Augustus meant venerable or majestic. The name usually went in two ways, Imperator (Praenomen, Nomen and Cognomen) Caesar Augustus or Imperator Caesar (Praenomen, Nomen and Cognomen) Augustus. Also Imperator became a Praenomen of Roman Emperors, Augustus and Caesar became a cognomen of theirs.
Immediately after a new pope is elected, and accepts the election, he is asked by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, "By what name shall you be called?" The new pope chooses the name by which he will be known. The senior Cardinal Deacon, or Cardinal Protodeacon, then appears on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica to proclaim the new Pope, informing the world of the man elected Pope, and under which name he would be known during his reign.
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum:
Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum,
Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Cardinalem [surname],
qui sibi nomen imposuit [papal name].
I announce to you a great joy:
We have a Pope,
The Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord,
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname],
who conferred upon himself the name [papal name].
During the first centuries of the church, priests elected bishop of Rome continued to use their baptismal names after their elections. The custom of choosing a new name began in AD 533 with the election of Mercurius. Mercurius had been named after the Roman god Mercury, and decided that it would not be appropriate for a pope to be named after a Roman god. Mercurius subsequently decreed that he would be known as John II. Since the end of the tenth century the pope has customarily chosen a new name for himself during his Pontificate; however, until the 16th century some pontiffs used their baptismal names.
The last pope to use his baptismal name was Pope Marcellus II in 1555, a choice that was even then quite exceptional. The names chosen by popes are not based on any system other than general honorifics. They have been based on immediate predecessors, mentors, political similarity, or even after family members—as was the case with Pope John XXIII. The practice of using the baptismal name as papal name has not been ruled out and future popes could elect to continue using their original names after being elected pope.
Often the new pontiff's choice of name upon being elected to the papacy is seen as a signal to the world of whom the new pope will emulate or what policies he will seek to enact. Such is the case with Benedict XVI who, in fact, explained the reasons for his choice of name during his first General Audience in St. Peter's Square, on 27 April 2005. On that occasion, he said that he wanted to remember "Pope Benedict XV, that courageous prophet of peace, who guided the Church through turbulent times of war", and also "Saint Benedict of Nursia, co-patron of Europe, whose life evokes the Christian roots of Europe".
There has never been a Pope Peter II. Even though there is no specific prohibition against choosing the name Peter, bishops elected to the Papacy have refrained from doing so even if their own given name was Peter. This is because of a tradition that only Saint Peter should have that honor. In the 10th century John XIV used the regnal name John because his given name was Peter. While some antipopes did take the name Peter II, their claims are not recognized by the mainstream Roman Catholic Church, and each of these men only either has or had a minuscule following that recognized their claims.
Probably because of the controversial Antipope John XXIII, new popes avoided taking the regnal name John for over 600 years until the election of Angelo Cardinal Roncalli in 1958. Immediately after his election, there was some confusion as to whether he would be known as John XXIII or John XXIV. Cardinal Roncalli thus moved to immediately resolve by declaring that he would be known as John XXIII.
In 1978, Albino Luciani became the first pope to use two names for his regnal name when he took the name John Paul I, including the "I". He took the "John Paul" name to honor both John XXIII and Paul VI. With the unexpected death of John Paul I a little over a month later, Karol Wojtyła took the name John Paul II to honor his immediate predecessor.
Antipopes also have regnal names, and also use the ordinal to show their position in the line of previous pontiffs with their names. For example, David Bawden took the name Michael I when declared pope in 1990.
Coptic Popes also choose regnal names distinct from their given names.
The use of regnal names (in Arabic, laḳab (sing.) alḳāb (pl.)) was uncommon in the Medieval Islamic era until the Abbasid Caliphate, when the first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad, who overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate, used the laḳab as-Saffah ("the Generous"). This name carried a messianic association, a theme that would be continued by as-Saffah's successors. The use of regnal names among the caliphs lasted throughout the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, until the institution was deposed after the defeat of the Mamluk Sultanate and the capture of Caliph Al-Mutawakkil III by the Ottoman Army in 1517.
The Fatimid caliphs adopted the Abbasid use of alḳāb to assert their claims of authority.
An emperor is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor.
Year 654 (DCLIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 654 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.
Frederick II was the regent and subsequent King of Sicily from 1295 until his death. He was the third son of Peter III of Aragon and served in the War of the Sicilian Vespers on behalf of his father and brothers, Alfonso ΙΙΙ and James ΙΙ. He was confirmed as King of Trinacria by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. His reign saw important constitutional reforms: the Constitutiones regales, Capitula alia, and Ordinationes generales.
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively.
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus, consul and pontifex maximus.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible. The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event.
An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question. The position is however subject to law and/or conventions that may alter who is entitled to be heir presumptive.
The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empereür. The Roman emperors themselves generally based their authority on multiple titles and positions, rather than preferring any single title. Nevertheless, imperator was used relatively consistently as an element of a Roman ruler's title throughout the principate and the dominate. In Latin, the feminine form of Imperator is imperatrix.
King of the Romans was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope.
An interregnum is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next, and the concepts of interregnum and regency therefore overlap. Historically, the longer and heavier interregna were typically accompanied by widespread unrest, civil and succession wars between warlords, and power vacuums filled by foreign invasions or the emergence of a new power. A failed state is usually in interregnum.
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years. The present style is officially proclaimed in two languages:
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule. Regnal years considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.
A substantive title is a title of nobility or royalty acquired either by individual grant or inheritance. It is to be distinguished from a title shared among cadets, borne as a courtesy title by a peer's relatives, or acquired through marriage.
Although in the past the style of British Emperor has been (retroactively) applied to a few mythical and historical rulers of Great Britain, Ireland or the United Kingdom, it is sometimes used as a colloquialism to designate either Plantagenet and Tudor caesaropapism or, more frequently, the British sovereign of the Empire of India.
The following is a list of the official regnal years of the monarchs of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain and United Kingdom from 1066. The regnal calendar is used in many official British government and legal documents of historical interest, notably parliamentary statutes.