|Act of Parliament|
|Long title||An Act for a Union of the Two Kingdoms of England and Scotland|
|Citation||1706 c. 11|
|Territorial extent||Kingdom of England (inc. Wales); subsequently, Kingdom of Great Britain and United Kingdom|
|Commencement||1 May 1707|
Status: Current legislation
|Revised text of statute as amended|
|Act of Parliament|
|Long title||Act Ratifying and Approving the Treaty of Union of the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England|
|Citation||1707 c. 7|
|Territorial extent||Kingdom of Scotland; subsequently, Kingdom of Great Britain and United Kingdom|
|Commencement||1 May 1707|
Status: Current legislation
|Revised text of statute as amended|
|Constitutional documents and events relevant to the status of the United Kingdom and its countries|
The Acts of Union (Scottish Gaelic : Achd an Aonaidh) were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act 1707 passed by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. By the two Acts, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland —which at the time were separate states with separate legislatures, but with the same monarch —were, in the words of the Treaty, "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain".
The two countries had shared a monarch since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne from his double first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. Although described as a Union of Crowns, and in spite of James's acknowledgement of his accession to a single Crown,England and Scotland were officially separate Kingdoms until 1707 (as opposed to the implied creation of a single unified Kingdom, exemplified by the later Kingdom of Great Britain). Prior to the Acts of Union there had been three previous attempts (in 1606, 1667, and 1689) to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that both political establishments came to support the idea, albeit for different reasons.
The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707. On this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain, based in the Palace of Westminster in London, the home of the English Parliament.Hence, the Acts are referred to as the Union of the Parliaments.
Prior to 1603, England and Scotland had different monarchs; as Elizabeth I never married, after 1567, her heir-presumptive became the Stuart king of Scotland, James VI, who was brought up as a Protestant. After her death, the two Crowns were held in personal union by James, as James I of England, and James VI of Scotland. He announced his intention to unite the two, using the royal prerogative to take the title "King of Great Britain",and give a British character to his court and person.
The 1603 Union of England and Scotland Act established a joint Commission to agree terms, but the English Parliament was concerned this would lead to the imposition of an absolutist structure similar to that of Scotland. James was forced to withdraw his proposals, and attempts to revive it in 1610 were met with hostility.
Instead, he set about creating a unified Church of Scotland and England, as the first step towards a centralised, Unionist state.However, despite both being nominally Episcopal in structure, the two were very different in doctrine; the Church of Scotland, or kirk, was Calvinist in doctrine, and viewed many Church of England practices as little better than Catholicism. As a result, attempts to impose religious policy by James and his son Charles I ultimately led to the 1639–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The 1639–1640 Bishops' Wars confirmed the primacy of the kirk, and established a Covenanter government in Scotland. The Scots remained neutral when the First English Civil War began in 1642, before becoming concerned at the impact on Scotland of a Royalist victory.Presbyterian leaders like Argyll viewed union as a way to ensure free trade between England and Scotland, and preserve a Presbyterian kirk.
Under the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant, the Covenanters agreed to provide military support for the English Parliament, in return for religious union. Although the treaty referred repeatedly to 'union' between England, Scotland, and Ireland, political union had little support outside the Kirk Party. Even religious union was opposed by the Episcopalian majority in the Church of England, and Independents like Oliver Cromwell, who dominated the New Model Army.
The Scots and English Presbyterians were political conservatives, who increasingly viewed the Independents, and associated radical groups like the Levellers, as a bigger threat than the Royalists. Both Royalists and Presbyterians agreed monarchy was divinely ordered, but disagreed on the nature and extent of Royal authority over the church. When Charles I surrendered in 1646, they allied with their former enemies to restore him to the English throne.
After defeat in the 1647–1648 Second English Civil War, Scotland was occupied by English troops which were withdrawn once the so-called Engagers whom Cromwell held responsible for the war had been replaced by the Kirk Party. In December 1648, Pride's Purge confirmed Cromwell's political control in England by removing Presbyterian MPs from Parliament, and executing Charles in January 1649. Seeing this as sacrilege, the Kirk Party proclaimed Charles II King of Scotland and Great Britain, and agreed to restore him to the English throne.
Defeat in the 1649–1651 Third English Civil War or Anglo-Scottish War resulted in Scotland's incorporation into the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, largely driven by Cromwell's determination to break the power of the kirk, which he held responsible for the Anglo-Scottish War.The 1652 Tender of Union was followed on 12 April 1654 by An Ordinance by the Protector for the Union of England and Scotland, creating the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. It was ratified by the Second Protectorate Parliament on 26 June 1657, creating a single Parliament in Westminster, with 30 representatives each from Scotland and Ireland added to the existing English members.
While integration into the Commonwealth established free trade between Scotland and England, the economic benefits were diminished by the costs of military occupation.Both Scotland and England associated union with heavy taxes and military rule; it had little popular support in either country, and was dissolved after the Restoration of Charles II in 1660.
The Scottish economy was badly damaged by the English Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663 and England's wars with the Dutch Republic, Scotland's major export market. An Anglo-Scots Trade Commission was set up in January 1668 but the English had no interest in making concessions, as the Scots had little to offer in return. In 1669, Charles II revived talks on political union; his motives were to weaken Scotland's commercial and political links with the Dutch, still seen as an enemy and complete the work of his grandfather James I.Continued opposition meant these negotiations were abandoned by the end of 1669.
Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, a Scottish Convention met in Edinburgh in April 1689 to agree a new constitutional settlement; during which the Scottish Bishops backed a proposed union in an attempt to preserve Episcopalian control of the kirk. William and Mary were supportive of the idea but it was opposed both by the Presbyterian majority in Scotland and the English Parliament.Episcopacy in Scotland was abolished in 1690, alienating a significant part of the political class; it was this element that later formed the bedrock of opposition to Union.
The 1690s were a time of economic hardship in Europe as a whole and Scotland in particular, a period now known as the Seven ill years which led to strained relations with England.In 1698, the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies received a charter to raise capital through public subscription. The Company invested in the Darién scheme, an ambitious plan funded almost entirely by Scottish investors to build a colony on the Isthmus of Panama for trade with East Asia. The scheme was a disaster; the losses of over £150,000 severely impacted the Scottish commercial system.
The Acts of Union may be seen within a wider European context of increasing state centralisation during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, including the monarchies of France, Sweden, Denmark and Spain. While there were exceptions, such as the Dutch Republic or the Republic of Venice, the trend was clear.
The dangers of the monarch using one Parliament against the other first became apparent in 1647 and 1651. It resurfaced during the 1679 to 1681 Exclusion Crisis, caused by English resistance to the Catholic James II (of England, VII of Scotland) succeeding his brother Charles. James was sent to Edinburgh in 1681 as Lord High Commissioner; in August, the Scottish Parliament passed the Succession Act, confirming the divine right of kings, the rights of the natural heir "regardless of religion", the duty of all to swear allegiance to that king, and the independence of the Scottish Crown. It then went beyond ensuring James's succession to the Scottish throne by explicitly stating the aim was to make his exclusion from the English throne impossible without "the fatall and dreadfull consequences of a civil war".
The issue reappeared during the 1688 Glorious Revolution. The English Parliament generally supported replacing James with his Protestant daughter Mary, but resisted making her Dutch husband William of Orange joint ruler. They gave way only when he threatened to return to the Netherlands, and Mary refused to rule without him.In Scotland, conflict over control of the kirk between Presbyterians and Episcopalians and William's position as a fellow Calvinist put him in a much stronger position. He originally insisted on retaining Episcopacy, and the Committee of the Articles, an unelected body that controlled what legislation Parliament could debate. Both would have given the Crown far greater control than in England but he withdrew his demands due to the 1689–1692 Jacobite Rising.
The English succession was provided for by the English Act of Settlement 1701, which ensured that the monarch of England would be a Protestant member of the House of Hanover. Until the Union of Parliaments, the Scottish throne might be inherited by a different successor after Queen Anne, who had said in her first speech to the English parliament that a Union was "very necessary".The Scottish Act of Security 1704, however, was passed after the English parliament, without consultation with Scotland, had designated Electoress Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James I and VI) as Anne's successor, if Anne died childless. The Act of Security granted the Parliament of Scotland, the three Estates, the right to choose a successor and explicitly required a choice different from the English monarch unless the English were to grant free trade and navigation. Next the Alien Act 1705 was passed in the English parliament designating Scots in England as "foreign nationals" and blocking about half of all Scottish trade by boycotting exports to England or its colonies, unless Scotland came back to negotiate a Union. To encourage a Union, "honours, appointments, pensions and even arrears of pay and other expenses were distributed to clinch support from Scottish peers and MPs".
The Scottish economy was severely impacted by privateers during the 1688–1697 Nine Years' War and the 1701 War of the Spanish Succession, with the Royal Navy focusing on protecting English ships. This compounded the economic pressure caused by the Darien scheme, and the seven ill years of the 1690s, when 5–15% of the population died of starvation.The Scottish Parliament was promised financial assistance, protection for its maritime trade, and an end to economic restrictions on trade with England.
The votes of the Court party, influenced by Queen Anne's favourite, the Duke of Queensberry, combined with the majority of the Squadrone Volante, were sufficient to ensure passage of the treaty.Article 15 granted £398,085 and ten shillings sterling to Scotland, a sum known as The Equivalent, to offset future liability towards the English national debt, which at the time was £18 million, but as Scotland had no national debt, most of the sum was used to compensate the investors in the Darien scheme, with 58.6% of the fund allocated to its shareholders and creditors.
The role played by bribery has long been debated; £20,000 was distributed by the Earl of Glasgow,of which 60% went to James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, the Queen's Commissioner in Parliament. Another negotiator, Argyll was given an English peerage. Robert Burns is commonly quoted in support of the argument of corruption: "We're bought and sold for English Gold, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation." As historian Christopher Whatley points out, this was actually a 17th-century Scots folk song; but he agrees money was paid, though suggests the economic benefits were supported by most Scots MPs, with the promises made for benefits to peers and MPs, even if it was reluctantly. Professor Sir Tom Devine agreed that promises of "favours, sinecures, pensions, offices and straightforward cash bribes became indispensable to secure government majorities". As for representation going forwards, Scotland was, in the new united parliament, only to get 45 MPs, one more than Cornwall, and only 16 (unelected) peers in the House of Lords.
Sir George Lockhart of Carnwath, the only Scottish negotiator to oppose Union, noted "the whole nation appears against (it)". Another negotiator, Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, who was an ardent Unionist, observed it was "contrary to the inclinations of at least three-fourths of the Kingdom".As the seat of the Scottish Parliament, demonstrators in Edinburgh feared the impact of its loss on the local economy. Elsewhere, there was widespread concern about the independence of the kirk, and possible tax rises.
As the Treaty passed through the Scottish Parliament, opposition was voiced by petitions from shires, burghs, presbyteries and parishes. The Convention of Royal Burghs claimed
we are not against an honourable and safe union with England, [... but] the condition of the people of Scotland, (cannot be) improved without a Scots Parliament.
Not one petition in favour of Union was received by Parliament. On the day the treaty was signed, the carillonneur in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, rang the bells in the tune "Why should I be so sad on my wedding day?"Threats of widespread civil unrest resulted in Parliament imposing martial law.
The Union was carried by members of the Scottish elite against the wishes of the great majority. The Scottish population was overwhelmingly against the union with England, and virtually all of the print discourses of 1699-1706 spoke against incorporating union, creating the conditions for wide spread rejection of the treaty in 1706 and 1707.Country party tracts condemned English influence within the existing framework of the Union of the Crowns and asserted the need to renegotiate this union. During this period, the Darien failure, the succession issue and the Worcester seizure all provided opportunities for Scottish writers to attack the Court Party as unpatriotic and reaffirm the need to fight for true interests of Scotland. According to Scottish historian William Ferguson, the Acts of Union were a 'political job' by England that was achieved by economic incentives, patronage and bribery to secure the passage of the Union treaty in the Scottish Parliament in order satisfy English political imperatives, with the union being unacceptable to the Scottish people including both the Jacobites and Covenanters. The differences between Scottish were "subsumed by the same sort of patriotism or nationalism that first appeared in the Declaration of Arbroath of 1320." Ferguson provides the well-timed payments of salary arrears to members of Parliament as proof of bribery and argues that the Scottish people had been betrayed by their Parliament.
Ireland, though a kingdom under the same crown, was not included in the union. It remained a separate kingdom, unrepresented in Parliament, and was legally subordinate to Great Britain until the Renunciation Act of 1783.
In July 1707 each House of the Parliament of Ireland passed a congratulatory address to Queen Anne, praying that "May God put it in your royal heart to add greater strength and lustre to your crown, by a still more comprehensive Union".The British government did not respond to the invitation and an equal union between Great Britain and Ireland was out of consideration until the 1790s. The union with Ireland finally came about on 1 January 1801.
Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne from the time she acceded to the throne in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a union treaty in 1705.
Both countries appointed 31 commissioners to conduct the negotiations. Most of the Scottish commissioners favoured union, and about half were government ministers and other officials. At the head of the list was Queensberry, and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, the Earl of Seafield.The English commissioners included the Lord High Treasurer, the Earl of Godolphin, the Lord Keeper, Baron Cowper, and a large number of Whigs who supported union. Tories were not in favour of union and only one was represented among the commissioners.
Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners took place between 16 April and 22 July 1706 at the Cockpit in London. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, and with only one face to face meeting of all 62 commissioners,England had gained a guarantee that the Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, and Scotland received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade.
After negotiations ended in July 1706, the acts had to be ratified by both Parliaments. In Scotland, about 100 of the 227 members of the Parliament of Scotland were supportive of the Court Party. For extra votes the pro-court side could rely on about 25 members of the Squadrone Volante, led by the Marquess of Montrose and the Duke of Roxburghe. Opponents of the court were generally known as the Country party, and included various factions and individuals such as the Duke of Hamilton, Lord Belhaven and Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, who spoke forcefully and passionately against the union, when the Scottish Parliament began its debate on the act on 3 October 1706, but the deal had already been done.The Court party enjoyed significant funding from England and the Treasury and included many who had accumulated debts following the Darien Disaster.
The Act ratifying the Treaty of Union was finally carried in the Parliament of Scotland by 110 votes to 69 on 16 January 1707, with a number of key amendments. News of the ratification and of the amendments was received in Westminster, where the Act was passed quickly through both Houses and received the royal assent on 6 March.Though the English Act was later in date, it bore the year '1706' while Scotland's was '1707', as the legal year in England began only on 25 March.
In Scotland, the Duke of Queensberry was largely responsible for the successful passage of the Union act by the Parliament of Scotland. In Scotland, he also received much criticism from local residents, but in England he was cheered for his action. He had personally received around half of the funding awarded by the Westminster Treasury for himself. In April 1707, he travelled to London to attend celebrations at the royal court, and was greeted by groups of noblemen and gentry lined along the road. From Barnet, the route was lined with crowds of cheering people, and once he reached London a huge crowd had formed. On 17 April, the Duke was gratefully received by the Queen at Kensington Palace.
The Treaty of Union, agreed between representatives of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1706, consisted of 25 articles, 15 of which were economic in nature. In Scotland, each article was voted on separately and several clauses in articles were delegated to specialised subcommittees. Article 1 of the treaty was based on the political principle of an incorporating union and this was secured by a majority of 116 votes to 83 on 4 November 1706. To minimise the opposition of the Church of Scotland, an Act was also passed to secure the Presbyterian establishment of the Church, after which the Church stopped its open opposition, although hostility remained at lower levels of the clergy. The treaty as a whole was finally ratified on 16 January 1707 by a majority of 110 votes to 69.
The two Acts incorporated provisions for Scotland to send representative peers from the Peerage of Scotland to sit in the House of Lords. It guaranteed that the Church of Scotland would remain the established church in Scotland, that the Court of Session would "remain in all time coming within Scotland", and that Scots law would "remain in the same force as before". Other provisions included the restatement of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the ban on Roman Catholics from taking the throne. It also created a customs union and monetary union.
The Act provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Act would "cease and become void".
The Scottish Parliament also passed the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Act 1707 guaranteeing the status of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. The English Parliament passed a similar Act, 6 Anne c.8.
Soon after the Union, the Act 6 Anne c.40—later named the Union with Scotland (Amendment) Act 1707 —united the English and Scottish Privy Councils and decentralised Scottish administration by appointing justices of the peace in each shire to carry out administration. In effect it took the day-to-day government of Scotland out of the hands of politicians and into those of the College of Justice.
On 18 December 1707 the Act for better Securing the Duties of East India Goods was passed which extended the monopoly of the East India Company to Scotland.
In the year following the Union, the Treason Act 1708 abolished the Scottish law of treason and extended the corresponding English law across Great Britain.
Scotland benefited, says historian G.N. Clark, gaining "freedom of trade with England and the colonies" as well as "a great expansion of markets". The agreement guaranteed the permanent status of the Presbyterian church in Scotland, and the separate system of laws and courts in Scotland. Clark argued that in exchange for the financial benefits and bribes that England bestowed, what it gained was
of inestimable value. Scotland accepted the Hanoverian succession and gave up her power of threatening England's military security and complicating her commercial relations ... The sweeping successes of the eighteenth-century wars owed much to the new unity of the two nations.
By the time Samuel Johnson and James Boswell made their tour in 1773, recorded in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland , Johnson noted that Scotland was "a nation of which the commerce is hourly extending, and the wealth increasing" and in particular that Glasgow had become one of the greatest cities of Britain.
Scottish historian Christopher Smout notes that prior to the Union of the Crowns, the Scottish economy had been flourishing completely independently of the English one, with little to no interaction between each other. Developing a closer economic partnership with England was unsustainable, and Scotland's main trade partner was continental Europe, especially the Netherlands, where Scotland could trade its wool and fish for luxurious imports such as iron, spices or wine. Scotland and England were generally hostile to each other and were often at war, and the alliance with France gave Scotland privilege that further encouraged developing cultural and economic ties with the continent rather than England. The union of 1603 only served the political and dynastic ambitions of King James and was detrimental to Scotland economically - exports that Scotland offered were largely irrelevant to English economy, and while the Privy Council of Scotland did keep its ability to manage internal economic policy, the foreign policy of Scotland was not in hands of England. This limited Scotland's hitherto expansive trade with continental Europe, and forced it into English wars.
While the Scottish economy already suffered because of English wars with France and Spain in 1620s, the civil wars in England had a particularly disastrous effect on Scotland and left it relatively impoverished as a result. The economy would slowly recover after that, but it came at the cost of being increasingly dependent on trade with England. A power struggle developed between Scotland and England in 1680s, as Scotland recovered from the political turmoil and set on its own economic ambitions, which London considered a threat to its dominant and well-established position.English wars with continental powers undermined Scottish trade with France and the Netherlands, countries that used to be the Scotland's main trade partners before the union, and the English Navigation Acts severely limited Scottish ability to trade by sea, and made the Scottish ambitions to expand the trade beyond Europe unachievable. Opinion in Scotland at the time was that England was sabotaging Scottish economic expansion.
The frustration caused by economic and political rivalry with England led to the Darien scheme - an unsuccessful to establish a Scottish colony in the Gulf of Darién. Christopher Smout argues that the scheme was successfully sabotaged by England in various ways - it was seen as a threat to the privileged position of the East India Company, and as such England did everything to ensure the plan's failure via political and diplomatic overtures to prevent the Netherlands and Hamburg from investing into the scheme while also refusing to assist the settlers in any way. Following the disastrous failure of the scheme, Scottish economy seemed to be on the brink of collapse, but ultimately Scotland was able to recover from it fairly quickly.
By 1703, Scottish government was highly disillusioned and unsatisfied with the union, and many believed that the only way to let Scottish economy flourish was to separate from England. Fletcher of Saltoun called Scotland 'totally neglected, like a farm managed by servants not under the eye of the master', and the failure of the Darien Scheme was commonly attributed to English sabotage.Scottish parliament would try to establish its autonomy from England with 1704 Act of Security, which provoked a retaliation from England - Scottish ministers were bribed, and Alien Act 1705 was passed. According to the Alien Act, unless Scotland appointed commissioners to negotiate for union by Christmas, every Scot in England would be treated as an alien, leading to the confiscation of their English estates. Additionally, Scottish wares were to be banned from England. Christopher Smout notes that England desired to expand its influence by annexing Scotland:
In sum, England was now seeking Parliamentary Union for political reasons at a moment when the Scots had become dissatisfied with Regal Union for economic reasons: and one of the main weapons chosen by the English to enforce their will was the threat of economic sanctions. The repeal of the Alien Act before it could come into force scarcely reduced its menace: a big stick is a big stick, even if it is replaced in the cupboard unused.
The act sparked vehement anti-English sentiment in Scotland, and made the already hostile Scottish public even more opposed to England:
The crew of an English East Indiaman, the Worcester, that had put into Leith to escape a storm was arrested on a spurious charge of piracy and executed after a parody of a trial, victims of a wave of anti-English hysteria which the Ministers of the Crown dared not be seen to oppose. As late as June, the Scottish Uniornist Cockburn of Ormiston declared he could not find ten men in Parliament willing to join England in a full Union - an exaggeration no doubt, but an indication of the contemporary force of feeling.
The Scottish economy was now facing a crisis, and the parliament was polarised into a pro-union and anti-union factions, with the former led by Daniel Defoe. The unionists stressed how important trade with England is to the Scottish economy, and portrayed trade with continental Europe as not beneficial, or nowhere as profitable as trading with England. They argued that the Scottish economy could survive by trading with England, and sanctions that would result from the Alien Act would collapse the economy. For Defoe, joining the union would not only prevent the Alien Act, but would also remove additional limitations and regulations, which could lead Scotland to prosperity. Anti-unionists questioned the English goodwill and criticised the unionist faction for submitting to the English blackmail. They argued that Scotland could make a recovery by trading with the Netherlands, Spain and Norway, with the diverse European markets allowing Scotland to diversify its own industries as well. They noted that the union would make Scotland unable to conduct independent trade policy, meaning that any possibility to remove the flaws in Scottish economy would be gone forever, which would turn Scotland into a "mere satellite of the richer kingdom".Ultimately, Scottish ministers voted in favour of the union, which was against the public opinion, as the Scottish population at the time was overwhelmingly against any union with England. Many considered themselves betrayed by their own elite, and Smout argues that the union bill was only able to pass thanks to the English bribery.
A commemorative two-pound coin was issued to mark the tercentennial—300th anniversary—of the Union, which occurred two days before the Scottish Parliament general election on 3 May 2007.
The Scottish Government held a number of commemorative events through the year including an education project led by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, an exhibition of Union-related objects and documents at the National Museums of Scotland and an exhibition of portraits of people associated with the Union at the National Galleries of Scotland.
|James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose||Lord President of the Council of Scotland/Stirlingshire||Court Party||Yes|
|John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll||Court Party||Yes|
|John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|William Kerr, 2nd Marquess of Lothian||Court Party||Yes|
|John Erskine, Earl of Mar||Court Party||Yes|
|John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland||Court Party||Yes|
|John Hamilton-Leslie, 9th Earl of Rothes||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|James Douglas, 11th Earl of Morton||Yes|
|William Cunningham, 12th Earl of Glencairn||Yes|
|James Hamilton, 6th Earl of Abercorn||Yes|
|John Ker, 1st Duke of Roxburghe||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Thomas Hamilton, 6th Earl of Haddington||Yes|
|John Maitland, 5th Earl of Lauderdale||Yes|
|David Wemyss, 4th Earl of Wemyss||Yes|
|William Ramsay, 5th Earl of Dalhousie||Yes|
|James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater||Banffshire||Yes|
|David Leslie, 3rd Earl of Leven||Yes|
|David Carnegie, 4th Earl of Northesk||Yes|
|Earl of Belcarras||Yes|
|Archibald Douglas, 1st Earl of Forfar||Yes|
|William Boyd, 3rd Earl of Kilmarnock||Yes|
|John Keith, 1st Earl of Kintore||Yes|
|Patrick Hume, 1st Earl of Marchmont||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|George Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Cromartie||Yes|
|Archibald Primrose, 1st Earl of Rosebery||Yes|
|David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow||Yes|
|Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun||likely Linlithgowshire||Yes|
|Henry Scott, 1st Earl of Deloraine||Yes|
|Archibald Campbell, Earl of Illay||Yes|
|William Hay, Viscount Dupplin||Yes|
|William Forbes, 12th Lord Forbes||Yes|
|John Elphinstone, 8th Lord Elphinstone||Yes|
|William Ross, 12th Lord Ross||Yes|
|James Sandilands, 7th Lord Torphichen||Yes|
|George Ogilvy, 3rd Lord Banff||Yes|
|Alexander Murray, 4th Lord Elibank||Yes|
|Kenneth Sutherland, 3rd Lord Duffus||Yes|
|Robert Rollo, 4th Lord Rollo||Stirlingshire||Yes|
|James Murray, Lord Philiphaugh||Lord Clerk Register/Selkirkshire||Yes|
|Adam Cockburn, Lord Ormiston||Lord Justice Clerk||Yes|
|Sir Robert Dickson of Inverask||Edinburghshire||Yes|
|William Nisbet of Dirletoun||Haddingtonshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|John Cockburn, younger, of Ormestoun||Haddingtonshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Sir John Swintoun of that ilk||Berwickshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir Alexander Campbell of Cessnock||Berwickshire||Yes|
|Sir William Kerr of Greenhead||Roxburghshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Archibald Douglas of Cavers||Roxburghshire||Court Party||Yes|
|William Bennet of Grubbet||Roxburghshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr John Murray of Bowhill||Selkirkshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr John Pringle of Haining||Selkirkshire||Court Party||Yes|
|William Morison of Prestongrange||Peeblesshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Alexander Horseburgh of that ilk||Peeblesshire||Yes|
|George Baylie of Jerviswood||Lanarkshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Sir John Johnstoun of Westerhall||Dumfriesshire||Court Party||Yes|
|William Dowglass of Dornock||Dumfriesshire||Yes|
|Mr William Stewart of Castlestewart||Wigtownshire||Yes|
|Mr John Stewart of Sorbie||Wigtownshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr Francis Montgomery of Giffan||Ayrshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr William Dalrymple of Glenmuir||Ayrshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr Robert Stewart of Tillicultrie||Buteshire||Yes|
|Sir Robert Pollock of that ilk||Renfrewshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr John Montgomery of Wrae||Linlithgowshire||Yes|
|John Halden of Glenagies||Perthshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Mongo Graham of Gorthie||Perthshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Sir Thomas Burnet of Leyes||Kincardineshire||Court Party||Yes|
|William Seton, younger, of Pitmedden||Aberdeenshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Alexander Grant, younger, of that ilk||Inverness-shire||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir William Mackenzie||Yes|
|Mr Aeneas McLeod of Cadboll||Cromartyshire||Yes|
|Mr John Campbell of Mammore||Argyllshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir James Campbell of Auchinbreck||Argyllshire||Court Party||Yes|
|James Campbell, younger, of Ardkinglass||Argyllshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir William Anstruther of that ilk||Fife||Yes|
|James Halyburton of Pitcurr||Forfarshire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Alexander Abercrombie of Glassoch||Banffshire||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr James Dunbarr, younger, of Hemprigs||Caithness||Yes|
|Alexander Douglas of Eagleshay||Orkney and Shetland||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir John Bruce, 2nd Baronet||Kinross-shire||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Lieutenant Colonel John Areskine||Yes|
|John Mure||Likely Ayr||Yes|
|James Scott||Montrose||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir John Anstruther, 1st Baronet, of Anstruther||Anstruther Easter||Yes|
|Mr Patrick Moncrieff||Kinghorn||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir Andrew Home||Kirkcudbright||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Sir Peter Halket||Dunfermline||Squadrone Volante||Yes|
|Sir James Smollet||Dumbarton||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr William Carmichell||Lanark||Yes|
|Mr William Sutherland||Elgin||Yes|
|Captain Daniel McLeod||Tain||Yes|
|Sir David Dalrymple, 1st Baronet||Culross||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir Alexander Ogilvie||Banff||Yes|
|Mr John Clerk||Whithorn||Court Party||Yes|
|Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick||North Berwick||Yes|
|Mr Patrick Ogilvie||Cullen||Court Party||Yes|
|George Allardyce||Kintore||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr James Bethun||Kilrenny||Yes|
|Mr Roderick McKenzie||Fortrose||Yes|
|Daniel Campbell||Inveraray||Court Party||Yes|
|Sir Robert Forbes||Inverurie||Yes|
|Mr Robert Dowglass||Kirkwall||Yes|
|Mr Alexander Maitland||Inverbervie||Court Party||Yes|
|Mr George Dalrymple||Stranraer||Yes|
|Mr Charles Campbell||Campbeltown||Yes|
|James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton||No|
|William Johnstone, 1st Marquess of Annandale||Annan||No|
|Charles Hay, 13th Earl of Erroll||No|
|William Keith, 9th Earl Marischal||No|
|David Erskine, 9th Earl of Buchan||No|
|Alexander Sinclair, 9th Earl of Caithness||No|
|John Fleming, 6th Earl of Wigtown||No|
|James Stewart, 5th Earl of Galloway||No|
|David Murray, 5th Viscount of Stormont||No|
|William Livingston, 3rd Viscount of Kilsyth||No|
|William Fraser, 12th Lord Saltoun||No|
|Francis Sempill, 10th Lord Sempill||No|
|Charles Oliphant, 7th Lord Oliphant||No|
|John Elphinstone, 4th Lord Balmerino||No|
|Walter Stuart, 6th Lord Blantyre||Linlithgow||No|
|William Hamilton, 3rd Lord Bargany||Queensferry||No|
|John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven and Stenton||No|
|Patrick Kinnaird, 3rd Lord Kinnaird||No|
|Sir John Lawder of Fountainhall||Haddingtonshire||No|
|Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun||Haddingtonshire||No|
|Sir Robert Sinclair, 3rd Baronet||Berwickshire||No|
|Sir Patrick Home of Rentoun||Berwickshire||No|
|Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto||Roxburghshire||No|
|William Bayllie of Lamingtoun||Lanarkshire||No|
|John Sinclair, younger, of Stevensone||Lanarkshire||No|
|James Hamilton of Aikenhead||Lanarkshire||No|
|Mr Alexander Fergusson of Isle||Dumfriesshire||No|
|Sir Hugh Cathcart of Carletoun||Ayrshire||No|
|John Brisbane, younger, of Bishoptoun||Ayrshire||No|
|Mr William Cochrane of Kilmaronock||Dumbartonshire||No|
|Sir Humphray Colquhoun of Luss||Dumbartonshire||No|
|Sir John Houstoun of that ilk||Renfrewshire||No|
|Robert Rollo of Powhouse||No|
|Thomas Sharp of Houstoun||Linlithgowshire||No|
|John Murray of Strowan||No|
|Alexander Gordon of Pitlurg||Aberdeenshire||No|
|John Forbes of Colloden||Nairnshire||No|
|David Bethun of Balfour||Fife||No|
|Major Henry Balfour of Dunboog||Fife||No|
|Mr Thomas Hope of Rankeillor||No|
|Mr Patrick Lyon of Auchterhouse||Forfarshire||No|
|Mr James Carnagie of Phinhaven||Forfarshire||No|
|David Graham, younger, of Fintrie||Forfarshire||No|
|William Maxwell of Cardines||Kirkcudbrightshire||No|
|Alexander McKye of Palgown||Kirkcudbrightshire||No|
|James Sinclair of Stempster||Caithness||No|
|Sir Henry Innes, younger, of that ilk||Elginshire||No|
|Mr George McKenzie of Inchcoulter||Ross-shire||No|
|Hugh Montgomery||Glasgow||Court Party||No|
|Mr John Lyon||Forfar||No|
|Sir David Cuningham||Lauder||No|
|Mr John Carruthers||Lochmaben||No|
|George Home||New Galloway||No|
|Mr Robert Fraser||Wick||No|
|Sources: Records of the Parliament of Scotland, Parliamentary Register, p.598|
The recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, when the province of Britannia reached as far north as the Antonine Wall. North of this was Caledonia, inhabited by the Picti, whose uprisings forced Rome's legions back to Hadrian's Wall. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonising Western Scotland and Wales. Prior to Roman times, prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BC, the Bronze Age about 2000 BC, and the Iron Age around 700 BC.
The constitution of the United Kingdom is an uncodified constitution made up of various statutes, judicial precedents, convention, treaties and other sources. It developed gradually in response to various crises. The British monarchy emerged during the Middle Ages and became a constitutional monarchy or ceremonial monarchy by the twentieth century. At the same time, Parliament developed into a representative body exercising parliamentary sovereignty.
The Kingdom of Great Britain was a sovereign country in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to the end of 31 December 1800. The state was created by the 1706 Treaty of Union and ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament at the Palace of Westminster, but distinct legal systems – English law and Scots law – remained in use.
The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt, backed largely by investors of the Kingdom of Scotland, to gain wealth and influence by establishing New Caledonia, a colony on the Isthmus of Panama, in the late 1690s. The plan was for the colony, located on the Gulf of Darién, to establish and manage an overland route to connect the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The backers knew that the first sighting of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa was after crossing the isthmus through Darién.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts ratified the treaty of Union which created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and created the parliament of Great Britain located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.
Sir William Paterson was a Scottish trader and banker. He was one of the founders of the Bank of England and was one of the main proponents of the catastrophic Darien scheme. Later he became an advocate of Union with England.
The Alien Act was a law passed by the Parliament of England in February 1705, as a response to the Parliament of Scotland's Act of Security of 1704, which in turn was partially a response to the English Act of Settlement 1701. Lord Godolphin, the Lord High Treasurer, was instrumental in the Union of 1707 and all the Acts leading up to it. The Alien Act was passed to prevent the inconveniences that would occur hastily if these two Kingdoms were not to become one Union.
Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity, as embodied in the shared and characteristic culture, languages and traditions, of the Scottish people.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland from the 13th century until 1707. The parliament evolved during the early 13th century from the king's council of bishops and earls, with the first identifiable parliament being held in 1235 during the reign of Alexander II, when it already possessed a political and judicial role.
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the treaty which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". At the time it was more often referred to as the Articles of Union.
Scottish colonisation of the Americas comprised a number of failed or abandoned Scottish settlements in North America; a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama; and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made after the Acts of Union 1707, and those made by the enforced resettlement after the Battle of Culloden and the Highland Clearances.
David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow was a Scottish politician and peer. He was the last Treasurer-depute before the Union with England.
The formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has involved personal and political union across Great Britain and the wider British Isles. The United Kingdom is the most recent of a number of sovereign states that have been established in Great Britain at different periods in history, in different combinations and under a variety of polities. Historian Norman Davies has counted sixteen different states over the past 2,000 years.
William Fraser, 12th Lord Saltoun, was a Scottish peer and the 11th Laird of Philorth.
Scotland in the early modern period refers, for the purposes of this article, to Scotland between the death of James IV in 1513 and the end of the Jacobite risings in the mid-eighteenth century. It roughly corresponds to the early modern period in Europe, beginning with the Renaissance and Reformation and ending with the start of the Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution.
The Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert the Bruce it fought a successful War of Independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. Following the annexation of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1266 and 1472 respectively, and the final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, during the reign of Queen Anne, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union.
The Squadrone Volante or New Party was a political grouping in Scotland which emerged around 1700 as an offshoot of the opposition Country Party. Led by John Ker, 5th Earl of Roxburghe and John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale, the party was influential in passing the Act of Union with England in 1707.
The Restoration was the return of the monarchy to Scotland in 1660 after the period of the Commonwealth, and the subsequent three decades of Scottish history until the Revolution and Convention of Estates of 1689. It was part of a wider Restoration in the British Isles that included the return of the Stuart dynasty to the thrones of England and Ireland in the person of Charles II.
The Glorious Revolution in Scotland refers to the Scottish element of the 1688 Glorious Revolution, in which James VII was replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband William II as joint monarchs of Scotland and England. Prior to 1707, the two kingdoms shared a common monarch but were separate legal entities, so decisions in one did not bind the other. In both countries, the Revolution confirmed the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, while the Church of Scotland was re-established as a Presbyterian rather than Episcopalian polity.
The Seven Ill Years, also known as the Seven Lean Years, is the term used for a period of widespread and prolonged famine in Scotland during the 1690s, named after the Biblical famine in Egypt predicted by Joseph in the Book of Genesis. Estimates suggest between 5 to 15% of the total Scottish population died of starvation, while in areas like Aberdeenshire death rates may have reached 25%. One reason the shortages of the 1690s are so well remembered is because they were the last of their kind.