Dynasty Last updated October 17, 2019 Charles I of England and his son, the future James II of England, from the House of Stuart. The Qing dynasty was the final imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ended in 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. The Topkapı Palace served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty.
dynasty ( , UK: ) is a sequence of rulers from the same US: family, usually in the context of a  feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include " house", " family" and " clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity". American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is globally considered to be one of the most influential dialects in the world; more so than any other dialect of English.
In the context of human society, a
family is a group of people related either by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence or some combination of these. The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would offer predictability, structure, and safety as members mature and participate in the community. In most societies, it is within families children acquire socialization for life outside the family. Additionally, as the basic unit for meeting the basic needs of its members, it provides a sense of boundaries for performing tasks in a heterosexual environment, ideally builds a person into a functional adult, transmits culture, and ensures continuity of humankind with precedents of knowledge.
The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house",
which may be  styled as " imperial", " royal", " princely", " ducal", " comital", " baronial" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.
style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address, and may often be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.
emperor is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is said to be the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor.
royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, and the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe, respectively, the relatives of a reigning baron, count, duke, archduke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals." It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of ...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all.
periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100–30 ) and BC Imperial China (221 – BC 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the AD era during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (e.g., "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (e.g., "a Ming vase"). Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time. This is usually done in order to facilitate the study and analysis of history, understanding current and historical processes, and causality that might have linked those events. History is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof. Events occurring before written records are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.
civilization or civilisation is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication, and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned
patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. This also happened in the case of Queen Maria II of Portugal, who married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but whose descendants remained members of the House of Braganza, per Portuguese law. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names or titles by persons related through male kin.
Franks were a group of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later Frankish rulers were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.
Salic law, or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis. The written text is in Latin, or in "semi-French Latin" according to some linguists; it also contains what Dutch linguists describe as one of the earliest known records of Old Dutch, perhaps second only to the Bergakker inscription. It remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period, and influenced future European legal systems. The best-known tenet of the old law is the principle of exclusion of women from inheritance of thrones, fiefs and other property. The Salic laws were arbitrated by a committee appointed and empowered by the King of the Franks. Dozens of manuscripts dating from the sixth to eighth centuries and three emendations as late as the ninth century have survived. Salian law,
Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the
Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates. Vatican City, officially Vatican City State, is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. Established with the Lateran Treaty (1929), it is distinct from, yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See. With an area of 44 hectares, and a population of about 1,000, it is the smallest sovereign state in the world by both area and population. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra, also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the Count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, and the present principality was formed by a charter in 1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Princes: the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia, Spain, and the President of France.
Sovereign Military Order of Malta ( SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, commonly known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalric and noble nature. It has been called "the smallest sovereign state in the world", though it is not recognised as one by the United Nations.
The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.
The word "dynasty" derives from
Latin , which comes from dynastia Greek dynastéia ( δυναστεία ), where it referred to "power", "dominion", and "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of  dynástēs ( δυνάστης ), the agent noun of  dynamis ( δύναμις ), "power" or "ability", from  dýnamai ( δύναμαι ), "to be able".  Dynasts
A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a
right to succeed to a throne. For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication.
In historical and
monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, their son Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg, was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.
The term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to
agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown; in that sense, he is a British dynast, but since he is not a patrilineal member of the British royal family, he is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat
Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to reclaim the former royal dukedom of Cumberland). He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the  Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession to the British throne. That exclusion, too, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Roman Catholic.  
A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical
house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. The marriage of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands to Queen Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child Princess Catharina-Amalia is expected to inherit the Crown of the Netherlands eventually. However, the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau to Princess Mabel of Orange-Nassau in 2003 lacked governmental support and parliamentary approval. Thus, Prince Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession to the Dutch throne, lost his title as a "Prince of the Netherlands", and left his children without dynastic rights. Gallery Zhao Kuangyin
, the Emperor Taizu of Song, was the founder of the
, of the
, was the first emperor of the
Muhammad Ali Pasha
, founder of the
Muhammad Ali dynasty
, ruled Egypt and Sudan from 1805 to 1848.
, from the
House of Romanov
, was the first Russian monarch to rule as emperor.
, from the
Most Serene House of Braganza
, ruled Brazil from 1831 to 1889.
, founder of the
House of Kalākaua
, was the penultimate sovereign ruler of the
Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
, the Emperor Higashiyama, from the
Imperial House of Japan
, was the 113th Japanese emperor.
, from the
House of Oldenburg
, served as king of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Aisin Gioro Xuanye
, the Kangxi Emperor, of the
, was the longest reigning emperor of China.
Mohammad Shah Qajar
was a king of Persia from the
, King Taejo of Joseon, ruled Korea from 1392 to 1398 as the first king of
, of the
, ruled Montenegro from 1860 to 1918.
Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Lân
, the Emperor Thành Thái, of the
, was emperor of Vietnam from 1889 to 1907.
, of the
, was sultan of Morocco from 1578 to 1603.
, from the
House of Bonaparte
, ruled over France and Italy.
was the last monarch of the
, from the
House of Tudor
, reigned as king of England and Ireland from 1547 to 1553.
, of the Hova dynasty, was queen regnant of Madagascar from 1828 to 1861.
, of the
Second Shō dynasty
, was the final sovereign ruler of the
Zaman Shah Durrani Sadozai
, of the
, ruled Afghanistan from 1793 to 1800.
, the Emperor Taizu of Jin, was the progenitor of the
, the Emperor Trần Anh Tông, of the
, ruled Vietnam from 1293 to 1314.
, from the
House of Wittelsbach
, was king of Greece from 1832 to 1862.
was queen regnant of the
, the Külüg Khan and Emperor Wuzong of Yuan, was the seventh khagan of the
and the third emperor of the
, of the
, ruled Serbia from 1868 to 1889.
was the first and only Mexican emperor from the
House of Iturbide
, from the
House of Vasa
, was monarch of Poland, Lithuania, Sweden and Finland.
, from the
House of Habsburg
, was emperor of the
Holy Roman Empire
, and king of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.
, King Gongmin of Goryeo, ruled Korea from 1351 to 1374 as king of
, from the
House of Hohenzollern
, was the first German emperor.
Victor Emmanuel II
, from the
House of Savoy
, was the first king of Italy.
List of dynasties and dynastic regimes by region
Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:
Africa Congo House of Kilukeni ( 1390–1567) – AD Kingdom of Kongo Kingdom of Loango ( 1550–1883) AD Kwilu dynasty ( 1568–1622, AD 1626–1636) – AD Kingdom of Kongo Kingdom of Luba ( 1585–1889) AD House of Nsundi ( 1622–1626) – AD Kingdom of Kongo Kingdom of Lunda ( 1665–1887) AD House of Kinlaza ( 1665–1666, AD 1669–1716, AD 1743–1752, AD 1764–1787, AD 1842–1857, AD 1859–1891) – AD Kingdom of Kongo House of Kimpanzu ( 1665, AD 1666–1669, AD 1669–1670, AD 1673–1715, AD 1718–1743, AD 1752–1758, AD 1763–1764, AD 1857–1859, AD 1891–1896) – AD Kingdom of Kongo House of Água Rosada ( 1688–1718, AD 1803–1842) – AD Kingdom of Kongo Anziku Kingdom ( 17th century–19th century) AD House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ( 1885–1920) – AD Congo Free State ( 1885–1908) and AD Congo under Belgian rule ( 1908–1920) AD Lesotho House of Moshesh (1822–present) Asia Cambodia Varman dynasty (13th century–present) Champa 1st dynasty (192–336) 2nd dynasty (336–420) 3rd dynasty (420–529) 4th dynasty (529–758) 5th dynasty (758–854) 6th dynasty (854–989) 7th dynasty (989–1044) 8th dynasty (1044–1074) 9th dynasty (1074–1139) 10th dynasty (1139–1145) 11th dynasty (1145–1190) 12th dynasty (1190–1318) 13th dynasty (1318–1390) 14th dynasty (1390–1458) 15th dynasty (1458–1471) vacant (1471–1695) Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822) China Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors ( ) (2852–2070 三皇五帝 （ ㄙㄢ ㄏㄨㄤˊ ㄨˇ ㄉㄧˋ ） ) – BC Mythical Yu dynasty ( ) – 虞朝 （ ㄩˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） Legendary Xia dynasty ( ) (2070–1600 夏朝 （ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄔㄠˊ ） ) – BC Semi-legendary; Ruled by the House of Si (姒) of Huaxia descent Shang dynasty ( ) (1600–1046 商朝 （ ㄕㄤ ㄔㄠˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Zi (子) of Huaxia descent Zhou dynasty ( ) (1046–256 周朝 （ ㄓㄡ ㄔㄠˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Spring and Autumn period ( /春秋時代) (771–476 春秋时代 （ ㄔㄨㄣ ㄑㄧㄡ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ ） ) BC Total of 148 dynastic states were recorded during the Spring and Autumn period (See list) Warring States period ( /戰國時代) (475–221 战国时代 （ ㄓㄢˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ ） ) BC Yue ( ) (2032–334 越 （ ㄩㄝˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Si (姒) of Baiyue descent Ba ( ) (1122–316 巴 （ ㄅㄚ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Song ( ) (1114–286 宋 （ ㄙㄨㄥˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Zi (子) of Huaxia descent Cai ( ) (1046–447 蔡 （ ㄘㄞˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Teng ( ) (1046–297 滕 （ ㄊㄥˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Qi ( /齊) (1046–221 齐 （ ㄑㄧˊ ） ) BC Jiang Qi ( /姜齊) (1046–386 姜齐 （ ㄐㄧㄤ ㄑㄧˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Jiang (姜) of Huaxia descent Tian Qi ( /田齊) (386–221 田齐 （ ㄊㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Tian (田) of Huaxia descent Shu ( ) (1045–316 蜀 （ ㄕㄨˇ ） ) BC Kaiming dynasty ( /開明) (666–316 开明 （ ㄎㄞ ㄇㄧㄥˊ ） ) BC Yan ( ) (1044–222 燕 （ ㄧㄢ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Lu ( /魯) (1042–249 鲁 （ ㄌㄨˇ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Wei ( /衛) (1040–209 卫 （ ㄨㄟˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Chu ( ) (1030–223 楚 （ ㄔㄨˇ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Mi (芈) of Huaxia descent Qin ( ) (897–207 秦 （ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent Zheng ( /鄭) (806–375 郑 （ ㄓㄥˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Yiqu ( /義渠) (720–272 义渠 （ ㄧˋ ㄑㄩˊ ） ) BC Zhongshan ( ) (414–296 中山 （ ㄓㄨㄥ ㄕㄢ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Beidi descent Han ( /韓) (403–230 韩 （ ㄏㄢˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Wei ( ) (403–225 魏 （ ㄨㄟˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent Zhao ( /趙) (403–222 赵 （ ㄓㄠˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent Dai ( ) (228–222 代 （ ㄉㄞˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) Minyue ( /閩越) (334–111 闽越 （ ㄇㄧㄣˇ ㄩㄝˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶) of Baiyue descent Dian Kingdom ( /滇國) (278–109 滇国 （ ㄉㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） ) BC Buyeo ( /扶餘) (239 扶余 （ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ ） – BC 494) AD Northern Buyeo ( /北扶餘) (239–58 北扶余 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ ） ) BC Jolbon Buyeo ( /卒本扶餘) (86–37 卒本扶余 （ ㄗㄨˊ ㄅㄣˇ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ ） ) BC Eastern Buyeo ( /東扶餘) (86 东扶余 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ ） – BC 410) AD Qin dynasty ( ) (221–207 秦朝 （ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent Xiongnu confederation ( ) (209 匈奴 （ ㄒㄩㄥ ㄋㄨˊ ） – BC 48) – AD Ruled by the House of Luandi (挛鞮/攣鞮) of Xiongnu descent Eighteen Kingdoms ( /十八國) (206 十八国 （ ㄕˊ ㄅㄚ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） ) BC Western Chu ( ) (206–202 西楚 （ ㄒㄧ ㄔㄨˇ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Xiang (项/項) of Huaxia descent Nanyue ( ) (204–111 南越 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄩㄝˋ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Huaxia descent Han dynasty ( /漢朝) (202 汉朝 （ ㄏㄢˋ ㄔㄠˊ ） – BC 9, AD 23–220) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent Yelang ( ) (3rd century–27 夜郎 （ ㄧㄝˋ ㄌㄤˊ ） ) BC Shule Kingdom ( ) (200 疏勒 （ ㄕㄨ ㄌㄜˋ ） – BC 790) AD Dong'ou ( /東甌) (191–138 东瓯 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄡ ） ) – BC Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶) Loulan Kingdom ( /樓蘭) (176–77 楼兰 （ ㄌㄡˊ ㄌㄢˊ ） ) BC Gouding ( ) (111 句町 （ ㄍㄡ ㄉㄧㄥ ） – BC 316) AD Kucha ( /龜茲) (72 龟兹 （ ㄑㄧㄡ ㄘˊ ） – BC 788) AD Jushi Kingdom ( /車師) (71 车师 （ ㄐㄩ ㄕ ） – BC 508) AD Goguryeo ( /高句麗) (37 高句丽 （ ㄍㄠ ㄍㄡ ㄌㄧˊ ） – BC 668) – AD Ruled by the House of Go (高) of Yemaek descent Xin dynasty ( ) ( 新朝 （ ㄒㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ ） 9–23) – AD Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent Chengjia ( ) ( 成家 （ ㄔㄥˊ ㄐㄧㄚ ） 25–36) – AD Ruled by the House of Gongsun (公孙/公孫) of Han Chinese descent Kingdom of Khotan ( /于闐) ( 于阗 （ ㄩˊ ㄊㄧㄢˊ ） 56–1006) – AD Ruled by the House of Yuchi (尉迟/尉遲) of Saka descent Zhongjia ( ) ( 仲家 （ ㄓㄨㄥˋ ㄐㄧㄚ ） 197–199) – AD Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent Three Kingdoms ( /三國) ( 三国 （ ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 220–280) AD Cao Wei ( ) ( 曹魏 （ ㄘㄠˊ ㄨㄟˋ ） 220–266) – AD Ruled by the House of Cao (曹) of Han Chinese descent Shu Han ( /蜀漢) ( 蜀汉 （ ㄕㄨˇ ㄏㄢˋ ） 221–263) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent Eastern Wu ( /東吳) ( 东吴 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨˊ ） 222–280) – AD Ruled by the House of Sun (孙/孫) of Han Chinese descent Jin dynasty ( /晉朝) ( 晋朝 （ ㄐㄧㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ ） 266–316, AD 317–420) – AD Ruled by the House of Sima (司马/司馬) of Han Chinese descent Western Jin ( /西晉) ( 西晋 （ ㄒㄧ ㄐㄧㄣˋ ） 266–316) AD Eastern Jin ( /東晉) ( 东晋 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄐㄧㄣˋ ） 317–420) AD Tuyuhun ( /吐谷渾) ( 吐谷浑 （ ㄊㄨˇ ㄩˋ ㄏㄨㄣˊ ） 284–670) – AD Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent Chouchi ( ) ( 仇池 （ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ ） 296–371, AD 385–442, AD 443–477, AD 478–580) – AD Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Di descent Former Chouchi ( ) ( 前仇池 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ ） 296–371) AD Later Chouchi ( /後仇池) ( 后仇池 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ ） 385–442) AD Wudu Kingdom ( /武都國) ( 武都国 （ ㄨˇ ㄉㄨ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 443–477) AD Wuxing Kingdom ( /武興國) ( 武兴国 （ ㄨˇ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 478–506, AD 529–553) AD Yinping Kingdom ( /陰平國) ( 阴平国 （ ㄧㄣ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 479–580) AD Sixteen Kingdoms ( /十六國) ( 十六国 （ ㄕˊ ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 304–439) AD Han Zhao ( /漢趙) ( 汉赵 （ ㄏㄢˋ ㄓㄠˋ ） 304–329) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Xiongnu descent Northern Han ( /北漢) ( 北汉 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ ） 304–319) AD Former Zhao ( /前趙) ( 前赵 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ ） 319–329) AD Cheng Han ( /成漢) ( 成汉 （ ㄔㄥˊ ㄏㄢˋ ） 304–347) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Di descent Cheng ( ) ( 成 （ ㄔㄥˊ ） 304–338) AD Han ( /漢) ( 汉 （ ㄏㄢˋ ） 338–347) AD Later Zhao ( /後趙) ( 后赵 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄠˋ ） 319–351) – AD Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Jie descent Former Liang ( /前涼) ( 前凉 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 320–376) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent Former Yan ( ) ( 前燕 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ ） 337–370) – AD Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent Former Qin ( ) ( 前秦 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ） 351–394) – AD Ruled by the House of Fu (苻) of Di descent Later Yan ( /後燕) ( 后燕 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ ） 384–409) – AD Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent Later Qin ( /後秦) ( 后秦 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ） 384–417) – AD Ruled by the House of Yao (姚) of Qiang descent Western Qin ( ) ( 西秦 （ ㄒㄧ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ） 385–400, AD 409–431) – AD Ruled by the House of Qifu (乞伏) of Xianbei descent Later Liang ( /後涼) ( 后凉 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 386–403) – AD Ruled by the House of Lü (吕/呂) of Di descent Southern Liang ( /南涼) ( 南凉 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 397–414) – AD Ruled by the House of Tufa (秃发/禿髮) of Xianbei descent Northern Liang ( /北涼) ( 北凉 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 397–439) – AD Ruled by the House of Juqu (沮渠) of Xiongnu descent Northern Liang of Gaochang ( /高昌北涼) ( 高昌北凉 （ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 442–460) AD Southern Yan ( ) ( 南燕 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄧㄢ ） 398–410) – AD Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent Western Liang ( /西涼) ( 西凉 （ ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 400–421) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Later Western Liang ( /後西涼) ( 后西凉 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 422–442) AD Hu Xia ( ) ( 胡夏 （ ㄏㄨˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ） 407–431) – AD Ruled by the House of Helian (赫连/赫連) of Xiongnu descent Northern Yan ( ) ( 北燕 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄧㄢ ） 407–436) – AD Ruled by the House of Feng (冯/馮) of Han Chinese descent Dai ( ) ( 代 （ ㄉㄞˋ ） 310–376) – AD Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent Rouran Khaganate ( ) ( 柔然 （ ㄖㄡˊ ㄖㄢˊ ） 330–555) – AD Ruled by the House of Yujiulü (郁久闾/鬱久閭) Ran Wei ( ) ( 冉魏 （ ㄖㄢˇ ㄨㄟˋ ） 350–352) – AD Ruled by the House of Ran (冉) of Han Chinese descent Duan Qi ( /段齊) ( 段齐 （ ㄉㄨㄢˋ ㄑㄧˊ ） 350–356) – AD Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Xianbei descent Western Yan ( ) ( 西燕 （ ㄒㄧ ㄧㄢ ） 384–394) – AD Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent Xianyu Zhao ( /鮮於趙) ( 鲜于赵 （ ㄒㄧㄢ ㄩˊ ㄓㄠˋ ） 385) – AD Ruled by the House of Xianyu (鲜于/鮮於) of Dingling descent Zhai Wei ( ) ( 翟魏 （ ㄓㄞˊ ㄨㄟˋ ） 388–392) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhai (翟) of Dingling descent Huan Chu ( ) ( 桓楚 （ ㄏㄨㄢˊ ㄔㄨˇ ） 401–404) – AD Ruled by the House of Huan (桓) of Han Chinese descent Western Shu ( ) ( 西蜀 （ ㄒㄧ ㄕㄨˇ ） 405–413) – AD Ruled by the House of Qiao (谯/譙) of Han Chinese descent Northern and Southern dynasties ( ) ( 南北朝 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ ） 420–589) AD Northern dynasties ( ) 北朝 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ ） Northern Wei ( ) ( 北魏 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄨㄟˋ ） 386–535) – AD Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓跋) of Xianbei descent Northern Qi ( /北齊) ( 北齐 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄑㄧˊ ） 550–577) – AD Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent Northern Zhou ( ) ( 北周 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄓㄡ ） 557–581) – AD Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent Southern dynasties ( ) 南朝 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） Liu Song ( /劉宋) ( 刘宋 （ ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ ） 420–479) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent Southern Qi ( /南齊) ( 南齐 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ ） 479–502) – AD Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent Liang dynasty ( ) ( 梁朝 （ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 502–557) – AD Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent Chen dynasty ( /陳朝) ( 陈朝 （ ㄔㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 557–589) – AD Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent Dengzhi ( /鄧至) ( 邓至 （ ㄉㄥˋ ㄓˋ ） 430–554) – AD Ruled by the House of Xiang (像) of Qiang descent Gaochang ( ) ( 高昌 （ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ） 460–640) AD Hou Han ( /侯漢) ( 侯汉 （ ㄏㄡˊ ㄏㄢˋ ） 551–552) – AD Ruled by the House of Hou (侯) of Jie descent Tanchang ( ) (?– 宕昌 （ ㄊㄢˋ ㄔㄤ ） 564) – AD Ruled by the House of Liang (梁) of Qiang descent Turkic Khaganate ( /突厥汗國) ( 突厥汗国 （ ㄊㄨ ㄐㄩㄝˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 552–630) – AD Ruled by the House of Ashina (阿史那) of Göktürk descent Mong Mao ( ) ( 勐卯 （ ㄇㄥˇ ㄇㄠˇ ） 560–1604) – AD Ruled by the House of Si (思) of Dai descent Sui dynasty ( ) ( 隋朝 （ ㄙㄨㄟˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 581–618) – AD Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent Xueyantuo ( ) ( 薛延陀 （ ㄒㄩㄝ ㄧㄢˊ ㄊㄨㄛˊ ） 605–646) AD Xia ( ) ( 夏 （ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ） 617–621) – AD Ruled by the House of Dou (窦/竇) of Han Chinese descent Liang ( ) ( 梁 （ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 617–628) – AD Ruled by the House of Liang (梁) of Han Chinese descent Liang ( /涼) ( 凉 （ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 618–619) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Xu ( /許) ( 许 （ ㄒㄩˇ ） 618–619) – AD Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent Tang dynasty ( ) ( 唐朝 （ ㄊㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 618–690, AD 705–907) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Wu Zhou ( ) ( 武周 （ ㄨˇ ㄓㄡ ） 690–705) – AD Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (武) of Han Chinese descent Zheng ( /鄭) ( 郑 （ ㄓㄥˋ ） 619–621) – AD Ruled by the House of Wang (王) Balhae ( ) ( 渤海 （ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ ） 698–926) – AD Ruled by the House of Dae (大) of Mohe descent Nanzhao ( /南詔) ( 南诏 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ ） 738–902) – AD Ruled by the House of Meng (蒙) of Wuman descent Dali ( /大禮) ( 大礼 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ ） 860–877) AD Dafengmin ( ) ( 大封民 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄈㄥ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ） 878–902) AD Uyghur Khaganate ( /回鶻汗國) ( 回鹘汗国 （ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 744–840) – AD Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent and the House of Ediz (阿跌) of Tiele descent Yan ( ) ( 燕 （ ㄧㄢ ） 756–763) AD Former Yan ( ) ( 前燕 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ ） 756–759) – AD Ruled by the House of An (安) of Sogdian descent Later Yan ( /後燕) ( 后燕 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ ） 759–763) – AD Ruled by the House of Shi (史) of Göktürk descent Chu ( ) ( 楚 （ ㄔㄨˇ ） 784–786) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Kara-Khanid Khanate ( /喀喇汗國) ( 喀喇汗国 （ ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 840–1212) AD Eastern Kara-Khanid ( /東喀喇汗國) ( 东喀喇汗国 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1032–1210) AD Qocho ( /高昌回鶻) ( 高昌回鹘 （ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ ） 843–1370) AD Qi ( /齊) ( 齐 （ ㄑㄧˊ ） 881–884) – AD Ruled by the House of Huang (黄/黃) of Han Chinese descent Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom ( /甘州回鶻) ( 甘州回鹘 （ ㄍㄢ ㄓㄡ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ ） 894–1036) – AD Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent Qi ( ) ( 岐 （ ㄑㄧˊ ） 901–924) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Later Three Dynasties of Yunnan ( /雲南後三朝) ( 云南后三朝 （ ㄩㄣˊ ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄡˋ ㄙㄢ ㄔㄠˊ ） 902–937) AD Dachanghe ( /大長和) ( 大长和 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄔㄤˊ ㄏㄜˊ ） 902–928) – AD Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent Datianxing ( /大天興) ( 大天兴 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄒㄧㄥ ） 928–929) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) Dayining ( /大義寧) ( 大义宁 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄧˋ ㄋㄧㄥˊ ） 929–937) – AD Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent Zhao ( /趙) ( 赵 （ ㄓㄠˋ ） 907–921) – AD Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ( /五代十國) ( 五代十国 （ ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 907–979) AD Five Dynasties ( ) 五代 （ ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ ） Later Liang ( /後梁) ( 后梁 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ ） 907–923) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent Later Tang ( /後唐) ( 后唐 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄊㄤˊ ） 923–937) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Shatuo descent Jin ( /晉) ( 晋 （ ㄐㄧㄣˋ ） 907–923) AD Later Jin ( /後晉) ( 后晋 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣˋ ） 936–947) – AD Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Shatuo descent Later Han ( /後漢) ( 后汉 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄏㄢˋ ） 947–951) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent Later Zhou ( /後周) ( 后周 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄡ ） 951–960) – AD Ruled by the House of Guo (郭) of Han Chinese descent Ten Kingdoms ( /十國) 十国 （ ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） Former Shu ( ) ( 前蜀 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄕㄨˇ ） 907–925) – AD Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent Yang Wu ( /楊吳) ( 杨吴 （ ㄧㄤˊ ㄨˊ ） 907–937) – AD Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent Ma Chu ( /馬楚) ( 马楚 （ ㄇㄚˇ ㄔㄨˇ ） 907–951) – AD Ruled by the House of Ma (马/馬) of Han Chinese descent Wuyue ( /吳越) ( 吴越 （ ㄨˊ ㄩㄝˋ ） 907–978) – AD Ruled by the House of Qian (钱/錢) of Han Chinese descent Min ( /閩) ( 闽 （ ㄇㄧㄣˇ ） 909–945) – AD Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent Southern Han ( /南漢) ( 南汉 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ ） 917–971) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent Jingnan ( ) ( 荊南 （ ㄐㄧㄥ ㄋㄢˊ ） 924–963) – AD Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent Later Shu ( /後蜀) ( 后蜀 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄕㄨˇ ） 934–965) – AD Ruled by the House of Meng (孟) of Han Chinese descent Southern Tang ( ) ( 南唐 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄤˊ ） 937–976) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Northern Han ( /北漢) ( 北汉 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ ） 951–979) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent Beiping ( ) ( 北平 （ ㄅㄟˇ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ） 909–929) – AD Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent Yan ( ) ( 燕 （ ㄧㄢ ） 911–913) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent Liao dynasty ( /遼朝) ( 辽朝 （ ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 916–1125) – AD Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent Dongdan Kingdom ( /東丹) ( 东丹 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄉㄢ ） 926–936) – AD Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent Dali Kingdom ( ) ( 大理 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ ） 937–1094, AD 1096–1253) – AD Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Baiman descent Former Dali ( ) ( 前大理 （ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ ） 937–1094) AD Later Dali ( /後大理) ( 后大理 （ ㄏㄡˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ ） 1096–1253) AD Jeongan ( ) ( 定安 （ ㄉㄧㄥˋ ㄢ ） 938–986) AD Song dynasty ( ) ( 宋朝 （ ㄙㄨㄥˋ ㄔㄠˊ ） 960–1279) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Han Chinese descent Li Shu ( ) ( 李蜀 （ ㄌㄧˇ ㄕㄨˇ ） 994) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent Heungyo ( /興遼) ( 兴辽 （ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ ） 1029–1030) – AD Ruled by the House of Dae (大) Changqi ( /長其) ( 长其 （ ㄔㄤˊ ㄑㄧˊ ） 1029–1055) – AD Ruled by the House of Nong (侬/儂) of Zhuang descent Dali ( /大歷) ( 大历 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˋ ） 1041–1045) AD Nantian ( ) ( 南天 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄧㄢ ） 1045–1052) AD Danan ( ) ( 大南 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄋㄢˊ ） 1052–1055) AD Western Xia ( ) ( 西夏 （ ㄒㄧ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ） 1038–1227) – AD Ruled by the House of Weiming (嵬名) of Tangut descent Dazhong Kingdom ( ) ( 大中 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄓㄨㄥ ） 1094–1096) – AD Interrupted the Dali Kingdom; Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Bai descent Ziqi Kingdom ( /自杞國) ( 自杞国 （ ㄗˋ ㄑㄧˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1100–1259) AD Jin dynasty ( ) ( 金朝 （ ㄐㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1115–1234) – AD Ruled by the House of Wanyan (完颜/完顏) of Jurchen descent Great Balhae ( ) ( 大渤海 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ ） 1116) – AD Ruled by the House of Gao (高) Xi ( ) ( 奚 （ ㄒㄧ ） 1123) – AD Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Kumo Xi descent Chu ( ) ( 楚 （ ㄔㄨˇ ） 1127) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent Liu Qi ( /劉齊) ( 刘齐 （ ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄑㄧˊ ） 1130–1137) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent Mongol Empire ( /大蒙古國) ( 大蒙古国 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄇㄥˇ ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1206–1368) – AD Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛儿只斤/孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent Eastern Xia ( /東夏) ( 东夏 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ） 1215–1233) – AD Ruled by the House of Puxian (蒲鲜/蒲鮮) of Jurchen descent Kingdom of Mangalai ( /曼尕賴) ( 曼尕赖 （ ㄇㄢˋ ㄍㄚˇ ㄌㄞˋ ） 1220–1877) AD Tianwan ( ) ( 天完 （ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄨㄢˊ ） 1351–1360) – AD Ruled by the House of Xu (徐) of Han Chinese descent Zhou ( ) ( 周 （ ㄓㄡ ） 1354–1367) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent Han Song ( /韓宋) ( 韩宋 （ ㄏㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ ） 1355–1366) – AD Ruled by the House of Han (韩/韓) of Han Chinese descent Chen Han ( /陳漢) ( 陈汉 （ ㄔㄣˊ ㄏㄢˋ ） 1360–1364) – AD Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent Ming Xia ( ) ( 明夏 （ ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ） 1362–1371) – AD Ruled by the House of Ming (明) of Han Chinese descent Ming dynasty ( ) ( 明朝 （ ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1368–1644) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent Western Wu ( /西吳) ( 西吴 （ ㄒㄧ ㄨˊ ） 1364–1368) AD Southern Ming ( ) ( 南明 （ ㄋㄢˊ ㄇㄧㄥˊ ） 1644–1662) AD Kara Del ( /哈密國) ( 哈密国 （ ㄏㄚ ㄇㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1380–1513) AD Dzungar Khanate ( /準噶爾汗國) ( 准噶尔汗国 （ ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1634–1758) – AD Ruled by the House of Choros (绰罗斯/綽羅斯) of Oirat descent Qing dynasty ( ) ( 清朝 （ ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1636–1912, AD 1917) – AD Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (爱新觉罗/愛新覺羅) of Manchu descent Shun dynasty ( /順朝) ( 顺朝 （ ㄕㄨㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1644–1645) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Tangut descent Xi ( ) ( 西 （ ㄒㄧ ） 1644–1646) – AD Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent Kingdom of Tungning ( /東寧王國) ( 东宁王国 （ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄋㄧㄥˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1661–1683) – AD Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent Wu Zhou ( /吳周) ( 吴周 （ ㄨˊ ㄓㄡ ） 1678–1681) – AD Ruled by the House of Wu (吴/吳) of Han Chinese descent Kingdom of Middag ( /大肚王國) (?– 大肚王国 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄉㄨˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1732) – AD Ruled by the House of Camachat (甘仔辖/甘仔轄) of Papora descent Taiping Heavenly Kingdom ( /太平天國) ( 太平天国 （ ㄊㄞˋ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1851–1864) – AD Ruled by the House of Hong (洪) of Han Chinese descent Pingnan Sultanate ( /平南蘇丹國) ( 平南苏丹国 （ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨ ㄉㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1856–1873) – AD Ruled by the House of Du (杜) of Hui descent Empire of China ( /中華帝國) ( 中华帝国 （ ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄉㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1915–1916) – AD Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent Kingdom of Tjaquvuquvulj ( /大龜文) (?– 大龟文 （ ㄉㄚˋ ㄍㄨㄟ ㄨㄣˊ ） 1930) AD Indonesia Shailendra dynasty, Medang Kingdom and Srivijaya Sanjaya dynasty, Medang kingdom ( Central Java period) Isyana dynasty, Medang kingdom ( East Java period), Kahuripan kingdom, Janggala and Kediri kingdom Mauli dynasty, Dharmasraya and Pagaruyung kingdoms Rajasa dynasty, Singhasari kingdom (1222–1292) and Majapahit empire (1293 – ca. 1500) Four successor dynasties to Sultanate of Mataram : Pakubuwono, Hamengkubuwono, Paku Alaman, and Mangkunegaran (18th century – present) Ambeno Azmatkhan Kingdom of Iha Luwu Warmadewa dynasty (914–1119) Mauli (1183–?) Rajasa dynasty (1222–1292, 1294–1527) Samudera Pasai Sultanate (1267–1521) Demak Sultanate (1475–1554) Sultanate of Cirebon (1479–1926) Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903) Jamal ul-Lail dynasty (1699–1727) Bugis dynasty (1727–1903) Malacca-Johor dynasty (1528–1699) Tanette (1547–?) Asahan Sultanate (1630–1946) Sultanate of Deli (1632–1946) Bone state (1634–1905, 1931–1950) Amanatun (1642–1962) Amabi (1652–1917) Bendahara dynasty (1699–1911) Amarasi (?–1962) Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura (1723–1946) Sultanate of Serdang (1728–?) Hamengkubuwono (1755–present) – Ruling house of the Yogyakarta Sultanate (Non-sovereign) House of Hanover (1785–1824) – Bengkulu under British rule House of Orange-Nassau (1816–1942, 1945–1949) – Indonesia under Dutch rule Iran (Persia) Pishdadian dynasty – Mythical Kayanian dynasty – Semi-mythical Awan dynasty (2350–2150 ) BC Shimashki dynasty (2200–1900 ) BC Sukkalmah dynasty (1900–1500 ) BC Median Kingdom (678–549 ) BC Achaemenid Empire (550–330 ) BC Argead dynasty (336–306 ) – BC Persia under Macedonian rule Seleucid dynasty (311–129 ) BC Arsacid dynasty (247 – BC 228) AD House of Sasan ( 224–590, AD 591–629, AD 630–651) AD House of Mihran ( 590–591, AD 629) AD House of Ispahbudhan ( 591–600, AD 630–631) AD Bavand dynasty ( 651–1349) AD Paduspanid dynasty ( 655–1598) AD Umayyad Caliphate ( 661–750) AD Abbasid Caliphate ( 750–946) AD Samanid Empire ( 819–999) AD Saffarid dynasty ( 861–1003) AD Ghurid dynasty ( 879–1215) AD Ziyarid dynasty ( 930–1090) AD Buyid dynasty ( 934–1062) AD Buyids of Fars ( 933–1062) AD Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan ( 935–1038) AD Buyids of Iraq and Khuzistan ( 945–1055) AD Ghaznavid dynasty ( 977–1186) AD Kakuyid dynasty ( 1008–1141) AD Seljuq dynasty ( 1029–1191) AD Salghurids ( 1148–1282) AD Khwarazmian dynasty ( 1153–1220) AD Eldiguzids ( 1191) AD Mongol Empire ( 1220–1256) AD Qutlugh-Khanids ( 1222–1306) – AD Successor to the Western Liao dynasty; Also called "Kirmanid dynasty" Kurt dynasty ( 1244–1381) AD Muzaffarid dynasty ( 1314–1393) AD House of Inju ( 1335–1357) AD Jalairid Sultanate ( 1336–1432) AD Sarbadars ( 1337–1381) AD Chobanids ( 1338–1360) AD Timurid dynasty ( 1370–1459, AD 1469–1507) – AD Timurid Empire Kara Koyunlu ( 1378–1468) AD Aq Qoyunlu ( 1378–1497) AD Safavid dynasty ( 1501–1722, AD 1729–1736, AD 1749–1750) AD Hotak dynasty ( 1722–1729) AD Afsharid dynasty ( 1736–1749, AD 1750–1796) AD Zand dynasty ( 1751–1794) AD Qajar dynasty ( 1789–1925) AD Pahlavi dynasty ( 1925–1979) AD Japan Imperial House of Japan ( ) (660 皇室 （ こうしつ ） (legendary) – present) – BC Also called "Yamato dynasty" Northern Court ( ) ( 北朝 （ ほくちょう ） 1331–1392) – AD Also called "Jimyōin line" ( ) 持明院統 （ じみょういんとう ） Southern Court ( ) ( 南朝 （ なんちょう ） 1336–1392) – AD Also called "Daikakuji line" ( ) 大覚寺統 （ だいかくじとう ） Later Southern Court ( ) ( 後南朝 （ ごなんちょう ） 1392–1514) AD Korea Gojoseon (고조선/古朝鮮) (2333 (legendary) – 108 BC ) BC Takri Kingdom (고리국/槀離國) (c. 5th century–2nd century ) BC Jin (진/辰) (c. 4th century–2nd century ) BC Dongye (동예/東濊) (c. 3rd century – BC 5th century) AD Buyeo (부여/扶餘) (239 – BC 494) AD Northern Buyeo (북부여/北扶餘) (239–58 ) BC Jolbon Buyeo (졸본부여/卒本扶餘) (86–37 ) BC Eastern Buyeo (동부여/東扶餘) (86 – BC 410) AD Okjeo (옥저/沃沮) (c. 2nd century – BC 5th century) AD Eastern Okjeo (동옥저/東沃沮) – Also called "Southern Okjeo" (남옥저/南沃沮) Northern Okjeo (북옥저/北沃沮) Han dynasty (한나라/漢朝) (c. 108 – BC 9, AD 30–220) – AD Ruled by the House of Liu (유/劉); Chinese rule over the Four Commanderies of Han (한사군/漢四郡) on the Korean Peninsula as far south as the Han River Nakrang Kingdom (낙랑국/樂浪國) (c. 1st century – BC 37) AD Samhan (삼한/三韓) (c. 1st century – BC 5th century) AD Jinhan (진한/辰韓) (c. 1st century – BC 4th century) AD Mahan (마한/馬韓) (c. 1st century – BC 5th century) AD Byeonhan (변한/弁韓) (c. 1st century–4th century ) AD Three Kingdoms of Korea (삼국/三國) (57 – BC 668) AD Silla (신라/新羅) (57 – BC 935) – AD Ruled by the House of Park (박/朴), the House of Seok (석/昔) and the House of Kim (김/金) Goguryeo (고구려/高句麗) (37 – BC 668) – AD Ruled by the House of Go (고/高) Baekje (백제/百濟) (18 – BC 660) – AD Ruled by the House of Buyeo (부여/扶餘); Also called "Southern Buyeo" (남부여/南扶餘) Tamna (탐라/耽羅) (57 – BC 1402) AD Xin dynasty (신나라/新朝) ( 9–23) – AD Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王) Gaya (가야/伽倻) ( 42–562) AD Cao Wei (조위/曹魏) (c. 236–265) – AD Ruled by the House of Cao (조/曹); Chinese rule over the Daifang Commandery (대방군/帶方郡) on part of the Korean Peninsula Jin dynasty (진(위진)/晉朝) (c. 266–314) – AD Ruled by the House of Sima (사마/司馬); Chinese rule over the Daifang Commandery on part of the Korean Peninsula Tang dynasty (당나라/唐朝) ( 668–690, AD 705–761) – AD Ruled by the House of Li (이/李); Chinese rule over the Protectorate General to Pacify the East (안동도호부/安東都護府) on part of the Korean Peninsula Wu Zhou (무주/武周) ( 690–705) – AD Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (무/武) North-South States (남북국/南北國) ( 698–892) AD Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) ( 668–935) – AD Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅) Balhae (발해/渤海) ( 698–926) – AD Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大) Later Three Kingdoms (후삼국/後三國) ( 892–936) AD Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) ( 668–935) – AD Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅) Taebong (태봉/泰封) ( 901–918) – AD Ruled by the House of Gung (궁/弓); Also called "Later Goguryeo" (후고구려/後高句麗) Later Baekje (후백제/後百濟) ( 892–936) – AD Ruled by the House of Gyeon (견/甄) Goryeo (고려/高麗) ( 918–1392) – AD Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王) Later Sabeol (후사벌/後沙伐) ( 919–927) – AD Ruled by the House of Park (박/朴) Jeongan (정안/定安) ( 938–986) AD Usan (우산국/于山國) (?– 1022) AD Heungyo (흥요/興遼) ( 1029–1030) – AD Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大) Yuan dynasty (원나라/元朝) ( 1270–1356) – AD Ruled by the House of Borjigin (보르지긴/孛兒只斤); Goryeo ruled as the Zhengdong Province (정동등처행중서성/征東等處行中書省) of the Yuan dynasty Joseon (조선/朝鮮) ( 1392–1897) – AD Ruled by the House of Yi (이/李) The Philippines Royal families Malay Dynasties Hindu dynasties Muslim dynasties Under foreign rule Ryukyu Islands Tenson dynasty ( ) (?– 天孫氏 （ てんそんし ） 1185) – AD Legendary Shunten dynasty ( ) ( 舜天王統 （ しゅんてんおうとう ） 1187–1259) AD Eiso dynasty ( ) ( 英祖王統 （ えいそおうとう ） 1260–1349) AD Sanzan period ( ) ( 三山時代 （ さんざんじだい ） 1314–1429) AD Haniji line ( ) ( 怕尼芝王統 （ はねじおうとう ） 1314–1419) – AD Ruled over Hokuzan (北山) Satto line ( ) ( 察度王統 （ さっとおうとう ） 1314–1429) – AD Ruled over Chūzan (中山) Ōzato dynasty ( ) ( 大里王統 （ おおさとおうとう ） 1314–1429) – AD Ruled over Nanzan (南山) First Shō dynasty ( ) ( 第一尚氏 （ だいいちしょうし ） 1407–1469) – AD Also called "Sashiki dynasty" (佐敷王統) Second Shō dynasty ( ) ( 第二尚氏 （ だいにしょうし ） 1469–1879) – AD Also called "Izena dynasty" (伊是名王統) Imperial House of Japan ( ) ( 皇室 （ こうしつ ） 1879–present) – AD Ryukyu Islands under Japanese rule Sri Lanka (Ceylon) House of Vijaya (543–237 , 215–205 BC , 161–103 BC , 89 BC – BC 66) AD Chola dynasty (205–161 , BC 1017–1070) AD Pandyan dynasty (103–88 , BC 436–452, AD 1212–1215) AD House of Lambakanna I ( 66–436) AD House of Moriya ( 463–691) AD House of Lambakanna II ( 691–1017) – AD Also called "House of Manavanna" House of Vijayabahu ( 1056–1187, AD 1197–1200, AD 1209–1210, AD 1211–1212) AD House of Kalinga ( 1187–1197, AD 1200–1209) AD Aryacakravarti dynasty ( 1215–1619) – AD Jaffna Kingdom House of Siri Sanga Bo ( 1220–1597) AD House of Dinajara ( 1590–1739) AD Philippine dynasty ( 1597–1640) – AD Ceylon under Portuguese rule Most Serene House of Braganza ( 1640–1658) – AD Ceylon under Portuguese rule Nayaks of Kandy ( 1739–1815) AD House of Hanover ( 1815–1901) – AD Ceylon under British rule House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ( 1901–1917) – AD Ceylon under British rule Tibet Zhangzhung (ཞང་ཞུང་/ ) (c. 500 象雄 （ ㄒㄧㄤˋ ㄒㄩㄥˊ ） – BC 625) AD Yarlung dynasty (བོད་ཀྱི་གདོད་མའི་མངའ་མཛད།/ /雅魯王朝) (c. 127 雅鲁王朝 （ ㄧㄚˇ ㄌㄨˇ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） – BC 618) – AD Mythical; Ruled over Pre-Imperial Tibet Tibetan Empire (བོད་ཆེན་པོ/ ) ( 吐蕃 （ ㄊㄨˇ ㄅㄛ ） 618–842) AD Guge (གུ་གེ་རྒྱལ་རབས/ ) ( 古格王朝 （ ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 967–1635) AD Tsongkha (ཙོང་ཁ།/ /唃廝囉國) ( 唃厮啰国 （ ㄍㄨ ㄙ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1032–1104) AD Yuan dynasty (ཡོན་རྒྱལ་རབས།/ ) ( 元朝 （ ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1270–1354) – AD Tibet administered by the Xuanzheng Yuan of the Yuan dynasty Phagmodrupa dynasty (ཕག་མོ་གྲུ་པ་/ ) ( 帕木竹巴 （ ㄆㄚˋ ㄇㄨˋ ㄓㄨˊ ㄅㄚ ） 1354–1642) AD Ming dynasty (མིང་རྒྱལ་རབས།/ ) ( 明朝 （ ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1372–1630) – AD Sovereignty of the Ming dynasty over Tibet is disputed among historians Rinpungpa (རིན་སྤུངས་པ་/ ) ( 仁蚌巴 （ ㄖㄣˊ ㄅㄤˋ ㄅㄚ ） 1435–1565) AD Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh ( /拉達克王國) ( 拉达克王国 （ ㄌㄚ ㄉㄚˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1460–1842) AD Tsangpa (གཙང་པ/ ) ( 藏巴汗 （ ㄗㄤˋ ㄅㄚ ㄏㄢˊ ） 1565–1642) AD Khoshut Khanate ( /和碩特汗國) ( 和硕特汗国 （ ㄏㄜˊ ㄕㄨㄛˋ ㄊㄜˋ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1642–1717) AD Dzungar Khanate (ཛེ་གུན་གར།།/ /準噶爾汗國) ( 准噶尔汗国 （ ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ） 1717–1720) AD Qing dynasty (ཆིང་རྒྱལ་རབས།/ ) ( 清朝 （ ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ ） 1720–1912) – AD Tibet administered by the Lifan Yuan of the Qing dynasty