Dynasty

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Charles I of England and his son, the future James II of England, from the House of Stuart. Charles I and James II.png
Charles I of England and his son, the future James II of England, from the House of Stuart.
The Qing dynasty was the final imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1636 to 1912. Qing China 1820.png
The Qing dynasty was the final imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1636 to 1912.
The Topkapi Palace served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty. Gate of Salutation Topkapi Istanbul 2007 Pano.jpg
The Topkapı Palace served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty.

A dynasty ( UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US: /ˈdnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, [1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English set of dialects of the English language spoken in the US

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

Family group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence

In the context of human society, a family is a group of people related either by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence or some combination of these. Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law. Sometimes these are also considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual's specific relationship with them.

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The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", [2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", et cetera, depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address, and may often be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, and the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe, respectively, the relatives of a reigning baron, count, duke, archduke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals." It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of ...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all.

A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a title of nobility, often hereditary, in some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus (first) and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler, prince".

Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100–30 BC) and Imperial China (221 BCAD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, and to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (for example, "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (id est, "a Ming vase").

Historian person who studies and writes about the past

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.

Periodization process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time

Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time. This is usually done in order to facilitate the study and analysis of history, understanding current and historical processes, and causality that might have linked those events.

History past events and their record

History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the territory, wealth, and power of his family members. [3]

19th century Century

The 19th (nineteenth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. It is often used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year.

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication.

Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

20th century Century

The 20th (twentieth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900 and ended on December 31, 1999.

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names or titles by persons related through male kin.

Franks people

The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates.

Vatican City country in southern Europe under the sovereignty of the Holy See

Vatican City, officially Vatican City State, is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. Established with the Lateran Treaty (1929), it is distinct from yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See. With an area of 44 hectares, and a population of about 1,000, it is the smallest state in the world by both area and population.

Andorra European microstate between France and Spain

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra, also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the Count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, and the present principality was formed by a charter in 1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Princes: the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia, Spain, and the President of France.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Catholic hospitaller order

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta and also known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalric and noble nature.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. [1]

Etymology

The word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia , which comes from Greek dynastéia ( δυναστεία ), where it referred to "power", "dominion", and "rule" itself. [4] It was the abstract noun of dynástēs ( δυνάστης ), [5] the agent noun of dynamis ( δύναμις ), "power" or "ability", [6] from dýnamai ( δύναμαι ), "to be able". [7]

Dynasts

A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne. For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication.

In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.

The term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown; in that sense, he is a British dynast, but since he is not a patrilineal member of the British royal family, he is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.

On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to reclaim the former royal dukedom of Cumberland). He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. [8] Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession to the British throne. [9] That exclusion, too, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Roman Catholic. [8]

A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. The marriage of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands to Queen Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child Princess Catharina-Amalia is expected to inherit the Crown of the Netherlands eventually. However, the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau to Princess Mabel of Orange-Nassau in 2003 lacked governmental support and parliamentary approval. Thus, Prince Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession to the Dutch throne, lost his title as a "Prince of the Netherlands", and left his children without dynastic rights.

List of dynasties and dynastic regimes by region

Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:

Africa

Central African Republic

Chad

Congo

Egypt

Eswatini (Swaziland)

Ethiopia

Guinea

Lesotho

  • House of Moshesh (1822–present)

Madagascar

Morocco

Nigeria

Senegambia

Somalia

South Africa

Sudan

Asia

Afghanistan

Armenia

Bahrain

Bhutan

  • House of Wangchuck (དབང་ཕྱུག་རྒྱལ་བརྒྱུད་) (1907–present)

Brunei

Cambodia

  • Varman dynasty (13th century–present)

Central Asia

Champa

  • 1st dynasty (192–336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336–420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420–529)
  • 4th dynasty (529–758)
  • 5th dynasty (758–854)
  • 6th dynasty (854–989)
  • 7th dynasty (989–1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044–1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074–1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139–1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145–1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190–1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318–1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390–1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458–1471)
  • vacant (1471–1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822)

China

  • Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝ㄙㄢ ㄏㄨㄤˊ ㄨˇ ㄉㄧˋ) (2852–2070 BC) – Mythical
  • Yu dynasty (虞朝ㄩˊ ㄔㄠˊ) – Legendary
  • Xia dynasty (夏朝ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (2070–1600 BC) – Semi-legendary; Ruled by the House of Si (姒) of Huaxia descent
  • Shang dynasty (商朝ㄕㄤ ㄔㄠˊ) (1600–1046 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi (子) of Huaxia descent
  • Zhou dynasty (周朝ㄓㄡ ㄔㄠˊ) (1046–256 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Western Zhou (西周ㄒㄧ ㄓㄡ) (1046–771 BC)
    • Eastern Zhou (东周ㄉㄨㄥ ㄓㄡ/東周) (770–255 BC)
  • Spring and Autumn period (春秋时代ㄔㄨㄣ ㄑㄧㄡ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ/春秋時代) (771–476 BC)
    • Total of 148 dynastic states were recorded during the Spring and Autumn period (See list)
  • Warring States period (战国时代ㄓㄢˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ/戰國時代) (475–221 BC)
    • Yue (ㄩㄝˋ) (2032–334 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si (姒) of Huaxia descent
    • Ba (ㄅㄚ) (1122–316 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Song (ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (1114–286 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi (子) of Huaxia descent
    • Cai (ㄘㄞˋ) (1046–447 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Teng (ㄊㄥˊ) (1046–297 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Qi (ㄑㄧˊ/齊) (1046–221 BC)
    • Shu (ㄕㄨˇ) (1045–316 BC)
    • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (1044–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Lu (ㄌㄨˇ/魯) (1042–249 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (ㄨㄟˋ/衛) (1040–209 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Chu (ㄔㄨˇ) (1030–223 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi (芈) of Huaxia descent
    • Qin (ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (897–207 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent
    • Zheng (ㄓㄥˋ/鄭) (806–375 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Yiqu (义渠ㄧˋ ㄑㄩˊ/義渠) (720–272 BC)
    • Zhongshan (中山ㄓㄨㄥ ㄕㄢ) (414–296 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Beidi descent
    • Han (ㄏㄢˊ/韓) (403–230 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (ㄨㄟˋ) (403–225 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Zhao (ㄓㄠˋ/趙) (403–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent
    • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (228–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏)
  • Minyue (闽越ㄇㄧㄣˇ ㄩㄝˋ/閩越) (334–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶)
  • Dian Kingdom (滇国ㄉㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/滇國) (278–109 BC)
  • Qin dynasty (秦朝ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (221–206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent
  • Xiongnu confederation (匈奴ㄒㄩㄥ ㄋㄨˊ) (209 BCAD 48) – Ruled by the House of Luandi (挛鞮/攣鞮) of Xiongnu descent
  • Eighteen Kingdoms (十八国ㄕˊ ㄅㄚ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/十八國) (206 BC)
  • Western Chu (西楚ㄒㄧ ㄔㄨˇ) (206–202 BC) – Ruled by the House of Xiang (项/項) of Huaxia descent
  • Nanyue (南越ㄋㄢˊ ㄩㄝˋ) (204–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Huaxia descent
  • Han dynasty (汉朝ㄏㄢˋ ㄔㄠˊ/漢朝) (202 BCAD 9, AD 23–220) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Han (西汉ㄒㄧ ㄏㄢˋ/西漢) (202 BCAD 9)
    • Xuan Han (玄汉ㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ/玄漢) (AD 23–25)
    • Eastern Han (东汉ㄉㄨㄥ ㄏㄢˋ/東漢) (AD 25–220)
  • Yelang (夜郎ㄧㄝˋ ㄌㄤˊ) (3rd century–27 BC)
  • Shule Kingdom (疏勒ㄕㄨ ㄌㄜˋ) (200 BCAD 790)
  • Dong'ou (东瓯ㄉㄨㄥ ㄡ/東甌) (191–138 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶)
  • Loulan Kingdom (楼兰ㄌㄡˊ ㄌㄢˊ/樓蘭) (176–77 BC)
    • Shanshan (鄯善ㄕㄢˋ ㄕㄢˋ) (77 BCAD 448)
  • Gouding (句町ㄍㄡ ㄉㄧㄥ) (111 BCAD 316)
  • Kucha (龟兹ㄑㄧㄡ ㄘˊ/龜茲) (72 BCAD 788)
  • Jushi Kingdom (车师ㄐㄩ ㄕ/車師) (71 BCAD 508)
  • Goguryeo (高句丽ㄍㄠ ㄍㄡ ㄌㄧˊ/高句麗) (37 BCAD 668) – Ruled by the House of Go (高) of Yemaek descent
  • Xin dynasty (新朝ㄒㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 9–23) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chengjia (成家ㄔㄥˊ ㄐㄧㄚ) (AD 25–36) – Ruled by the House of Gongsun (公孙/公孫) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Khotan (于阗ㄩˊ ㄊㄧㄢˊ/于闐) (AD 56–1006) – Ruled by the House of Yuchi (尉迟/尉遲) of Saka descent
  • Zhongjia (仲家ㄓㄨㄥˋ ㄐㄧㄚ) (AD 197–199) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Three Kingdoms (三国ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/三國) (AD 220–280)
    • Cao Wei (曹魏ㄘㄠˊ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 220–266) – Ruled by the House of Cao (曹) of Han Chinese descent
    • Shu Han (蜀汉ㄕㄨˇ ㄏㄢˋ/蜀漢) (AD 221–263) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
    • Eastern Wu (东吴ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨˊ/東吳) (AD 222–280) – Ruled by the House of Sun (孙/孫) of Han Chinese descent
  • Jin dynasty (晋朝ㄐㄧㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ/晉朝) (AD 266–316, AD 317–420) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司马/司馬) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Jin (西晋ㄒㄧ ㄐㄧㄣˋ/西晉) (AD 266–316)
    • Eastern Jin (东晋ㄉㄨㄥ ㄐㄧㄣˋ/東晉) (AD 317–420)
  • Tuyuhun (吐谷浑ㄊㄨˇ ㄩˋ ㄏㄨㄣˊ/吐谷渾) (AD 284–670) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Chouchi (仇池ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 296–371, AD 385–442, AD 443–477, AD 478–580) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Di descent
    • Former Chouchi (前仇池ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 296–371)
    • Later Chouchi (后仇池ㄏㄡˋ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ/後仇池) (AD 385–442)
    • Wudu Kingdom (武都国ㄨˇ ㄉㄨ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/武都國) (AD 443–477)
    • Wuxing Kingdom (武兴国ㄨˇ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/武興國) (AD 478–506, AD 529–553)
    • Yinping Kingdom (阴平国ㄧㄣ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/陰平國) (AD 479–580)
  • Sixteen Kingdoms (十六国ㄕˊ ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/十六國) (AD 304–439)
    • Han Zhao (汉赵ㄏㄢˋ ㄓㄠˋ/漢趙) (AD 304–329) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Han (北汉ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ/北漢) (AD 304–319)
      • Former Zhao (前赵ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ/前趙) (AD 319–329)
    • Cheng Han (成汉ㄔㄥˊ ㄏㄢˋ/成漢) (AD 304–347) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Ba descent
      • Cheng (ㄔㄥˊ) (AD 304–338)
      • Han (ㄏㄢˋ/漢) (AD 338–347)
    • Later Zhao (后赵ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄠˋ/後趙) (AD 319–351) – Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Jie descent
    • Former Liang (前凉ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/前涼) (AD 320–376) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
    • Former Yan (前燕ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 337–370) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Former Qin (前秦ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 351–394) – Ruled by the House of Fu (苻) of Di descent
    • Later Yan (后燕ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ/後燕) (AD 384–409) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Qin (后秦ㄏㄡˋ ㄑㄧㄣˊ/後秦) (AD 384–417) – Ruled by the House of Yao (姚) of Qiang descent
    • Western Qin (西秦ㄒㄧ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 385–400, AD 409–431) – Ruled by the House of Qifu (乞伏) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Liang (后凉ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/後涼) (AD 386–403) – Ruled by the House of Lü (吕/呂) of Di descent
    • Southern Liang (南凉ㄋㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/南涼) (AD 397–414) – Ruled by the House of Tufa (秃发/禿髮) of Xianbei descent
    • Northern Liang (北凉ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/北涼) (AD 397–439) – Ruled by the House of Juqu (沮渠) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Liang of Gaochang (高昌北凉ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/高昌北涼) (AD 443–460)
    • Southern Yan (南燕ㄋㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 398–410) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Western Liang (西凉ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/西涼) (AD 400–421) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
    • Xia (ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 407–431) – Ruled by the House of Helian (赫连/赫連) of Xiongnu descent
    • Northern Yan (北燕ㄅㄟˇ ㄧㄢ) (AD 407–436) – Ruled by the House of Feng (冯/馮) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (AD 310–376) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
  • Rouran Khaganate (柔然ㄖㄡˊ ㄖㄢˊ) (AD 330–555) – Ruled by the House of Yujiulü (郁久闾/鬱久閭)
  • Ran Wei (冉魏ㄖㄢˇ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 350–352) – Ruled by the House of Ran (冉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Duan Qi (段齐ㄉㄨㄢˋ ㄑㄧˊ/段齊) (AD 350–356) – Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Xianbei descent
  • Western Yan (西燕ㄒㄧ ㄧㄢ) (AD 384–394) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Zhai Wei (翟魏ㄓㄞˊ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 388–392) – Ruled by the House of Zhai (翟) of Dingling descent
  • Huan Chu (桓楚ㄏㄨㄢˊ ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 401–404) – Ruled by the House of Huan (桓) of Han Chinese descent
  • Western Shu (西蜀ㄒㄧ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 405–413) – Ruled by the House of Qiao (谯/譙) of Han Chinese descent
  • Northern and Southern dynasties (南北朝ㄋㄢˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 420–589)
    • Northern dynasties (北朝ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ)
      • Northern Wei (北魏ㄅㄟˇ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 386–535) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
        • Eastern Wei (东魏ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨㄟˋ/東魏) (AD 534–550)
        • Western Wei (西魏ㄒㄧ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 535–557)
      • Northern Qi (北齐ㄅㄟˇ ㄑㄧˊ/北齊) (AD 550–577) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Zhou (北周ㄅㄟˇ ㄓㄡ) (AD 557–581) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
    • Southern dynasties (南朝ㄋㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ)
      • Liu Song (刘宋ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ/劉宋) (AD 420–479) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Qi (南齐ㄋㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ/南齊) (AD 479–502) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent
      • Liang dynasty (梁朝ㄌㄧㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 502–557) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent
        • Western Liang (西梁ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 555–587)
        • Liang (ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 617–621)
      • Chen dynasty (陈朝ㄔㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ/陳朝) (AD 557–589) – Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Hou Han (侯汉ㄏㄡˊ ㄏㄢˋ/侯漢) (AD 551–552) – Ruled by the House of Hou (侯) of Jie descent
  • Turkic Khaganate (突厥汗国ㄊㄨ ㄐㄩㄝˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/突厥汗國) (AD 552–630) – Ruled by the House of Ashina (阿史那) of Göktürk descent
  • Mong Mao (勐卯ㄇㄥˇ ㄇㄠˇ) (AD 560–1604)
  • Sui dynasty (隋朝ㄙㄨㄟˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 581–618) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xueyantuo (薛延陀ㄒㄩㄝ ㄧㄢˊ ㄊㄨㄛˊ) (AD 605–646)
  • Xia (ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 617–621) – Ruled by the House of Dou (窦/竇) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang (ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 617–628) – Ruled by the House of Liang (梁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang (ㄌㄧㄤˊ/涼) (AD 618–619) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xu (ㄒㄩˇ/許) (AD 618–619) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
  • Tang dynasty (唐朝ㄊㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 618–690, AD 705–907) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
    • Wu Zhou (武周ㄨˇ ㄓㄡ) (AD 690–705) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (武) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zheng (ㄓㄥˋ/鄭) (AD 619–621) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王)
  • Balhae (渤海ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 698–926) – Ruled by the House of Dae (大) of Mohe descent
  • Nanzhao (南诏ㄋㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ/南詔) (AD 738–902) – Ruled by the House of Meng (蒙) of Bai descent
    • Dali (大礼ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ/大禮) (AD 859–877)
    • Dafengmin (大封民ㄉㄚˋ ㄈㄥ ㄇㄧㄣˊ) (AD 878–902)
  • Uyghur Khaganate (回鹘汗国ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/回鶻汗國) (AD 744–840) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent and the House of Ediz (阿跌) of Tiele descent
  • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (AD 756–763)
    • Former Yan (前燕ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 756–759) – Ruled by the House of An (安) of Sogdian descent
    • Later Yan (后燕ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ/後燕) (AD 759–763) – Ruled by the House of Shi (史) of Göktürk descent
  • Qocho (高昌回鹘ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ/高昌回鶻) (AD 843–1370)
  • Qi (ㄑㄧˊ/齊) (AD 881–884) – Ruled by the House of Huang (黄/黃) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom (甘州回鹘ㄍㄢ ㄓㄡ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ/甘州回鶻) (AD 894–1036) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent
  • Dachanghe (大长和ㄉㄚˋ ㄔㄤˊ ㄏㄜˊ/大長和) (AD 902–928) – Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent
  • Qi (ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 907–924) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十国ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/五代十國) (AD 907–960)
    • Five Dynasties (五代ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ)
      • Later Liang (后梁ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/後梁) (AD 907–923) – Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Tang (后唐ㄏㄡˋ ㄊㄤˊ/後唐) (AD 923–937) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Shatuo descent
        • Jin (ㄐㄧㄣˋ/晉) (AD 907–923)
      • Later Jin (后晋ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣˋ/後晉) (AD 936–947) – Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Han (后汉ㄏㄡˋ ㄏㄢˋ/後漢) (AD 947–951) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Zhou (后周ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄡ/後周) (AD 951–960) – Ruled by the House of Guo (郭) of Han Chinese descent
    • Ten Kingdoms (十国ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/十國)
      • Former Shu (前蜀ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 907–925) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
      • Yang Wu (杨吴ㄧㄤˊ ㄨˊ/楊吳) (AD 907–937) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
      • Ma Chu (马楚ㄇㄚˇ ㄔㄨˇ/馬楚) (AD 907–951) – Ruled by the House of Ma (马/馬) of Han Chinese descent
      • Wuyue (吴越ㄨˊ ㄩㄝˋ/吳越) (AD 907–978) – Ruled by the House of Qian (钱/錢) of Han Chinese descent
      • Min Kingdom (ㄇㄧㄣˇ/閩) (AD 909–945) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
        • Yin (ㄧㄣ) (AD 943–945)
      • Southern Han (南汉ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ/南漢) (AD 917–971) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
      • Jingnan (荊南ㄐㄧㄥ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 924–963) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Shu (后蜀ㄏㄡˋ ㄕㄨˇ/後蜀) (AD 934–965) – Ruled by the House of Meng (孟) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Tang (南唐ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄤˊ) (AD 937–976) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Han (北汉ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ/北漢) (AD 951–979) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent
  • Liao dynasty (辽朝ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄔㄠˊ/遼朝) (AD 907–1125) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
    • Northern Liao (北辽ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/北遼) (AD 1122–1123)
    • Western Liao (西辽ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/西遼) (AD 1124–1218)
    • Eastern Liao (东辽ㄉㄨㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/東遼) (AD 1213–1269)
    • Later Liao (后辽ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/後遼) (AD 1216–1219)
  • Zhao (ㄓㄠˋ/趙) (AD 910–921) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
  • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (AD 911–914) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dongdan Kingdom (东丹ㄉㄨㄥ ㄉㄢ/東丹) (AD 926–936) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
  • Datianxing (大天兴ㄉㄚˋ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄒㄧㄥ/大天興) (AD 928–929) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙)
  • Dayining (大义宁ㄉㄚˋ ㄧˋ ㄋㄧㄥˊ/大義寧) (AD 929–937) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dali Kingdom (大理国ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/大理國) (AD 937–1094, AD 1096–1253) – Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Bai descent
    • Later Dali (后大理ㄏㄡˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ/後大理) (AD 1096–1253)
  • Jeongan (定安国ㄉㄧㄥˋ ㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/定安國) (AD 938–986)
  • Song dynasty (宋朝ㄙㄨㄥˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 960–1279) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Han Chinese descent
    • Northern Song (北宋ㄅㄟˇ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 960–1127)
    • Southern Song (南宋ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 1127–1279)
  • Li Shu (李蜀ㄌㄧˇ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 994) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Heungyo (兴辽国ㄒㄧㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/興遼國) (AD 1029–1030) – Ruled by the House of Dae (大)
  • Changqi (长其ㄔㄤˊ ㄑㄧˊ/長其) (AD 1029–1055) – Ruled by the House of Nong (侬/儂) of Zhuang descent
    • Dali (大历ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˋ/大歷) (AD 1041–1045)
    • Nantian (南天ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄧㄢ) (AD 1045–1052)
    • Danan (大南ㄉㄚˋ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 1052–1055)
  • Western Xia (西夏ㄒㄧ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1038–1227) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓跋) of Tangut descent
  • Dazhong Kingdom (大中国ㄉㄚˋ ㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/大中國) (AD 1094–1096) – Interrupted the Dali Kingdom; Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Bai descent
  • Ziqi Kingdom (自杞国ㄗˋ ㄑㄧˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/自杞國) (AD 1100–1259)
  • Jin dynasty (金朝ㄐㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1115–1234) – Ruled by the House of Wanyan (完颜/完顏) of Jurchen descent
  • Xi (ㄒㄧ) (AD 1123) – Ruled by the House of Xi (奚) of Kumo Xi descent
  • Chu (ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 1127) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liu Qi (刘齐ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄑㄧˊ/劉齊) (AD 1130–1137) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Mongol Empire (蒙古帝国ㄇㄥˇ ㄍㄨˇ ㄉㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/蒙古帝國) (AD 1206–1368) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛儿只斤/孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
    • Chagatai Khanate (察合台汗国ㄔㄚˊ ㄏㄜˊ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/察合台汗國) (AD 1225–1346)
      • Moghulistan (东察合台汗国ㄉㄨㄥ ㄔㄚˊ ㄏㄜˊ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/東察合台汗國) (AD 1347–1680)
    • Yuan dynasty (元朝ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1271–1368)
  • Eastern Xia (东夏ㄉㄨㄥ ㄒㄧㄚˋ/東夏) (AD 1215–1233) – Ruled by the House of Puxian (蒲鲜/蒲鮮) of Jurchen descent
  • Tianwan (天完ㄊㄧㄢ ㄨㄢˊ) (AD 1351–1360) – Ruled by the House of Xu (徐) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou (ㄓㄡ) (AD 1354–1367) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Han Song (韩宋ㄏㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ/韓宋) (AD 1355–1366) – Ruled by the House of Han (韩/韓) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chen Han (陈汉ㄔㄣˊ ㄏㄢˋ/陳漢) (AD 1360–1364) – Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming Xia (明夏ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1362–1371) – Ruled by the House of Ming (明) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming dynasty (明朝ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1368–1644) – Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Wu (西吴ㄒㄧ ㄨˊ/西吳) (AD 1364–1368)
    • Southern Ming (南明ㄋㄢˊ ㄇㄧㄥˊ) (AD 1644–1662)
  • Kara Del (哈密国​​ㄏㄚ ㄇㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/哈密國) (AD 1380–1513)
  • Dzungar Khanate (准噶尔汗国ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/準噶爾汗國) (AD 1634–1758) – Ruled by the House of Choros (绰罗斯/綽羅斯) of Oirat descent
  • Qing dynasty (清朝ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1636–1912, AD 1917) – Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (爱新觉罗/愛新覺羅) of Manchu descent
    • Later Jin (后金ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣ/後金) (AD 1616–1636)
  • Shun dynasty (顺朝ㄕㄨㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ/順朝) (AD 1644–1645) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Tangut descent
  • Xi (西ㄒㄧ) (AD 1644–1646) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tungning (东宁王国ㄉㄨㄥ ㄋㄧㄥˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/東寧王國) (AD 1661–1683) – Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou (吴周ㄨˊ ㄓㄡ/吳周) (AD 1678–1681) – Ruled by the House of Wu (吴/吳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Middag (大肚王国ㄉㄚˋ ㄉㄨˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/大肚王國) (?–AD 1732)
  • Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天国ㄊㄞˋ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/太平天國) (AD 1851–1864) – Ruled by the House of Hong (洪) of Han Chinese descent
  • Pingnan Sultanate (平南苏丹国ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨ ㄉㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/平南蘇丹國) (AD 1856–1873) – Ruled by the House of Du (杜) of Hui descent
  • Empire of China (中华帝国ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄉㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/中華帝國) (AD 1915–1916) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tjaquvuquvulj (大龟文ㄉㄚˋ ㄍㄨㄟ ㄨㄣˊ/大龜文) (?–AD 1930)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cyprus

Georgia

Indian Subcontinent

Indonesia

Iran (Persia)

Israel

Japan

  • Imperial House of Japan (皇室こうしつ) (660 BC (legendary) – present) – Also called "Yamato dynasty"
    • Northern Court (北朝ほくちょう) (AD 1331–1392) – Also called "Jimyōin line" (持明院統じみょういんとう)
    • Southern Court (南朝なんちょう) (AD 1336–1392) – Also called "Daikakuji line" (大覚寺統だいかくじとう)

Jordan

Korea

  • Gojoseon (고조선/古朝鮮) (2333 BC (legendary) – 108 BC)
  • Takri Kingdom (고리국/槀離國) (c. 5th century–2nd century BC)
  • Jin (진/辰) (c. 4th century–2nd century BC)
  • Dongye (동예/東濊) (c. 3rd century BCAD 5th century)
  • Buyeo (부여/夫餘) (c. 2nd century BCAD 494)
    • Eastern Buyeo (동부여/東夫餘) (c. 2nd century BCAD 410)
  • Okjeo (옥저/沃沮) (c. 2nd century BCAD 5th century)
  • Han dynasty (한나라/漢朝) (c. 108 BCAD 9, AD 30–220) – Ruled by the House of Liu (유/劉); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula as far south as the Han River under the Four Commanderies of Han (한사군/漢四郡)
  • Nakrang Kingdom (낙랑국/樂浪國) (c. 1st century BCAD 37)
  • Samhan (삼한/三韓) (c. 1st century BCAD 5th century)
    • Jinhan (진한/辰韓) (c. 1st century BCAD 4th century)
    • Mahan (마한/馬韓) (c. 1st century BCAD 5th century)
    • Byeonhan (변한/弁韓) (c. 1st century–4th century AD)
  • Three Kingdoms of Korea (삼국/三國) (57 BCAD 668)
    • Silla (신라/新羅) (57 BCAD 935) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金)
    • Goguryeo (고구려/高句麗) (37 BCAD 668) – Ruled by the House of Go (고/高)
      • Little Goguryeo (소고구려/小高句麗) (AD 699–820) – Hypothesized
    • Baekje (백제/百濟) (18 BCAD 660) – Ruled by the House of Buyeo (부여/扶餘)
  • Tamna (탐라/耽羅) (57 BCAD 1402)
  • Xin dynasty (신나라/新朝) (AD 9–23) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王)
  • Gaya (가야/伽倻) (AD 42–562)
    • Daegaya (대가야/大伽倻) (AD 42–562)
    • Geumgwan Gaya (금관가야/金官伽倻) (AD 43–532)
    • Bihwa Gaya (비화가야/非火伽倻) (?–AD 555)
    • Ara Gaya (아라가야/阿羅伽倻) (?–AD 559)
    • Goryeong Gaya (고령가야/古寧伽倻) (?–AD 562)
  • Cao Wei (조위/曹魏) (c. AD 236–265) – Ruled by the House of Cao (조/曹); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula under the Daifang Commandery (대방군/帶方郡)
  • Jin dynasty (진(위진)/晉朝) (c. AD 266–314) – Ruled by the House of Sima (사마/司馬); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula under the Daifang Commandery
  • Tang dynasty (당나라/唐朝) (AD 668–690, AD 705–761) – Ruled by the House of Li (이/李); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula under the Protectorate General to Pacify the East (안동도호부/安東都護府)
    • Wu Zhou (무주/武周) (AD 690–705) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (무/武)
  • North-South States (남북국/南北國) (AD 698–892)
    • Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) (AD 668–935) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅)
    • Balhae (발해/渤海) (AD 698–926) – Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大)
  • Later Three Kingdoms (후삼국/後三國) (AD 892–936)
    • Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) (AD 668–935) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅)
    • Taebong (태봉/泰封) (AD 901–918) – Ruled by the House of Gung (궁/弓); Also called "Later Goguryeo" (후고구려/後高句麗)
    • Later Baekje (후백제/後百濟) (AD 892–936) – Ruled by the House of Gyeon (견/甄)
  • Goryeo (고려/高麗) (AD 918–1392) – Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王)
  • Later Sabeol (후사벌/後沙伐) (AD 919–927)
  • Jeongan (정안/定安) (AD 938–986)
  • Usan (우산국/于山國) (?–AD 1022)
  • Heungyo (흥요/興遼) (AD 1029–1030) – Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大)
  • Jin dynasty (금나라/金朝) (AD 1115–1234) – Ruled by the House of Wanyan (완안/完顔)
  • Yuan dynasty (원나라/元朝) (AD 1270–1356) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (보르지긴/孛兒只斤); Goryeo ruled as the Zhengdong Province (정동등처행중서성/征東等處行中書省) of the Yuan dynasty
  • Joseon (조선/朝鮮) (AD 1392–1897) – Ruled by the House of Yi (이/李)

Kuwait

Laos

Malaysia

The Maldives

Mesopotamia

Mongolia

Myanmar (Burma)

Nepal

  • Kirat dynasty
  • Licchavi (लिच्छवि) (c. AD 400–750)
  • Tibetan Empire (AD 618–842)
  • Simroun dynasty (AD 1097–1324)
  • Khasa-Malla Kingdom (खस मल्ल राज्य) (AD 11th century–14th century)
  • Malla dynasty (AD 1201–1779)
  • Shah dynasty (शाह वंश) (AD 1559–2008)
  • Pande dynasty (पाँडे वंश) (AD 1744–1843) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)
  • Basnyat dynasty (बस्न्यात वंश) (AD 1747–1846) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)
  • Thapa dynasty (थापा वंश) (AD 1806–1837, AD 1843–1845) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)
  • Rana dynasty (राणा वंश) (AD 1846–1951) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)

Oman

The Philippines

Royal families

Qatar

Ryukyu

  • Tenson dynasty (天孫氏てんそんし) (?–AD 1185) – Legendary
  • Shunten dynasty (舜天王統しゅんてんおうとう) (AD 1187–1259)
  • Eiso dynasty (英祖王統えいそおうとう) (AD 1260–1349)
  • Sanzan period (三山時代さんざんじだい) (AD 1314–1429)
    • Haniji line (怕尼芝王統はねじおうとう) (AD 1314–1419) – Ruled over Hokuzan (北山)
    • Satto line (察度王統さっとおうとう) (AD 1314–1429) – Ruled over Chūzan (中山)
    • Ōzato dynasty (大里王統おおさとおうとう) (AD 1314–1429) – Ruled over Nanzan (南山)
  • First Shō Dynasty (第一尚氏だいいちしょうし/佐敷王統) (AD 1407–1469)
  • Second Shō Dynasty (第二尚氏だいにしょうし/伊是名王統) (AD 1469–1879)

Saudi Arabia

Siberia

Singapore

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

Thailand (Siam)

  • Singhanavati (สิงหนวัติ)
  • Lavachakkaraj dynasty (AD 638–1292) – Kingdom of Hiran
  • Phra Ruang dynasty (AD 1238–1438) – Sukhothai Kingdom (อาณาจักรสุโขทัย)
  • Mangrai dynasty (AD 1292–1558) – Lan Na (อาณาจักรล้านนา)
  • Uthong dynasty (AD 1350–1370, AD 1388–1409) – Ayutthaya Kingdom (อาณาจักรอยุธยา)
  • Suphannaphum dynasty (AD 1370–1388, AD 1409–1569) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Sukhothai dynasty (AD 1569–1629) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (AD 1629–1688) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Baan Plu Luang dynasty (AD 1688–1767) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Chet Ton dynasty (เชื้อเจ็ดตน) (AD 1732–1943) – Also called "Thipchak dynasty" (ราชวงศ์ทิพย์จักร)
  • Thonburi dynasty (AD 1767–1782) – Thonburi Kingdom (กรุงธนบุรี)
  • Chakri dynasty (ราชวงศ์จักรี) (AD 1782–present) – Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) and Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย)

Tibet

  • Zhangzhung (ཞང་ཞུང་/象雄ㄒㄧㄤˋ ㄒㄩㄥˊ) (c. 500 BCAD 625)
  • Yarlung dynasty (བོད་ཀྱི་གདོད་མའི་མངའ་མཛད།/雅鲁王朝ㄧㄚˇ ㄌㄨˇ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ/雅魯王朝) (c. 127 BCAD 618) – Mythical; Ruled over Pre-Imperial Tibet
  • Tibetan Empire (བོད་ཆེན་པོ/吐蕃ㄊㄨˇ ㄅㄛ) (AD 618–842)
  • Guge (གུ་གེ་རྒྱལ་རབས/古格王朝ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 967–1635)
  • Tsongkha (ཙོང་ཁ།/唃厮啰国ㄍㄨ ㄙ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/唃廝囉國) (AD 1032–1104)
  • Yuan dynasty (ཡོན་རྒྱལ་རབས།/元朝ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1270–1354) – Tibet administered by the Xuanzheng Yuan of the Yuan dynasty
  • Phagmodrupa dynasty (ཕག་མོ་གྲུ་པ་/帕木竹巴ㄆㄚˋ ㄇㄨˋ ㄓㄨˊ ㄅㄚ) (AD 1354–1642)
  • Ming dynasty (མིང་རྒྱལ་རབས།/明朝ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1372–1630) – Sovereignty of the Ming dynasty over Tibet is disputed among historians
  • Rinpungpa (རིན་སྤུངས་པ་/仁蚌巴ㄖㄣˊ ㄅㄤˋ ㄅㄚ) (AD 1435–1565)
  • Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh (拉达克王国ㄌㄚ ㄉㄚˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/拉達克王國) (AD 1460–1842)
  • Tsangpa (གཙང་པ/藏巴汗ㄗㄤˋ ㄅㄚ ㄏㄢˊ) (AD 1565–1642)
  • Khoshut Khanate (和硕特汗国ㄏㄜˊ ㄕㄨㄛˋ ㄊㄜˋ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/和碩特汗國) (AD 1642–1717)
  • Dzungar Khanate (ཛེ་གུན་གར།།/准噶尔汗国ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/準噶爾汗國) (AD 1717–1720)
  • Qing dynasty (ཆིང་རྒྱལ་རབས།/清朝ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1720–1912) – Tibet administered by the Lifan Yuan of the Qing dynasty

Timor-Leste

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Vietnam

Yemen

Europe

Albania

Austria

Barbarians

Bavarii
Franks
Huns

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. PeriodRuler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360–378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378–390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390–410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410–412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412–422
  • Octar[1] 422–432
  • Rugila 432–434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434 – c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434–453
  • Ellac 453 – c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c. 460–463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469–503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390–503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
Scirii
  • Edeko
  • Odoacer (435–493), was the 5th-century King of Italy
Avars
Lombards
Ostrogoths
Suebi
Vandals
Visigoths

Belgium

Medieval feudal states [10]
Kingdom of Belgium

Bohemia/Czechia

Great Moravia
Duchy of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia

Bosnia

Bulgaria

Croatia

Denmark

England

Finland

France