This is an alphabetical list of empires. The table may be resorted by other columns if your browser supports this function.
|Abbasid Caliphate||Iraq||Baghdad, Raqqa, Kufa, Samarra, Anbar||750||1258||508||Successor of the Umayyad Caliphate.|
|Achaemenid Empire||Persia||Various, including Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon||550 BC||330 BC||220||The first Persian empire, and the largest one in classical antiquity, founded by Cyrus the Great.|
|Afsharid dynasty||Persia||Mashhad||1736||1796||60||Founded by Nader Shah, at its peak expanded Persia as far west as Baghdad, and as far east as Delhi.|
|Ahom dynasty||North East India||Charaideo, Garhgaon, Rangpur (Ahom capital), Jorhat||1228||1838||610||It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India.|
|Akkadian Empire||Sumer||Akkad||2300 BC||2200 BC||100|
|Aksumite Empire||Ethiopia||Axum||150||940||790||Succeeded by the Ethiopian Empire.|
|Akwamu||West Africa||Akwamufie, Nyanoase||1505||1867||362|
|Almohad Caliphate||Morocco||Marrakech, Seville||1121||1269||148|
|Almoravid dynasty||Morocco||Aghmat (1040–1062), Marrakech (1062–1147)||1040||1147||107|
|Angevin Empire||England, France||No official capital. Court was generally held at Angers and Chinon||1154||1242||88|
|Armenian Empire||Armenia||Tigranakert||190 BC||428||618||Tigranes the Great took the title King of Kings.|
|Assyria||Mesopotamia||Assur, later Nineveh||2025 BC||609 BC||1119|
|Ashanti Empire||West Africa||Kumasi||1670||1902||232|
|Austrian Empire||Austria||Vienna||1804||1867||63||Preceded by the Holy Roman Empire.|
|Austria-Hungary||Austria, Hungary||Vienna, Budapest||1867||1918||51||Often referred to as the "Austro-Hungarian Empire". Formed out of the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Officially a real union of the rump Austrian Empire (Cisleithania) and the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen/Transleithania. Ruler was therefore referred to as Kaiser und König ("Emperor-King", literally "Emperor and King").|
|Ayyubid dynasty||Middle East||Cairo, Damascus, Hama||1171||1341||170||Founded by Saladin, See also List of Muslim states and dynasties.|
|Aztec Empire||Mesoamerica||Tenochtitlan||1428||1521||93||The capital of Mexico, Mexico City, is built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.|
|Babylonian Empire||Mesopotamia||Babylon||1900 BC||1600 BC||300||See also Neo-Babylonian Empire.|
|Balhae||North Korea, Manchuria||Sanggyeong||698||926||228||Successor of Goguryeo.|
|Bamana Empire||West Africa||Ségou||1712||1861||149||Also known as the Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire|
|Belgian colonial empire||Belgium||Brussels||1901||1962||61||Overseas possessions were referred to as "the colonies" rather than an empire.|
|Benin Empire||Nigeria||Benin City||1440||1897||457|
|Bornu Empire||Nigeria||Ngazargamu||1387||1893||506||The continuation of the Kanem Empire.|
|Empire of Brazil||Brazil||Rio de Janeiro||1822||1889||67||Established after Pedro I of Brazil declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal.|
|Britannic Empire||Britain||Londinium||286||296||10||Was a break-away state of the Roman Empire. See also the Carausian Revolt.|
|British Empire||United Kingdom||London||1603||1997||416||The largest empire in world history. Precursor to the modern Commonwealth of Nations.|
|British Raj||Indian Subcontinent||Calcutta (1858–1912), New Delhi (1912–1947)||1858||1947||89||Governed by the Crown and part of the British Empire. Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1876.|
|Bruneian Empire||Borneo||Not specified, possibly Kota Batu||1368||1888||520||Lasted until it became a British protectorate in 1888.|
|First Bulgarian Empire||Balkans||Pliska (680–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopie (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018)||680||1018||338||Founded by Khan Asparukh. Under Tsar Simeon I became the first powerful Slavic Empire. Falls to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II.|
|Second Bulgarian Empire||Balkans||Tarnovo||1185||1422||237||Successor of the First Bulgarian Empire. Under the Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II became the most powerful state in the Balkans.|
|Byzantine Empire||Eastern Roman Empire (Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy)||Constantinople||395||1453||1058||The eastern half of the Roman Empire. Term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.|
|Caliphate of Córdoba||Iberian Peninsula||Córdoba||756||1031||275||See also Islamic Empire.|
|Carthaginian Empire||North Africa||Carthage||814 BC||146 BC||504|
|Cebu Rajahnate||Philippines||Cebu City||1279||1565||286||An Indianized state founded by a minor Chola prince.|
|Chagatai Khanate||Transoxania||Almaliq, Qarshi||1225||1687||462||Division of the Mongol Empire.|
|Chenla||Cambodia||Isanapura||550||802||252||Succeeded by the Khmer Empire.|
|Chera dynasty||South India||Vanchi Muthur, Karur,||400 BC||1729||2129||A Tamil (Later, Malayalam) dynasty which includes Early Cheras, Medieval Cheras, Kodungallur Cheras and Venadu Cheras.|
|Chola dynasty||South India||Uraiyur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram||400 BC||1540||1940||A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas and Later Cholas till the reign of Virasekhara Chola (opponent of Nagama Nayak).|
|Dacian Kingdom||Romania||Sarmizegetusa Regia||168 BC||106||274||Reached its territorial expansion under King Burebista (82 BC – 44 BC).|
|Danish colonial empire||Denmark (as Denmark–Norway 1536 – 1814)||Copenhagen||1536||1953||417||See also Danish overseas colonies.|
|Durrani Empire||Afghanistan||Kandahar, Kabul||1747||1823||75|
|Dutch Empire||Netherlands||Amsterdam||1568||1975||407||See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company.|
|Egyptian Empire||Egypt||Various, including Thebes, Akhetaten, Pi-Ramesses, Memphis||1550 BC||1077 BC||473||See also 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty & 20th Dynasty.|
|Ethiopian Empire||Ethiopia||Addis Ababa||1137||1974||837|
|Fatimid Caliphate||Egypt||Mahdia (909–969), Cairo (969–1171)||909||1171||262||See also Islamic Empire.|
|First French Empire||France||Paris||1804||1814/1815||10|
|Second French Empire||France||Paris||1852||1870||18|
|French colonial empire||France||Paris||1534||Present||485 as of 2019||Some consider the Empire ending with the end of French presence in Vanuatu (see New Hebrides) Empire continues in the form of Overseas France.|
|Frankish Empire||Western Europe||Various, including Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen||250||950||700|
|Funan||Cambodia||Vyadhapura||50||550||500||Succeeded by the Chenla.|
|Gallic Empire||Rhineland-Palatinate||Colonia Agrippina||260||274||14||Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.|
|Gaza Empire||Southern Africa||Not specified||1824||1895||71|
|Georgian Empire||Georgia||Kutaisi, Tbilisi||1008||1490||482||Established in 1008 as an unified kingdom. Georgian kings took title "King of Kings" and ruled over large territory consisting of Georgian, Armenian and Muslim areas, as well as numerous client states. Officially dissolved at 1490.|
|German Empire||Germany||Berlin||1871||1918||47||See also German colonial empire.|
|Ghana Empire||Mauritania, and Western Mali||Koumbi Saleh||300||1240||940||The empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the "Ghana Empire" by the title of its ruler (meaning "Warrior King"). Also known as Wagadou.|
|Ghaznavid dynasty||Afghanistan||Ghazni later Lahore||963||1187||224|
|Goguryeo||Korea||Jolbon, Gungnae City, Pyongyang||37 BC||668||705||Predecessor of Balhae and Goryeo.|
|Goryeo||Korea||Gaegyeong, Ganghwa||918||1392||474||Successor of Goguryeo. Unification of the Korean Peninsula. State maintained as an empire between 918 and 1274.|
|Gorkha Empire||Greater Nepal||1600||1850||250||Unification of Greater Nepal. State maintained as an empire between 1600 and 1840.|
|Göktürk Khaganate||Inner Asia||Ötüken||552||747||195||552–603 First empire, 603–658 Double empire, 658–681 Dark age, 681–747 Second empire.|
|Golden Horde||Central Asia||Sarai Batu||1240||1502||260||Break-away state of the Mongol Empire.|
|Empire of Great Fulo||Senegal||Tekrur||1514||1776||262|
|Great Moravian Empire||Central Europe||Mikulčice-Valy||833||900||67||The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia.|
|Great Seljuq Empire||Aral Sea, Asia Minor, Persia||Nishapur and later on Rey||1037||1194||157||Turkish empire, predecessor of the Sultanate of Rum.|
|Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty||India||Kannauj||600||1136||660||Founded by great king of Gujjars.|
|Gupta Empire||India||Pataliputra||320||550||230||Founded by Sri Gupta.|
|Han dynasty||China||Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang||206 BC||220||426||Founded by Liu Bang the High Ancestor.|
|Empire of Harsha||Northern India||Kannauj||606||647||41||Founded by Harshavardhana; collapsed after his death.|
|Hittite Empire||Anatolia||Hattusa||1460 BC||1180 BC||280||See also Syro-Hittite states.|
|Holy Roman Empire||Central Europe||Not specified||962||1806||844||Referred to simply as the Roman Empire (not to be confused with the actual Roman Empire) before 1157, when it became the Holy Empire. The Holy Roman Empire is attested from 1254. Was officially known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512, although this designation had fallen out of use again by the 18th century. See Holy Roman Empire § Name.|
|Hoysala Empire||India||Belur, Halebidu||1026||1343||317|
|Hunnic Empire||Eurasia||Not specified||370||469||99|
|Idrisid dynasty||Morocco||Fes||788||974||186||Founders of the first Moroccan state.|
|Ilkhanate||Persia||Maragheh, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh||1256||1335||79||Division of the Mongol Empire.|
|Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)||Israel||Jerusalem||1050 BC||586 BC||486||Considers the Start of Saul's reign, through the dual kingdoms of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and the Kingdom of Judah, until the Babylonian conquest of Judah.|
|Inca Empire ( Tawantinsuyo )||Andes (Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, parts of Chile, Argentina and Colombia)||Cusco||1438||1533||95||The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.|
|Italian Empire||Italy||Rome||1885||1943||58||See also Italian imperialism under Fascism.|
|Empire of Japan||Japan||Tokyo||1868||1947||79||Emperor's government took control of the country in 1868. Regional hegemony in East Asia ended in 1945. The new constitution of 1947 formally abolished the empire.|
|Jin dynasty (265–420)||China||Luoyang (265–311), Chang'an (312–316), Jiankang (317–420)||265||420||155||Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn dynasty (265–316), Eastern Jìn dynasty (317–420).|
|Jin dynasty (1115–1234)||Northern China, Manchuria||Huining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng||1115||1234||119||Also known as the Jurchens, were the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing dynasty.|
|Jolof Empire||West Africa||Linguère||1350||1549||199||Also known as the Wollof Empire. Succeeded by the Kingdom of Jolof (1549–1875).|
|Kaabu Empire||West Africa||Kansala||1537||1867||330||Also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu'.|
|Kanva dynasty||India||Pataliputra, Vidisha||75 BC||30 BC||45||Replaced the Shunga Empire.|
|Kara-Khanid Khanate||Turkistan||Kashgar||840||1212||372||First Turkic dynasty to embrace Islam.|
|Khazar Khaganate||Pontic steppe, North Caucasus||Balanjar, later Atil||700||1000||300||Founded by Western Turks, the members of the royal family embraced Judaism.|
|Khmer Empire||Cambodia||Hariharalaya (802–889), Angkor (889–1431)||802||1431||629||Succeeded from the kingdom of Chenla.|
|Khilji dynasty||Afghanistan||Kabul, Delhi||1290||1320||30|
|Kong Empire||West Africa||Kong||1710||1898||298||Also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire.|
|Korean Empire||Korean Peninsula||Hanseong||1897||1910||13||Was the last ruling Korean dynasties.|
|Kushan Empire||Afghanistan||Various, including Mathura, Peshawar, Begram, Taxila||30||345||315|
|Kushite Empire||Egypt, Nubia||Not specified||760 BC||656 BC||104|
|Latin Empire||Thrace, Asia Minor||Constantinople||1204||1261||57||See also Latinokratia.|
|Later Lê dynasty||Vietnam||Đông Kinh||1428||1789||361|
|Macedonian Empire||Macedonian Kingdom||Pella||334 BC||323 BC||11||Founded by Alexander the Great.|
|Madurai Nayak dynasty||South India||Madurai,||1529||1736||207||Branched out from the Vijayanagara Empire by Viswanatha Nayak.|
|Majapahit Empire||Indonesian Archipelago||Majapahit, Wilwatikta||1293||1527||234||Founded by Raden Wijaya.|
|Mali Empire||West Africa||Niani, later Ka-ba||1235||1610||375||A Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita.|
|Mamluk Sultanate||Egypt, Syria||Cairo||1250||1517||267||See also Islamic Empire.|
|Manchukuo||Manchuria||Hsinking||1932||1945||13||Created as a puppet state of the Japanese Empire, with Emperor Puyi (the last emperor of the Qing dynasty) installed as nominal regent and emperor.|
|Maratha Empire||India||Raigad, later Satara||1674||1818||144||Founded by Shivaji Maharaj, also known as the Maratha Confederacy.|
|Massina Empire||West Africa||Hamdullahi||1820||1862||42|
|Mauryan Empire||Ancient India||Pataliputra||321 BC||185 BC||136||Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryan Empire became the largest ever Indian empire under Ashoka.|
|Median Empire||Persia||Ecbatana||625 BC||549 BC||76||First Iranian empire, Founded by Deioces.|
|First Mexican Empire||Mexico||Mexico City||1821||1823||2||Preceded the Second Mexican Empire which was short lived (1864–1867). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.|
|Second Mexican Empire||Mexico||Mexico City||1864||1867||3||Succeeded the First Mexican Empire which was short lived (1821–1823). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.|
|Ming dynasty||China||Nanjing (1368–1421), Beijing (1421–1644)||1368||1644||276||Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang the Great Marshal.|
|Mitanni Empire||Syria, Iran, Iraq, Turkey||Washukanni||1500 BC||1300 BC||200|
|Mongol Empire||Mongolia||Karakorum||1206||1368||162||Split into four empires (Yuan dynasty, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde). Largest contiguous land empire.|
|Mughal Empire||India||Agra, Delhi||1526||1758||232||Founded by Babur. "Mughal" is a Persian word for the Mongols.|
|Nanda Empire||India||Pataliputra||450 BC||350 BC||100|
|Neo-Babylonian Empire||Mesopotamia||Babylon||626 BC||539 BC||87||See also Babylonia.|
|Nguyễn dynasty||Vietnam||Phú Xuân||1802||1945||143||Was the last ruling Vietnamese dynasty.|
|North Sea Empire||Denmark||Ribe||1016||1035||19||As one historian put it: "When the 11th century began its fourth decade, Canute was, with the single exception of the Emperor, the most imposing ruler in Latin Christendom. ... [H]e was lord of four important realms and the overlord of other kingdoms. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. Apparently he held in his hands the destinies of two great regions: the British Isles and the Scandinavian peninsulas. His fleet all but controlled two important seas, the North and the Baltic. He had built an Empire."|
|Empire of Nicaea||Bithynia||Nicaea||1204||1261||57||Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.|
|Northern Yuan dynasty||Mongolia||Shangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum||1368||1635||267||Created after the expulsion of the Yuan dynasty from China in 1368.|
|Omani Empire||Oman||Muscat||1698||1856||260||See Oman.|
|Ottoman Empire||Anatolia||Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul||1299||1922||623||Predecessor of the Republic of Turkey.|
|Oyo Empire||Southwestern Nigeria||Oyo-Ile||1400||1905||505|
|Pahlavi dynasty||Persia||Tehran||1925||1979||53||The last Imperial dynasty of the Persian Empire.|
|Palmyrene Empire||Syria||Palmyra||260||273||13||Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.|
|Pandya dynasty||South India||Madurai, Korkai, Tenkasi, Tirunelveli||400 BC||1753||2153||A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Pandyas, First Empire, Second Empire and Later Pandyas of Tenkasi and Tirunelveli.|
|Parthian Empire||Persia||Various, including Asaak, Hecatompylos, Ecbatana, Ctesiphon, Nisa||247 BC||224||471||Third Iranian empire, Founded by Arsaces I.|
|Pontic Empire||Pontus||Amaseia, Sinope||120 BC||47 BC||73||Mithridates VI had the title: King of Kings.|
|Portuguese Empire||Portugal||Lisbon, Rio de Janeiro (1815–1821)||1415||1999||584||Was one of the first global empires and the longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.|
|Ptolemaic Empire||Egypt||Alexandria||305 BC||30 BC||275||See also Diadochi.|
|Qajar dynasty [ citation needed ]||Persia||Tehran||1794||1925||131|
|Qin dynasty||China||Xianyang||221 BC||206 BC||15||First dynasty of the imperial period.|
|Qing dynasty||China||Shenyang, Beijing||1644||1912||268||Last dynasty of the imperial period.|
|Rashidun Caliphate||Saudi Arabia||Medina, Kufa||632||661||29||Predecessor of the Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.|
|Roman Empire||Italy||Rome, Constantinople||27 BC||1453||1480||Together with The Roman Kingdom, The Roman Republic and the Byzantine Empire, direct Roman states lasted from 753 BC until 1453 AD, 2206 years.|
|Rouran Khaganate||Inner China||Not specified||330||555||225|
|Rozwi Empire||Southern Africa||Danangombe||1660||1866||206|
|Russian Empire (Romanov)||Russia||Saint Petersburg||1721||1917||196||Successor state of the Tsardom of Russia.|
|Saadi dynasty||Morocco||Marrakech||1554||1659||105||Destroyed the Songhai Empire.|
|Safavid dynasty||Persia||Tabriz, Qazvin, Esfahan||1501||1736||235|
|Sassanid dynasty||Persia||Ctesiphon||224||651||427||Fourth Iranian Empire.|
|Satavahana dynasty||India||Amaravathi village, Guntur district Dharanikota||230 BC||220||450||An Andhra dynasty which preceded the Vengi dynasty of Andhra.|
|Samanid Empire||Persia||Balkh, Bukhara||819||999||180|
|Seleucid Empire||Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria||Seleucia, Antioch||312 BC||63 BC||249||See also Diadochi.|
|Serbian Empire||Balkans (Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, Albania)||Skopje, Prizren||1346||1371||25||Founded by Stephen Uroš IV (Dušan the Mighty), fell into feudal disarray after his death.|
|Shu Han||China||Chengdu||221||263||42||See also Three Kingdoms.|
|Sikh Empire||Punjab region, India||Amritsar||1733||1849||116||Preceded the British Empire in the Indian subcontinent.|
|Sokoto Caliphate||West Africa||Sokoto (1804–1850), (1851–1902), Gudu (1804), Birnin Konni (1850, 1903)||1804||1903||99|
|Song dynasty||China||Bianjing (960–1127), Lin'an (1127–1279)||960||1279||319||Founded by Zhao Kuangyi the Great Ancestor.|
|Songhai Empire||West Africa||Gao||1340||1591||251||Former vassal of the Mali Empire which became one of the largest African empires in history.|
|Spanish Empire||Iberian Peninsula||Madrid||1402||1975||573||Was founded with the conquest of the Canary Islands. It was the first global empire.|
|Srivijaya Empire||Indonesian Archipelago||Palembang, Mataram||683||1293||610||It was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, then based on Mataram (Medang Kingdom) under Sailendra's dynasty.|
|Shunga Empire||India||Pataliputra, Vidisa||185 BC||73 BC||112||Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India.|
|Swedish Empire||Sweden||Stockholm||1611||1721||110||See also Swedish overseas colonies.|
|Tang dynasty||China||Chang'an (618–904), Luoyang (904–907)||618||907||289||Founded By Li Yuan (aka. Emperor Gaozu of Tang).|
|Thanjavur Nayak dynasty||South India||Thanjavur||1532||1673||141||Founded by Sevappa Nayak.|
|Tây Sơn dynasty||Vietnam||Phú Xuân||1778||1802||24|
|Empire of Thessalonica||Epirus, Kingdom of Thessalonica||Thessaloniki||1224||1246||42||Evolved from the Despotate of Epirus.|
|Third Reich||Germany||Berlin, Hamburg (1933–1945), Flensburg (1945)||1933||1945||12||Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) with the Japanese and Italian Empire.|
|Timurid Empire||Uzbekistan, Persia and Central Asia||Samarkand, Herat||1370||1526||156||Persianized form of the Mongolian word kürügän, Turko-Mongol Empire.|
|Empire of Trebizond||Pontus||Trebizond||1204||1461||257||Successor state of the Byzantine Empire and a client state of the Kingdom of Georgia.|
|Toucouleur Empire||West Africa||Ségou||1848||1893||45|
|Tu'i Tonga Empire||Tonga, Pacific Ocean||Mu'a||950||1865||915||See History of Tonga.|
|Turgesh Khaganate||Turkistan||Balasagun||699||766||67||Founded as a successor of West Turkish empire.|
|Umayyad Caliphate||Syria||Damascus, Córdoba (capital-in-exile)||661||750||89||Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.|
|Uyunid dynasty||Arabian||Al-Hasa, Qatif||1076||1253||163||The Uyunids were a Sunni Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.|
|Uyghur Khaganate||Central Asia||Ordubaliq||742||848||106||742–848 Founded as a successor of Göktürk Khaganate, 848–1036 Gansu state, 856–1209 Turfan state.|
|Vijayanagara Empire||South India||Vijayanagara||1336||1646||310||The founding of the original kingdom was based on the principality of Anegondi.|
|Wari Empire||Peru, Bolivia||Huari/Tiwanaku||500||1100||600||It is a matter of conflict as to whether it was a real organized state that could be called an empire. If so, it would be considered the first empire in the Americas.|
|Wassoulou Empire||West Africa||Bissandugu||1878||1895||45||Also known as the Mandinka Empire.|
|Wei Empire||China||Luoyang||220||265||45||See also Three Kingdoms.|
|Western Chalukya Empire||South India||Manyakheta, Basavakalyan||973||1189||216|
|Western Roman Empire||Italy||Mediolanum, Ravenna||395||476||81||The western half of the Roman Empire.|
|Eastern Wu||China||Wuchang, Jianye||229||280||51||See also Three Kingdoms.|
|Western Xia dynasty||China||Xingqing||1038||1227||189||Also called the Tangut dynasty.|
|Xin dynasty||China||Chang'an||9||23||14||The Xin dynasty had only one ruling emperor.|
|Yuan dynasty||China, Mongolia||Dadu||1271||1368||97||Division of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan emperors had nominal supremacy over western khanates.|
|Zhou dynasty||China||Fenghao, Wangcheng, Chengzhou||1046 BC||256 BC||794||Zenith of bronze age in China.|
|Zulu Empire||South Africa||KwaBulawayo, Ulundi||1818||1897||79|
These governments, confederations and other entities have sometimes been informally referred to as "empires". Some did not fit the modern definition of empire (e.g. the Delian League), some were self-proclaimed by their first and often last ruler, others were short-lived attempts to turn an existing government into an empire, and there are also instances of the word "empire" being used to refer to unofficial spheres of influence which do not consider themselves empires.
An empire is a sovereign state functioning as an aggregate of nations or people that are ruled over by an emperor or another kind of monarch. The territory and population of an empire is commonly of greater extent than the one of a kingdom.
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture, Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC.
|American Empire||United States||Washington, D.C.||1776||Present||243||The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846. In recent times the concept has been revived to refer to the sphere of influence of the United States by its critics.|
|Athenian Empire (Delian League)||Ancient Greece||Delos island||478 BC||404 BC||74||Also known as the Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.|
|Second Athenian League||Ancient Greece||Athens||378 BC||355 BC||23||Second Athenian League, headed by Athens primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and the Persian Empire.|
|Central African Empire||Central African Republic||Bangui||1976||1979||3||President Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa I in 1976. Along he proclaiming the empire as a constitutional monarchy.|
|Empire of China||China||Beijing||1915||1916||1||Was a short-lived attempt by Yuan Shikai to reinstate the Imperial Monarchy.|
|First Empire of Haiti||Haiti||Port-au-Prince||1804||1806||2|
First Haitian Empire, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I.
|Second Empire of Haiti||Haiti||Port-au-Prince||1849||1859||10|
Second Haitian Empire, Faustin Soulouque is proclaimed Emperor Faustin I.
|Grand Duchy of Lithuania||Lithuania||Vilnius||1200||1569||369||It was the largest state in Europe in the 15th century.|
|Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth||Poland, Lithuania||Kraków||1569||1795||226||It was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with some 390,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century.|
|Roman Republic||Italy||Rome||509 BC||27 BC||482||Predecessor of the Roman Empire. Technically a Republic, had imperial holdings throughout its existence.|
|Kingdom of Romania||Romania||Bucharest||1920||1944||24||Following the post–World War I treaties that ratified its borders (the last one being the 1920 Treaty of Trianon), the newly-enlarged Romanian monarchy was rated by the Comintern as a multi-national imperial state that subjugated ethnic minorities. Indeed, according to the 1930 Romanian census, just over 28% of Romania's inhabitants were not ethnic Romanians. Non-Romanians formed the majority in 14 out of Romania's 71 counties. In 11 Romanian counties, Romanians formed less than 40% of the population: Caliacra (22.6% Romanians), Cernăuți (21.8% Romanians), Cetatea Albă (18.5% Romanians), Ciuc (14.4% Romanians), Durostor (19% Romanians), Hotin (35% Romanians), Ismail (31.9% Romanians), Odorhei (4.9% Romanians), Storojineț (33.9% Romanians), Timiș-Torontal (37.6% Romanians) and Trei Scaune (16% Romanians). |
The issue of "Romanian imperialism" (as Romanian leading politician Iuliu Maniu put it) was further exacerbated by the 1941 creation of the Romanian Transnistria Governorate from parts of the Ukrainian SSR, under the rule of "Conducător" Ion Antonescu. These new borders lasted until 1944. According to the 1941 Romanian census, 21 out of the now 73 Romanian counties were inhabited by a non-Romanian ethnic majority, including all of the 13 Transnistrian counties (the entire Transnistrian region was over 75% Ukrainian). Two of the 21 counties did have Romanian plurality (meaning that the Romanians were the largest ethnic group, but still less than half of the county population).
|Soviet Empire||Soviet Union||Moscow||1922||1991||69||A political term for the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union used by its critics.|
Middle Eastern empires have existed in the Middle East at various periods between 5000 BCE and 1924 CE; they have been instrumental in the spreading of ideas, technology and religions within Middle Eastern territories and to outlying territories. Since the 7th century AD all Middle Eastern empires, with the exception of the Byzantine Empire, have been Muslim, some of them claiming the titles of Islamic caliphate. The last major empire based in the region was the Ottoman Empire.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, a polytheistic Baltic tribe from Aukštaitija.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791, was a constitution adopted by the Great Sejm for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Constitution was designed to correct the Commonwealth's political flaws and had been preceded by a period of agitation for—and gradual introduction of—reforms, beginning with the Convocation Sejm of 1764 and the consequent election that year of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the Commonwealth's last king.
Golden Liberty, sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Under that system, all nobles (szlachta), regardless of rank or economic status, were considered to have equal legal status and enjoyed extensive legal rights and privileges. The nobility controlled the legislature and the Commonwealth's elected king.
The Kingdom of Poland was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
The liberum veto was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was a form of unanimity voting rule that allowed any member of the Sejm (legislature) to force an immediate end to the current session and to nullify any legislation that had already been passed at the session by shouting, Sisto activitatem! or Nie pozwalam!. The rule was in place from the mid-17th century to the late 18th century in the Sejm's parliamentary deliberations. It was based on the premise that since all Polish noblemen were equal, every measure that came before the Sejm had to be passed unanimously. The liberum veto was a key part of the political system of the Commonwealth, strengthening democratic elements and checking royal power and went against the European-wide trend of having a strong executive.
The Great Sejm, also known as the Four-Year Sejm was a Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that was held in Warsaw between 1788 and 1792. Its principal aim became to restore sovereignty to, and reform, the Commonwealth politically and economically.
The Patriotic Party, also known as the Patriot Party or, in English, as the Reform Party, was a political movement in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the period of the Four-Year Sejm of 1788–92, whose chief achievement was the Constitution of 3 May 1791. The reformers aimed to strengthen the ailing political machinery of the Commonwealth, to bolster its military, and to reduce foreign political influence, particularly that of the Russian Empire. It has been called the first Polish political party, though it had no formal organizational structure. The Party was inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution, and its name, proudly used by themselves, was a tribute to the Dutch Patriots.
Silent Sejm is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717 held in Warsaw. A civil war in the Commonwealth was used by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great as an opportunity to intervene as a mediator. It marked the end of Augustus II of Poland's attempts to create an absolute monarchy in Poland, and the beginning of the Russian Empire's increasing influence and control over the Commonwealth.
The Köprülü era was a period in which the Ottoman Empire's politics were frequently dominated by a series of grand viziers from the Köprülü family. The Köprülü era is sometimes more narrowly defined as the period from 1656-1683, as it was during those years that members of the family held the office of grand vizier uninterruptedly, while for the remainder of the period they occupied it only sporadically. The Köprülüs were generally skilled administrators, and are credited with reviving the empire's fortunes after a period of military defeat and economic instability. Numerous reforms were instituted under their rule, which enabled the empire to resolve its budget crisis and stamp out factional conflict in the empire.
The Tarnogród Confederation was a confederation of szlachta in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the years 1715–1716. It was formed on 26 November 1715 in Tarnogród by nobility angered by illegal taxation, levied for Saxon forces operating in Grand Duchy of Lithuania on behalf of Augustus II the Strong, who wanted to introduce absolute monarchy in the Commonwealth. Its marshal was Stanisław Ledóchowski. The confederates and the royal forces did not fight any decisive battles, but they fought numerous smaller skirmishes; several towns and castles were taken. The ensuing negotiations eventually brought Peter I of Russia and Russian Empire forces into the Commonwealth "for peacekeeping and mediation". This event marked the beginning of lasting Russian Empire influence on Commonwealth internal affairs, starting with the Silent Sejm of 1717.
The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages. Historians use the term early modern to refer to the period beginning in approximately 1500 AD and lasting until around 1800.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history. The dynasty was founded by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila, whose marriage to Queen Jadwiga of Poland formed a Polish–Lithuanian union. The partnership brought vast territories controlled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for both the Polish and Lithuanian people, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe for the next four centuries.
The history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century. The Union of Lublin of 1569 established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state, replacing the previously existing personal union of the two countries. The Union was largely run by the Polish and increasingly Polonized Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility, through the system of the central parliament and local assemblies, but from 1573 led by elected kings. The formal rule of the proportionally more numerous than in other European countries nobility constituted a sophisticated early democratic system, in contrast to the absolute monarchies prevalent at that time in the rest of Europe.
The Union of Lublin was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was largely abandoned. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.
The military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved from the merger of the armies of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania following the 1569 Union of Lublin, which formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The army was commanded by the Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The most unique formation of the army was the heavy cavalry in the form of the Polish winged hussars. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy never played a major role in the military structure, and ceased to exist in the mid-17th century.
The Polish question is the issue, in international politics, of the existence of Poland as an independent state. Raised soon after the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, it became a question current in European and American diplomacy throughout the 19th and parts of the 20th centuries. Historian Norman Davies notes that the Polish question is the primary lens through which most histories of Europe discuss the history of Poland, and was one of the most common topics of European politics for close to two centuries. The Polish question was a major topic at all major European peace conferences: at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, at the Versailles Conference in 1919, and at the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference in 1945. As Piotr Wandycz notes, "What to the Poles was the Polish cause, to the outside world was the Polish question."
The Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, also known as the Era of Transformation, constitutes a period in the history of the Ottoman Empire from c. 1550 to c. 1700, spanning roughly from the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent to the Treaty of Karlowitz at the conclusion of the War of the Holy League. This period was characterized by numerous dramatic political, social, and economic changes, which resulted in the empire shifting from an expansionist, patrimonial state into a bureaucratic empire based on an ideology of upholding justice and acting as the protector of Sunni Islam. These changes were in large part prompted by a series of political and economic crises in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, resulting from inflation, warfare, and political factionalism. Yet despite these crises the empire remained strong both politically and economically, and continued to adapt to the challenges of a changing world. The seventeenth century was once characterized as a period of decline for the Ottomans, but since the 1980s historians of the Ottoman Empire have increasingly rejected that characterization, identifying it instead as a period of crisis, adaptation, and transformation.
Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe.
The multinational character of the Habsburg monarchy was comparable to that of the Commonwealth [...]
Lithuania was also a powerful empire and dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries in close alignment with Poland; then, from 1569, it was part of a confederation with Poland [...]
It was indeed an Eastern European empire, a multiethnic and multicultural state with great economic strength and strong military power, controlling most of central and eastern European politics.
In terms of territorial expanse in Europe the Polish-Lithuanian state was surpassed only by Russia and the Ottoman Empire and in respect to population was behind only France, Spain, and the German Empire.
Poland-Lithuania had entered the seventeenth century as one of the great powers in Eastern Europe.