List of empires

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This is an alphabetical list of empires. The table may be resorted by other columns if your browser supports this function.


Empires and dynasties

Abbasid Caliphate Iraq Baghdad, Raqqa, Kufa, Samarra, Anbar 7501258508Successor of the Umayyad Caliphate.
Achaemenid Empire Persia Various, including Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon 550 BC330 BC220The first Persian empire, and the largest one in classical antiquity, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afsharid dynasty Persia Mashhad 1736179660Founded by Nader Shah, at its peak expanded Persia as far west as Baghdad, and as far east as Delhi.
Ahom dynasty North East India Charaideo, Garhgaon, Rangpur (Ahom capital), Jorhat 12281838610It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India.
Akkadian Empire Sumer Akkad 2300 BC2200 BC100
Aksumite Empire Ethiopia Axum 150940790Succeeded by the Ethiopian Empire.
Akwamu West Africa Akwamufie, Nyanoase15051867362
Almohad Caliphate Morocco Marrakech, Seville 11211269148
Almoravid dynasty Morocco Aghmat (1040–1062), Marrakech (1062–1147)10401147107
Angevin Empire England, France No official capital. Court was generally held at Angers and Chinon 1154124288
Armenian Empire Armenia Tigranakert 190 BC428618 Tigranes the Great took the title King of Kings.
Assyria Mesopotamia Assur, later Nineveh 2025 BC609 BC1119
Ashanti Empire West Africa Kumasi 16701902232
Austrian Empire Austria Vienna 1804186763Preceded by the Holy Roman Empire.
Austria-Hungary Austria, Hungary Vienna, Budapest 1867191851Often referred to as the "Austro-Hungarian Empire". Formed out of the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Officially a real union of the rump Austrian Empire (Cisleithania) and the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen/Transleithania. Ruler was therefore referred to as Kaiser und König ("Emperor-King", literally "Emperor and King").
Ayyubid dynasty Middle East Cairo, Damascus, Hama 11711341170Founded by Saladin, See also List of Muslim states and dynasties.
Aztec Empire Mesoamerica Tenochtitlan 1428152193The capital of Mexico, Mexico City, is built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.
Babylonian Empire Mesopotamia Babylon 1900 BC1600 BC300See also Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Balhae North Korea, Manchuria Sanggyeong 698926228Successor of Goguryeo.
Bamana Empire West Africa Ségou 17121861149Also known as the Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire
Belgian colonial empire Belgium Brussels 1901196261Overseas possessions were referred to as "the colonies" rather than an empire.
Benin Empire Nigeria Benin City 14401897457
Bornu Empire Nigeria Ngazargamu 13871893506The continuation of the Kanem Empire.
Empire of Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1822188967Established after Pedro I of Brazil declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal.
Britannic Empire Britain Londinium 28629610Was a break-away state of the Roman Empire. See also the Carausian Revolt.
British Empire United Kingdom London 16031997416The largest empire in world history. Precursor to the modern Commonwealth of Nations.
British Raj Indian Subcontinent Calcutta (1858–1912), New Delhi (1912–1947)1858194789Governed by the Crown and part of the British Empire. Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1876.
Bruneian Empire Borneo Not specified, possibly Kota Batu 13681888520Lasted until it became a British protectorate in 1888.
First Bulgarian Empire Balkans Pliska (680–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopie (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018)6801018338Founded by Khan Asparukh. Under Tsar Simeon I became the first powerful Slavic Empire. Falls to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II.
Second Bulgarian Empire Balkans Tarnovo 11851422237Successor of the First Bulgarian Empire. Under the Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II became the most powerful state in the Balkans.
Buyid dynasty Persia Shiraz 9341055121
Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire (Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy) Constantinople 39514531058The eastern half of the Roman Empire. Term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.
Caliphate of Córdoba Iberian Peninsula Córdoba 7561031275See also Islamic Empire.
Carthaginian Empire North Africa Carthage 814 BC146 BC504
Cebu Rajahnate Philippines Cebu City 12791565286An Indianized state founded by a minor Chola prince.
Chagatai Khanate Transoxania Almaliq, Qarshi 12251687462Division of the Mongol Empire.
Chalukya dynasty India Badami 543753210
Chenla Cambodia Isanapura 550802252Succeeded by the Khmer Empire.
Chera dynasty South India Vanchi Muthur, Karur,

Kodungallur, Kollam.

400 BC17292129A Tamil (Later, Malayalam) dynasty which includes Early Cheras, Medieval Cheras, Kodungallur Cheras and Venadu Cheras.
Chola dynasty South India Uraiyur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram 400 BC15401940A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas and Later Cholas till the reign of Virasekhara Chola (opponent of Nagama Nayak).
Dacian Kingdom Romania Sarmizegetusa Regia 168 BC106274Reached its territorial expansion under King Burebista (82 BC – 44 BC).
Danish colonial empire Denmark (as Denmark–Norway 1536 – 1814) Copenhagen 15361953417See also Danish overseas colonies.
Delhi Sultanate India Delhi 12061527321
Durrani Empire Afghanistan Kandahar, Kabul 1747182375
Dutch Empire Netherlands Amsterdam 15681975407See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company.
Egyptian Empire Egypt Various, including Thebes, Akhetaten, Pi-Ramesses, Memphis 1550 BC1077 BC473See also 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty & 20th Dynasty.
Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia Addis Ababa 11371974837
Fatimid Caliphate Egypt Mahdia (909–969), Cairo (969–1171)9091171262See also Islamic Empire.
First French Empire France Paris 18041814/181510
Second French Empire France Paris 1852187018
French colonial empire France Paris 1534Present485 as of 2019Some consider the Empire ending with the end of French presence in Vanuatu (see New Hebrides) Empire continues in the form of Overseas France.
Frankish Empire Western Europe Various, including Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen 250950700
Funan Cambodia Vyadhapura50550500Succeeded by the Chenla.
Gallic Empire Rhineland-Palatinate Colonia Agrippina 26027414Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Gaza Empire Southern Africa Not specified1824189571
Georgian Empire Georgia Kutaisi, Tbilisi 10081490482Established in 1008 as an unified kingdom. Georgian kings took title "King of Kings" and ruled over large territory consisting of Georgian, Armenian and Muslim areas, as well as numerous client states. Officially dissolved at 1490.
German Empire Germany Berlin 1871191847See also German colonial empire.
Ghana Empire Mauritania, and Western Mali Koumbi Saleh 3001240940The empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the "Ghana Empire" by the title of its ruler (meaning "Warrior King"). Also known as Wagadou.
Ghaznavid dynasty Afghanistan Ghazni later Lahore 9631187224
Ghurid dynasty Afghanistan Firuzkuh 1148121567
Goguryeo Korea [1] Jolbon, Gungnae City, Pyongyang 37 BC668705Predecessor of Balhae and Goryeo.
Goryeo Korea Gaegyeong, Ganghwa 9181392474Successor of Goguryeo. Unification of the Korean Peninsula. State maintained as an empire between 918 and 1274.
Gorkha Empire Greater Nepal 16001850250Unification of Greater Nepal. State maintained as an empire between 1600 and 1840.
Göktürk Khaganate Inner Asia Ötüken 552747195552–603 First empire, 603–658 Double empire, 658–681 Dark age, 681–747 Second empire.
Golden Horde Central Asia Sarai Batu 12401502260Break-away state of the Mongol Empire.
Empire of Great Fulo Senegal Tekrur 15141776262
Great Moravian Empire Central Europe Mikulčice-Valy 83390067The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia.
Great Seljuq Empire Aral Sea, Asia Minor, Persia Nishapur and later on Rey 10371194157Turkish empire, predecessor of the Sultanate of Rum.
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty India Kannauj 6001136660Founded by great king of Gujjars.
Gupta Empire India Pataliputra 320550230Founded by Sri Gupta.
Han dynasty China Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang 206 BC220426Founded by Liu Bang the High Ancestor.
Empire of Harsha Northern India Kannauj 60664741Founded by Harshavardhana; collapsed after his death.
Hephthalite Empire Afghanistan Kabul 420567147
Hittite Empire Anatolia Hattusa 1460 BC1180 BC280See also Syro-Hittite states.
Holy Roman Empire Central Europe Not specified9621806844Referred to simply as the Roman Empire (not to be confused with the actual Roman Empire) before 1157, when it became the Holy Empire. The Holy Roman Empire is attested from 1254. Was officially known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512, although this designation had fallen out of use again by the 18th century. See Holy Roman Empire § Name.
Hotak dynasty Persia Isfahan 1709173829
Hoysala Empire India Belur, Halebidu 10261343317
Hunnic Empire Eurasia Not specified37046999
Idrisid dynasty Morocco Fes 788974186Founders of the first Moroccan state.
Ilkhanate Persia Maragheh, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh 1256133579Division of the Mongol Empire.
Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) Israel Jerusalem 1050 BC586 BC486Considers the Start of Saul's reign, through the dual kingdoms of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and the Kingdom of Judah, until the Babylonian conquest of Judah.
Inca Empire ( Tawantinsuyo ) Andes (Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, parts of Chile, Argentina and Colombia) Cusco 1438153395The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Italian Empire Italy Rome 1885194358See also Italian imperialism under Fascism.
Empire of Japan Japan Tokyo 1868194779Emperor's government took control of the country in 1868. Regional hegemony in East Asia ended in 1945. The new constitution of 1947 formally abolished the empire. [2]
Jin dynasty (265–420) China Luoyang (265–311), Chang'an (312–316), Jiankang (317–420)265420155Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn dynasty (265–316), Eastern Jìn dynasty (317–420).
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) Northern China, Manchuria Huining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng 11151234119Also known as the Jurchens, were the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing dynasty.
Jolof Empire West Africa Linguère 13501549199Also known as the Wollof Empire. Succeeded by the Kingdom of Jolof (1549–1875).
Kaabu Empire West Africa Kansala15371867330Also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu'.
Kanem Empire Chad Njimi 7001387687
Kanva dynasty India Pataliputra, Vidisha 75 BC30 BC45Replaced the Shunga Empire.
Kara-Khanid Khanate Turkistan Kashgar 8401212372First Turkic dynasty to embrace Islam.
Khazar Khaganate Pontic steppe, North Caucasus Balanjar, later Atil 7001000300Founded by Western Turks, the members of the royal family embraced Judaism.
Khmer Empire Cambodia Hariharalaya (802–889), Angkor (889–1431)8021431629Succeeded from the kingdom of Chenla.
Khilji dynasty Afghanistan Kabul, Delhi 1290132030
Khwarazmian dynasty Persia Urgench 10771221144
Konbaung dynasty Myanmar Mandalay 17521885133
Kong Empire West Africa Kong 17101898298Also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire.
Korean Empire Korean Peninsula Hanseong 1897191013Was the last ruling Korean dynasties.
Kushan Empire Afghanistan Various, including Mathura, Peshawar, Begram, Taxila 30345315
Kushite Empire Egypt, Nubia Not specified760 BC656 BC104
Latin Empire Thrace, Asia Minor Constantinople 1204126157See also Latinokratia.
Later Lê dynasty Vietnam Đông Kinh 14281789361
Liao dynasty China Shangjing 9151125210
Lodi Sultanate Afghanistan Delhi 1451152675
Macedonian Empire Macedonian Kingdom Pella 334 BC323 BC11Founded by Alexander the Great.
Madurai Nayak dynasty South India Madurai,


15291736207Branched out from the Vijayanagara Empire by Viswanatha Nayak.
Majapahit Empire Indonesian Archipelago Majapahit, Wilwatikta 12931527234Founded by Raden Wijaya.
Mali Empire West Africa Niani, later Ka-ba 12351610375A Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita.
Mamluk Sultanate Egypt, Syria Cairo 12501517267See also Islamic Empire.
Manchukuo Manchuria Hsinking 1932194513Created as a puppet state of the Japanese Empire, with Emperor Puyi (the last emperor of the Qing dynasty) installed as nominal regent and emperor.
Maratha Empire India Raigad, later Satara 16741818144Founded by Shivaji Maharaj, also known as the Maratha Confederacy.
Marinid dynasty Morocco Fes 12441465221
Massina Empire West Africa Hamdullahi 1820186242
Mauryan Empire Ancient India Pataliputra 321 BC185 BC136Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryan Empire became the largest ever Indian empire under Ashoka.
Median Empire Persia Ecbatana 625 BC549 BC76First Iranian empire, Founded by Deioces.
First Mexican Empire Mexico Mexico City 182118232Preceded the Second Mexican Empire which was short lived (1864–1867). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Second Mexican Empire Mexico Mexico City 186418673Succeeded the First Mexican Empire which was short lived (1821–1823). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Ming dynasty China Nanjing (1368–1421), Beijing (1421–1644)13681644276Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang the Great Marshal.
Mitanni Empire Syria, Iran, Iraq, Turkey Washukanni 1500 BC1300 BC200
Mongol Empire Mongolia Karakorum 12061368162Split into four empires (Yuan dynasty, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde). Largest contiguous land empire.
Mughal Empire India Agra, Delhi 15261758232Founded by Babur. "Mughal" is a Persian word for the Mongols.
Nanda Empire India Pataliputra 450 BC350 BC100
Neo-Babylonian Empire Mesopotamia Babylon 626 BC539 BC87See also Babylonia.
Nguyễn dynasty Vietnam Phú Xuân 18021945143Was the last ruling Vietnamese dynasty.
North Sea Empire Denmark Ribe 1016103519As one historian put it: "When the 11th century began its fourth decade, Canute was, with the single exception of the Emperor, the most imposing ruler in Latin Christendom. ... [H]e was lord of four important realms and the overlord of other kingdoms. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. Apparently he held in his hands the destinies of two great regions: the British Isles and the Scandinavian peninsulas. His fleet all but controlled two important seas, the North and the Baltic. He had built an Empire." [3]
Empire of Nicaea Bithynia Nicaea 1204126157Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
Northern Yuan dynasty Mongolia Shangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum 13681635267Created after the expulsion of the Yuan dynasty from China in 1368.
Omani Empire Oman Muscat 16981856260See Oman.
Ottoman Empire Anatolia Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul 12991922623Predecessor of the Republic of Turkey.
Oyo Empire Southwestern Nigeria Oyo-Ile14001905505
Pagan Empire Myanmar Bagan 8491297448
Pahlavi dynasty Persia Tehran 1925197953The last Imperial dynasty of the Persian Empire.
Pala Empire India Pataliputra 7501174424
Palmyrene Empire Syria Palmyra 26027313Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Pandya dynasty South India Madurai, Korkai, Tenkasi, Tirunelveli 400 BC1753 [4] 2153A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Pandyas, First Empire, Second Empire and Later Pandyas of Tenkasi and Tirunelveli.
Parthian Empire Persia Various, including Asaak, Hecatompylos, Ecbatana, Ctesiphon, Nisa 247 BC224471Third Iranian empire, Founded by Arsaces I.
Pontic Empire Pontus Amaseia, Sinope 120 BC47 BC73 Mithridates VI had the title: King of Kings.
Portuguese Empire Portugal Lisbon, Rio de Janeiro (1815–1821)14151999584Was one of the first global empires and the longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Ptolemaic Empire Egypt Alexandria 305 BC30 BC275See also Diadochi.
Qajar dynasty [ citation needed ] Persia Tehran 17941925131
Qin dynasty China Xianyang 221 BC206 BC15First dynasty of the imperial period.
Qing dynasty China Shenyang, Beijing 16441912268Last dynasty of the imperial period.
Ramnad Sethupathis India Ramanathapuram 15901979389
Rashidun Caliphate Saudi Arabia Medina, Kufa 63266129Predecessor of the Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Rashtrakuta dynasty India Manyakheta 753982229
Roman Empire Italy Rome, Constantinople 27 BC14531480Together with The Roman Kingdom, The Roman Republic and the Byzantine Empire, direct Roman states lasted from 753 BC until 1453 AD, 2206 years.
Rouran Khaganate Inner China Not specified330555225
Rozwi Empire Southern Africa Danangombe 16601866206
Russian Empire (Romanov) Russia Saint Petersburg 17211917196Successor state of the Tsardom of Russia.
Saadi dynasty Morocco Marrakech 15541659105Destroyed the Songhai Empire.
Safavid dynasty Persia Tabriz, Qazvin, Esfahan 15011736235
Saffarid dynasty Persia Zaranj 8671002135
Sassanid dynasty Persia Ctesiphon 224651427Fourth Iranian Empire.
Satavahana dynasty India Amaravathi village, Guntur district Dharanikota 230 BC220450An Andhra dynasty which preceded the Vengi dynasty of Andhra.
Samanid Empire Persia Balkh, Bukhara 819999180
Seleucid Empire Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria Seleucia, Antioch 312 BC63 BC249See also Diadochi.
Serbian Empire Balkans (Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, Albania) Skopje, Prizren 1346137125Founded by Stephen Uroš IV (Dušan the Mighty), fell into feudal disarray after his death.
Shu Han China Chengdu 22126342See also Three Kingdoms.
Siam Empire Thailand Bangkok 17821932150
Sikh Empire Punjab region, India Amritsar 17331849116Preceded the British Empire in the Indian subcontinent.
Sokoto Caliphate West Africa Sokoto (1804–1850), (1851–1902), Gudu (1804), Birnin Konni (1850, 1903)1804190399
Song dynasty China Bianjing (960–1127), Lin'an (1127–1279)9601279319Founded by Zhao Kuangyi the Great Ancestor.
Songhai Empire West Africa Gao 13401591251Former vassal of the Mali Empire which became one of the largest African empires in history.
Spanish Empire Iberian Peninsula Madrid 14021975573Was founded with the conquest of the Canary Islands. It was the first global empire.
Srivijaya Empire Indonesian Archipelago Palembang, Mataram 6831293610It was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, then based on Mataram (Medang Kingdom) under Sailendra's dynasty.
Sui dynasty China Chang'an 58161837
Shunga Empire India Pataliputra, Vidisa 185 BC73 BC112 Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India.
Swedish Empire Sweden Stockholm 16111721110See also Swedish overseas colonies.
Tahirid dynasty Persia Nishapur 82187352
Tang dynasty China Chang'an (618–904), Luoyang (904–907)618907289Founded By Li Yuan (aka. Emperor Gaozu of Tang).
Thanjavur Nayak dynasty South India Thanjavur 15321673141Founded by Sevappa Nayak.
Tây Sơn dynasty Vietnam Phú Xuân 1778180224
Empire of Thessalonica Epirus, Kingdom of Thessalonica Thessaloniki 1224124642Evolved from the Despotate of Epirus.
Third Reich Germany Berlin, Hamburg (1933–1945), Flensburg (1945)1933194512Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) with the Japanese and Italian Empire.
Tibetan Empire Tibet Lhasa 755870115
Tondo dynasty Philippines Tondo 9001587687
Timurid Empire Uzbekistan, Persia and Central Asia Samarkand, Herat 13701526156Persianized form of the Mongolian word kürügän, Turko-Mongol Empire.
Tlemcen Algeria Tlemcen 12351556321 Zayyanid dynasty
Empire of Trebizond Pontus Trebizond 12041461257Successor state of the Byzantine Empire and a client state of the Kingdom of Georgia.
Toltec Empire Mesoamerica Tollan-Xicocotitlan 4961122626
Toungoo dynasty Toungoo Myanmar 15101752242
Toucouleur Empire West Africa Ségou 1848189345
Tu'i Tonga Empire Tonga, Pacific Ocean Mu'a 9501865915See History of Tonga.
Turgesh Khaganate Turkistan Balasagun 69976667Founded as a successor of West Turkish empire.
Umayyad Caliphate Syria Damascus, Córdoba (capital-in-exile)66175089Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Uyunid dynasty Arabian Al-Hasa, Qatif 10761253163The Uyunids were a Sunni Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Uyghur Khaganate Central Asia Ordubaliq 742848106742–848 Founded as a successor of Göktürk Khaganate, 848–1036 Gansu state, 856–1209 Turfan state.
Vijayanagara Empire South India Vijayanagara 13361646310The founding of the original kingdom was based on the principality of Anegondi.
Wari Empire Peru, Bolivia Huari/Tiwanaku 5001100600It is a matter of conflict as to whether it was a real organized state that could be called an empire. If so, it would be considered the first empire in the Americas.
Wassoulou Empire West Africa Bissandugu 1878189545Also known as the Mandinka Empire.
Wei Empire China Luoyang 22026545See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Chalukya Empire South India Manyakheta, Basavakalyan 9731189216
Western Roman Empire Italy Mediolanum, Ravenna 39547681The western half of the Roman Empire.
Eastern Wu China Wuchang, Jianye 22928051See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Xia dynasty China Xingqing 10381227189Also called the Tangut dynasty.
Xin dynasty China Chang'an 92314The Xin dynasty had only one ruling emperor.
Yuan dynasty China, Mongolia Dadu 1271136897Division of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan emperors had nominal supremacy over western khanates.
Zand dynasty Persia Shiraz 1750179444
Zhou dynasty China Fenghao, Wangcheng, Chengzhou 1046 BC256 BC794Zenith of bronze age in China.
Zulu Empire South Africa KwaBulawayo, Ulundi 1818189779

Possible and informal empires

These governments, confederations and other entities have sometimes been informally referred to as "empires". Some did not fit the modern definition of empire (e.g. the Delian League), some were self-proclaimed by their first and often last ruler, others were short-lived attempts to turn an existing government into an empire, and there are also instances of the word "empire" being used to refer to unofficial spheres of influence which do not consider themselves empires.

Empire geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a central authority or a central figure

An empire is a sovereign state functioning as an aggregate of nations or people that are ruled over by an emperor or another kind of monarch. The territory and population of an empire is commonly of greater extent than the one of a kingdom.

Delian League Association of ancient Greek city-states under Athenian hegemony

The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture, Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC.

American Empire United States Washington, D.C. 1776Present243The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846. In recent times the concept has been revived to refer to the sphere of influence of the United States by its critics.
Athenian Empire (Delian League) Ancient Greece Delos island 478 BC404 BC74Also known as the Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
Second Athenian League Ancient Greece Athens 378 BC355 BC23Second Athenian League, headed by Athens primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and the Persian Empire.
Central African Empire Central African Republic Bangui 197619793President Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa I in 1976. Along he proclaiming the empire as a constitutional monarchy.
Empire of China China Beijing 191519161Was a short-lived attempt by Yuan Shikai to reinstate the Imperial Monarchy.
First Empire of Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince 180418062

First Haitian Empire, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I.

Second Empire of Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince 1849185910

Second Haitian Empire, Faustin Soulouque is proclaimed Emperor Faustin I.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania Lithuania Vilnius 12001569369It was the largest state in Europe in the 15th century.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Poland, Lithuania Kraków 15691795226It was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with some 390,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
Roman Republic Italy Rome 509 BC27 BC482Predecessor of the Roman Empire. Technically a Republic, had imperial holdings throughout its existence.
Kingdom of Romania Romania Bucharest 1920194424Following the post–World War I treaties that ratified its borders (the last one being the 1920 Treaty of Trianon), the newly-enlarged Romanian monarchy was rated by the Comintern as a multi-national imperial state that subjugated ethnic minorities. [11] [12] Indeed, according to the 1930 Romanian census, just over 28% of Romania's inhabitants were not ethnic Romanians. Non-Romanians formed the majority in 14 out of Romania's 71 counties. In 11 Romanian counties, Romanians formed less than 40% of the population: Caliacra (22.6% Romanians), Cernăuți (21.8% Romanians), Cetatea Albă (18.5% Romanians), Ciuc (14.4% Romanians), Durostor (19% Romanians), Hotin (35% Romanians), Ismail (31.9% Romanians), Odorhei (4.9% Romanians), Storojineț (33.9% Romanians), Timiș-Torontal (37.6% Romanians) and Trei Scaune (16% Romanians).

The issue of "Romanian imperialism" (as Romanian leading politician Iuliu Maniu put it) was further exacerbated by the 1941 creation of the Romanian Transnistria Governorate from parts of the Ukrainian SSR, under the rule of "Conducător" Ion Antonescu. [13] These new borders lasted until 1944. According to the 1941 Romanian census, 21 out of the now 73 Romanian counties were inhabited by a non-Romanian ethnic majority, including all of the 13 Transnistrian counties (the entire Transnistrian region was over 75% Ukrainian). Two of the 21 counties did have Romanian plurality (meaning that the Romanians were the largest ethnic group, but still less than half of the county population).

Soviet Empire Soviet Union Moscow 1922199169A political term for the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union used by its critics.

See also

Middle Eastern empires have existed in the Middle East at various periods between 5000 BCE and 1924 CE; they have been instrumental in the spreading of ideas, technology and religions within Middle Eastern territories and to outlying territories. Since the 7th century AD all Middle Eastern empires, with the exception of the Byzantine Empire, have been Muslim, some of them claiming the titles of Islamic caliphate. The last major empire based in the region was the Ottoman Empire.

Related Research Articles

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Partitions of Poland Forced partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Former European state

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania European state from the 12th century until 1795

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, a polytheistic Baltic tribe from Aukštaitija.

Constitution of 3 May 1791 Polish constitution

The Constitution of 3 May 1791, was a constitution adopted by the Great Sejm for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Constitution was designed to correct the Commonwealth's political flaws and had been preceded by a period of agitation for—and gradual introduction of—reforms, beginning with the Convocation Sejm of 1764 and the consequent election that year of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the Commonwealth's last king.

Golden Liberty

Golden Liberty, sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Under that system, all nobles (szlachta), regardless of rank or economic status, were considered to have equal legal status and enjoyed extensive legal rights and privileges. The nobility controlled the legislature and the Commonwealth's elected king.

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385) Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385

The Kingdom of Poland was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

<i>Liberum veto</i>

The liberum veto was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was a form of unanimity voting rule that allowed any member of the Sejm (legislature) to force an immediate end to the current session and to nullify any legislation that had already been passed at the session by shouting, Sisto activitatem! or Nie pozwalam!. The rule was in place from the mid-17th century to the late 18th century in the Sejm's parliamentary deliberations. It was based on the premise that since all Polish noblemen were equal, every measure that came before the Sejm had to be passed unanimously. The liberum veto was a key part of the political system of the Commonwealth, strengthening democratic elements and checking royal power and went against the European-wide trend of having a strong executive.

Great Sejm 18th-century Polish parliament

The Great Sejm, also known as the Four-Year Sejm was a Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that was held in Warsaw between 1788 and 1792. Its principal aim became to restore sovereignty to, and reform, the Commonwealth politically and economically.

Patriotic Party

The Patriotic Party, also known as the Patriot Party or, in English, as the Reform Party, was a political movement in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the period of the Four-Year Sejm of 1788–92, whose chief achievement was the Constitution of 3 May 1791. The reformers aimed to strengthen the ailing political machinery of the Commonwealth, to bolster its military, and to reduce foreign political influence, particularly that of the Russian Empire. It has been called the first Polish political party, though it had no formal organizational structure. The Party was inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution, and its name, proudly used by themselves, was a tribute to the Dutch Patriots.

Silent Sejm is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717 held in Warsaw. A civil war in the Commonwealth was used by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great as an opportunity to intervene as a mediator. It marked the end of Augustus II of Poland's attempts to create an absolute monarchy in Poland, and the beginning of the Russian Empire's increasing influence and control over the Commonwealth.

Köprülü era

The Köprülü era was a period in which the Ottoman Empire's politics were frequently dominated by a series of grand viziers from the Köprülü family. The Köprülü era is sometimes more narrowly defined as the period from 1656-1683, as it was during those years that members of the family held the office of grand vizier uninterruptedly, while for the remainder of the period they occupied it only sporadically. The Köprülüs were generally skilled administrators, and are credited with reviving the empire's fortunes after a period of military defeat and economic instability. Numerous reforms were instituted under their rule, which enabled the empire to resolve its budget crisis and stamp out factional conflict in the empire.

The Tarnogród Confederation was a confederation of szlachta in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the years 1715–1716. It was formed on 26 November 1715 in Tarnogród by nobility angered by illegal taxation, levied for Saxon forces operating in Grand Duchy of Lithuania on behalf of Augustus II the Strong, who wanted to introduce absolute monarchy in the Commonwealth. Its marshal was Stanisław Ledóchowski. The confederates and the royal forces did not fight any decisive battles, but they fought numerous smaller skirmishes; several towns and castles were taken. The ensuing negotiations eventually brought Peter I of Russia and Russian Empire forces into the Commonwealth "for peacekeeping and mediation". This event marked the beginning of lasting Russian Empire influence on Commonwealth internal affairs, starting with the Silent Sejm of 1717.

History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795) aspect of history (1569–1795)

The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages. Historians use the term early modern to refer to the period beginning in approximately 1500 AD and lasting until around 1800.

History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty

The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history. The dynasty was founded by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila, whose marriage to Queen Jadwiga of Poland formed a Polish–Lithuanian union. The partnership brought vast territories controlled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for both the Polish and Lithuanian people, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe for the next four centuries.

History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648)

The history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century. The Union of Lublin of 1569 established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state, replacing the previously existing personal union of the two countries. The Union was largely run by the Polish and increasingly Polonized Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility, through the system of the central parliament and local assemblies, but from 1573 led by elected kings. The formal rule of the proportionally more numerous than in other European countries nobility constituted a sophisticated early democratic system, in contrast to the absolute monarchies prevalent at that time in the rest of Europe.

Union of Lublin political union agreement sixteenth century

The Union of Lublin was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was largely abandoned. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.

Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved from the merger of the armies of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania following the 1569 Union of Lublin, which formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The army was commanded by the Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The most unique formation of the army was the heavy cavalry in the form of the Polish winged hussars. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy never played a major role in the military structure, and ceased to exist in the mid-17th century.

Polish question

The Polish question is the issue, in international politics, of the existence of Poland as an independent state. Raised soon after the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, it became a question current in European and American diplomacy throughout the 19th and parts of the 20th centuries. Historian Norman Davies notes that the Polish question is the primary lens through which most histories of Europe discuss the history of Poland, and was one of the most common topics of European politics for close to two centuries. The Polish question was a major topic at all major European peace conferences: at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, at the Versailles Conference in 1919, and at the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference in 1945. As Piotr Wandycz notes, "What to the Poles was the Polish cause, to the outside world was the Polish question."

Transformation of the Ottoman Empire

The Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, also known as the Era of Transformation, constitutes a period in the history of the Ottoman Empire from c. 1550 to c. 1700, spanning roughly from the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent to the Treaty of Karlowitz at the conclusion of the War of the Holy League. This period was characterized by numerous dramatic political, social, and economic changes, which resulted in the empire shifting from an expansionist, patrimonial state into a bureaucratic empire based on an ideology of upholding justice and acting as the protector of Sunni Islam. These changes were in large part prompted by a series of political and economic crises in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, resulting from inflation, warfare, and political factionalism. Yet despite these crises the empire remained strong both politically and economically, and continued to adapt to the challenges of a changing world. The seventeenth century was once characterized as a period of decline for the Ottomans, but since the 1980s historians of the Ottoman Empire have increasingly rejected that characterization, identifying it instead as a period of crisis, adaptation, and transformation.


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