|Common languages||Hindavi, Persian|
|Sher Shah Suri (first)|
|Adil Shah Suri (last)|
|17 May 1540|
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The Sur Empire was an Afghan dynastywhich ruled a large territory in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Sasaram, in modern-day Bihar, serving as its capital.
The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from eastern Balochistan in the west to modern-day Bangladesh in the east.
Sher Shah, an ethnic Afghan of the tribal house of Sur,first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty, who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal Humayun. Sher Shah defeated badshah-i-Hind ('Hindustani emperor') Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (26 June 1539) and again in the Battle of Bilgram (17 May 1540).
Sher Shah Suri was known for the destruction of some old cities while conquering parts of India. He has been accused by `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and other Muslim historians for destroying old cities in order to build new ones on their ruins after his own name. One example included Shergarh.Sher Shah is also said to have destroyed Dinpanah, which Humayun was constructing as the "sixth city of Delhi". The new city built by him, was itself destroyed in 1555 after Humayun re-conquered the territory from the Surs. Tarikh-i-Da'udi states, however, that he destroyed Siri. Abbas Sarwani states that he had the older city of Delhi destroyed. Tarikh-i-Khan Jahan states that Salim Shah Suri had built a wall around Humayun's imperial city.
The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from Balochistan in the west to modern-day Bangladesh in the east.
Their rule came to an end by a defeat that led to the restoration of the Mughal Empire.
It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol [Lodi], that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súr,*The Súr represent themselves as descendants of Muhammad Súr, one of the princes of the house of the Ghorian, who left his native country, and married a daughter of one of the Afghán chiefs of Roh. with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place which is called in the Afghán tongue "Shargarí",* but in the Multán tongue "Rohrí". It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the Parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc., in the Panjáb, and they settled in the pargana of Bajwára.— Abbas Khan Sarwani, 1580
|Name||Picture||Reign started||Reign ended|
|Sher Shah Suri||17 May 1540||22 May 1545|
|Islam Shah Suri||26 May 1545||22 November 1554|
|Firuz Shah Suri||1554|
|Muhammad Adil Shah||1554||1555|
|Ibrahim Shah Suri||1555||1555|
|Sikandar Shah Suri||1555||22 June 1555|
|Adil Shah Suri||22 June 1555||1556|
Sher Shah Suri, born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in India, with its capital in Sasaram in modern-day Bihar. He introduced the currency of rupee. Sher Shah of Sur took control of the Mughal Empire in 1540. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor.
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Hemu was a Hindu king who previously served as a general and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri dynasty during a period in Indian history when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power across North India. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Humayun and Akbar in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles for Adil Shah.
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Sur, also known as Suri, Zur and Zuri, are a historical Pashtun tribe living primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They supposedly trace their descent to the Ghorids, a dynasty originating from Mandesh in the Ghor region of modern-day central Afghanistan. The founder of the Suri Empire in India, Sher Shah Suri, belonged to the Sur tribe. They ruled the Suri Empire from 1540 until they were removed from power in 1555 after the Battle of Sirhind by Humayun and the Persian army, who re-established the Mughal Empire.
Muhammad Adil Shah was the fourth ruler of the Sur dynasty, a late medieval Afghan dynasty of northern India.
Sikandar Shah Suri was the sixth ruler of Sur dynasty, a late medieval Pashtun dynasty of northern India. He became the sultan of Delhi after overthrowing Ibrahim Shah Suri.
Ibrahim Shah Suri was the fifth ruler of Sur dynasty, a Pashtun (Afghan) dynasty of late medieval northern India.
The Malwa Sultanate was a late medieval empire of Afghan origin in the Malwa region, covering the present day Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and south-eastern Rajasthan from 1392 to 1562.
The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval Indian Muslim Khatri kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India. The dynasty was founded by Zafar Khan Muzaffar, a Khatri convertof a low subdivision called Tank, originally from Southern Punjab, but born in Delhi. He rose to nobel status in the Delhi Sultan's household. He was Governor of Gujarat and became independent from Delhi after Tīmūr devastated the city. Zafar Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably and so he declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411. His successor Muhammad Shah II subdued most of the Rajput chieftains. The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Begada. He subdued most of the Rajput chieftains and built navy off the coast of Diu. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the battle of Diu. The decline of the Sultanate started with the assassination of Sikandar Shah in 1526. Mughal emperor Humayun attacked Gujarat in 1535 and briefly occupied it. Thereafter Bahadur Shah was killed by the Portuguese while making a deal in 1537. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. The last ruler Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana.
The Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi dating 1580 CE, is a historical work compiled by Abbas Khan Sarwani, a waqia-navis under Mughal Emperor Akbar, detailing the rule of Sher Shah Suri. The work was commissioned by Akbar to provide detailed documentation about Sher Shah's administration - Akbar's father Humayun had been defeated by Sher Shah.
Ali Mardan Khan was a Kurdish military leader and administrator, serving under the Safavid kings Shah Abbas I and Shah Safi, and later the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan. He was the son of Ganj Ali Khan. After surrendering the city of Qandahar, part of the easternmost territories of the Safavids to the Mughals in 1638, he served with distinction in the Mughal administration, earning the highest honors of the Mughal court.
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The Battle of Sammel, also known as the Battle of Giri-Sumel, was fought in 1544 near the villages Giri and Sumel of the Jaitaran sub-division in the Pali district of Rajasthan between the Afghan Sur Dynasty under Sher Shah Suri and the Rathore army led by the commanders Jaita and Kumpa of Rao Maldeo Rathore.
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The Battle of Sirhind was fought between the Mughal Empire and the Suri Empire in 1555.
The Battle of Machhiwarra was fought between Mughal Empire and Suri Empire in 1555.
Hindavi was recognized as a semi-official language by the Sor Sultans (1540-55) and their chancellery rescripts bore transcriptions in the Devanagari script of the Persian contents. The practice is said to have been introduced by the Lodis (1451–1526).
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