Hindustani language

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Hindustani
Hindi-Urdu
  • हिन्दुस्तानी 
  •  ہندوستانی
Hindustani0804.png
The word Hindustani in Devanagari and Nastaliq script
Native to Hindi Belt, Pakistan, Deccan
Region South Asia
Native speakers
409.8 million (2019) [1] [2]
L2: 375.8 million (2019) [1] [2]
Standard forms
Dialects
Devanagari (Hindi)
Nasta’līq (Urdu)
Latin (informally & unofficially)
Kaithi (historical)
Hindi Braille
Urdu Braille
Indian Signing System (ISS) [3]
• Pak Urdu Signing
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Central Hindi Directorate (Hindi, India); [5]
National Language Promotion Department (Urdu, Pakistan);
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (Urdu, India) [6]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 hi – Hindi
ur – Urdu
ISO 639-2 hin – Hindi
urd – Urdu
ISO 639-3 Either:
hin   Hindi
urd   Urdu
Glottolog hind1270 [7]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-qa to -qf
Hindustani map.png
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Khariboli/Kauravi) is the native language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Hindustani (Hindi : हिन्दुस्तानी, [lower-alpha 1] Urdu: ہندوستانی), [lower-alpha 2] [8] also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta , is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan. [9] [10] It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi. The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian). [11] [12] It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, [13] which are its standardised registers. According to Ethnologue's 2019 estimates, if Hindi and Urdu are taken together as Hindustani, the language is the 3rd-most spoken language in the world (after English and Mandarin Chinese), with approximately 409.8 million native speakers and a total of 785.6 million speakers. [14] [1] [2]

Urdu National language and lingua franca of Pakistan; one of the official languages of India; standardized register of Hindustani

Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi.

Hindi Indo-Aryan language spoken in India

Hindi or Modern Standard Hindi, is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. In India, the official standardized variety of the language is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of northern India. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Contrary to the popular belief, Hindi is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.

Rekhta, was the Hindustani language as its dialectal basis shifted to the Khariboli dialect of Delhi. This style evolved in both the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts and is considered an early form of Urdu and Hindi.

Contents

The colloquial registers are mostly indistinguishable and even though the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu adopting stronger Persian and Arabic influences, and Hindi relying more heavily on Sanskrit. [15]

History

Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhraṃśa vernaculars of present-day North India in the 7th–13th centuries, chiefly the Khariboli dialect of the Western Hindi category of Indo-Aryan languages. [16] Amir Khusrow, who lived in the thirteenth century during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used these forms (which was the lingua franca of the period) in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi (Persian : ھندوی literally "of Hindus or Indians"). [17] The Delhi Sultanate, which comprised several Turkic and Afghan dynasties that ruled much of the subcontinent from Delhi, [18] was succeeded by the Mughal Empire in 1526.

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family. They are the descendants of Old Indo-Aryan and the predecessors of the modern Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Odia, Assamese, Bengali and Punjabi.

Apabhraṃśa is a term used by vyākaraṇin since Patañjali to refer to languages spoken in north India before the rise of the modern languages. In Indology, it is used as an umbrella term for the dialects forming the transition between the late Middle and the early Modern Indo-Aryan languages, spanning the period between the 6th and 13th centuries CE. However, these dialects are conventionally included in the Middle Indo-Aryan period. Apabhraṃśa in Sanskrit literally means "corrupt" or "non-grammatical language", that which deviates from the norm of Sanskrit grammar.

Vernacular common speech variety of a specific population

A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the speech variety used in everyday life by the general population in a geographical or social territory. The vernacular is contrasted with higher-prestige forms of language, such as national, literary, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area. The vernacular is usually native, normally spoken informally rather than written, and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It may vary from more prestigious speech varieties in different ways, in that the vernacular can be a distinct stylistic register, a regional dialect, a sociolect, or an independent language.

Although the Mughals were of Timurid (Gurkānī) Turco-Mongol descent, [19] they were Persianised, and Persian had gradually become the state language of the Mughal empire after Babur, [20] [21] [22] [23] a continuation since the introduction of Persian by Central Asian Turkic rulers in the Indian Subcontinent, [24] and the patronisation of it by the earlier Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. [25]

Timurid dynasty Turco-Mongol dynasty

The Timurid dynasty, self-designated as Gurkani, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol origin descended from the warlord Timur. The word "Gurkani" derives from "Gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "Kuragan" meaning "son-in-law". This was an honourific title used by the dynasty as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,founder of the Mongol Empire, as Timur had married Saray Mulk Khanum, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia, and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.

Turco-Mongol tradition A modern designation for many travelers who came under the rule of the Mongol Empire.

Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural synthesis that arose in Asia during the 14th century, among the ruling elites of the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate.

Persianization or persification, is a sociological process of cultural change in which something becomes "Persianate". It is a specific form of cultural assimilation that often includes language assimilation. The term applies not only to cultures but also to individuals, as they acclimate to Persian culture and become "persianized" or "persified".

Hindustani retained the grammar and core vocabulary of the local Hindi dialect Khariboli. [26] However, as an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic loanwords, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India. Written in the Persian alphabet or Devanagari, [27] it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India for the next four centuries (although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language) and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside Persian, in Muslim courts and was also used for literary purposes in various other settings such as Sufi, Nirgun sant, and Krishna Bhakta circles and Rajput Hindu courts. Its majors centers of development included the Mughal courts of Delhi, Lucknow, and Agra, and the Rajput courts of Amber and Jaipur. [28]

Hindustani, the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, has two standardised registers: Hindi and Urdu. Grammatical differences between the two standards are minor but each uses its own script: Hindi uses Devanagari while Urdu uses an extended form of the Perso-Arabic script, typically in the Nastaʿlīq style.

Hindustani vocabulary, also known as Hindi-Urdu vocabulary, like all Indo-Aryan languages, has a core base of Sanskrit, which it gained through Prakrit. As such the standardized registers of the Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) share a common vocabulary, especially on the colloquial level. However, in formal speech, Hindi tends to draw on Sanskrit, while Urdu turns to Persian and sometimes Arabic. This difference lies in the history of Hindustani, in which the Khariboli dialect started to gain more Persian words in urban areas, under the Delhi Sultanate; this dialect came to be termed Urdu.

The Persian alphabet, also known as the Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran and Afghanistan. The Persian language spoken in Tajikistan is written in the Tajik alphabet, a modified version of Cyrillic alphabet since the Soviet era.

In the 18th century, towards the end of the Mughal period, with the fragmentation of the empire and the elite system, a variant of Khariboli, one of the successors of apabhraṃśa vernaculars at Delhi, and nearby cities, came to gradually replace Persian as the lingua franca among the educated elite upper class particularly in northern India, though Persian still retained much of its pre-eminence for a short period. The term Hindustani was given to that language evolved out of Khariboli. [29]

Lingua franca languages used to facilitate trade between groups without a common native language

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, usually are the wealthiest members of society, and wield the greatest political power. According to this view, the upper class is generally distinguished by immense wealth which is passed on from generation to generation. Prior to the 20th century, the emphasis was on aristocracy, which emphasized generations of inherited noble status, not just recent wealth.

For socio-political reasons, though essentially the variant of Khariboli with Persian vocabulary, the emerging prestige dialect became also known as Zabān-e Urdū-e Mualla "language of the court" or Zabān-e Urdūزبان اردو, "language of the camp" in Persian, influenced from Turkic Ordū "camp", cognate with English horde , or in local translation Lashkari Zabānلشکری زبان, [30] which is shorted to Lashkari. This is all due to its origin as the common speech of the Mughal army. The language was also known as Rekhta , or "mixed", which implies that it was mixed with Persian. [31]

John Fletcher Hurst in his book published in 1891 mentioned that the Hindustani or camp language of the Mughal Empire's courts at Delhi was not regarded by philologists as a distinct language but only as a dialect of Hindi with admixture of Persian. He continued: "But it has all the magnitude and importance of separate language. It is linguistic result of Muslim rule of eleventh & twelfth centuries and is spoken (except in rural Bengal) by many Hindus in North India and by Musalman population in all parts of India". Next to English it was the official language of British Raj, was commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately 100,000,000 people. [32]

When the British colonised the Indian subcontinent from the late 18th through to the late 19th century, they used the words 'Hindustani', 'Hindi' and 'Urdu' interchangeably. They developed it as the language of administration of British India, [33] further preparing it to be the official language of modern India and Pakistan. However, with independence, use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific. More recently, the word 'Hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of Bollywood films, which are popular in both India and Pakistan and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi or Urdu.

Registers

Although, at the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary; where literary Hindi draws heavily on Sanskrit and to a lesser extent Prakrit, literary Urdu draws heavily on Persian and Arabic. The grammar and base vocabulary (most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc.) of both Hindi and Urdu, however, are the same and derive from a Prakritic base, and both have Persian/Arabic influence.

The standardised registers Hindi and Urdu are collectively known as Hindi-Urdu. Hindustani is perhaps the lingua franca of the north and west of the Indian subcontinent, though it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas. A common vernacular sharing characteristics with Sanskritised Hindi, regional Hindi and Urdu, Hindustani is more commonly used as a vernacular than highly Sanskritised Hindi or highly Arabicised/Persianised Urdu.

This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both Hindi and Urdu speakers. Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the Hindustani closer to Urdu or to Hindi. One might reasonably assume that the Hindustani spoken in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (known for its usage of Urdu) and Varanasi (a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly Sanskritised Hindi) is somewhat different.

Modern Standard Hindi

Hindi alphabet Hindi alphabet.jpg
Hindi alphabet

Standard Hindi, one of the official languages of India, is based on the Kharibol dialect of the Delhi region and differs from Urdu in that it is usually written in the indigenous Devanagari of India and exhibits less Persian and Arabic influence than Urdu. It has a literature of 500 years, with prose, poetry, religion and philosophy, under the Bahmani Kings and onwards. It is prevalent all over the Deccan Plateau. Note that the term Hindustani has generally fallen out of common usage in modern India, except to refer to "Indian" as a nationality [34] and a style of Indian classical music prevalent in northern India. The term used to refer to it is Hindi or Urdu, depending on the religion of the speaker, and regardless of the mix of Persian or Sanskrit words used by the speaker. One could conceive of a wide spectrum of dialects and registers, with the highly Persianised Urdu at one end of the spectrum and a heavily Sanskrit-based dialect, spoken in the region around Varanasi, at the other end. In common usage in India, the term Hindi includes all these dialects except those at the Urdu spectrum. Thus, the different meanings of the word Hindi include, among others:

  1. standardised Hindi as taught in schools throughout India (except some states such as Tamil Nadu),
  2. formal or official Hindi advocated by Purushottam Das Tandon and as instituted by the post-independence Indian government, heavily influenced by Sanskrit,
  3. the vernacular dialects of Hindustani as spoken throughout India,
  4. the neutralised form of Hindustani used in popular television and films, or
  5. the more formal neutralised form of Hindustani used in television and print news reports.

Modern Standard Urdu

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mo'alla in the Nasta'liq script Zaban urdu mualla.png
The phrase Zabān-e Urdu-e Mo'alla in the Nastaʿlīq script
Lashkari Zaban title in the Nasta'liq script Lashkari Zaban in Nastaliq script.png
Lashkari Zabān title in the Nastaʿlīq script

Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and an officially recognised regional language of India. Urdu is the official language of all Pakistani provinces and is taught in all schools as a compulsory subject up to the 12th grade.

Bazaar Hindustani

In a specific sense, Hindustani may be used to refer to the dialects and varieties used in common speech or slang, in contrast with the standardised Hindi and Urdu. This meaning is reflected in the use of the term bazaar Hindustani, in other words, the "street talk" or literally "marketplace Hindustani", as opposed to the perceived refinement of formal Hindi/Urdu, or even Sanskrit.

Sociolinguistics

According to Rizwan Ahmad, many book stores in Old Delhi contain both Arabic and Devanagari versions of Hindustani. [35] With the Partition of India into Pakistan and India, Urdu became to be seen as a language of the poor, uneducated, the Muslims, and of Pakistan separatism in India. [35] In India, Urdu is not taught in schools, and writing in Devanagari is seen as patriotic. [35] Purushottam Das Tandon said that

The Muslims must stop talking about a culture and civilization foreign to our culture and genius. They should accept Indian culture. One culture and one language will pave the way for real unity. Urdu symbolizes a foreign culture. Hindi alone can be the unifying factor for all the diverse forces in the country. (Khalidi 1995:138) [35]

Urdu originates from India. [35] By adopting Urdu as the official language of Pakistan, it made it harder to gain traction in its homeland. [35] It got to the point where many Urdu speakers had to lie about their identity to assimilate into India. [35]

There have been suggestions within the Muslim community of using Devanagari to write Urdu. [35] Ahmad calls this 'Ur-Nag'. [35] Rahi Masum Raza, an Urdu novelist, advocates this change. [35] However some like Dalvi fear this would mean wiping the distinction between Urdu and Hindi as well as making a century of literature go to waste. [35] Faruqi counters by saying that the distinction can still be maintained without the Arabic script. [35]

Names

Amir Khusro ca. 1300 referred to this language of his writings as Dehlavi (देहलवी; دہلوی 'of Delhi') or Hindavi (हिन्दवी; ہندوی). During this period, Hindustani was used by Sufis in promulgating their message across the Indian subcontinent. [36] After the advent of the Mughals in the subcontinent, Hindustani acquired more Persian loanwords. Rekhta ('mixture') and Hindi ('of the Indus') [27] became popular names for the same language until the 18th century. [37] The name Urdu (from Ordu or Orda) appeared around 1780. [37] During the British Raj, the term Hindustani was used by British officials. [37] In 1796, John Borthwick Gilchrist published a "A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language". [37] [38] Upon partition, India and Pakistan established national standards that they called Hindi and Urdu, respectively, and attempted to make distinct, with the result that Hindustani commonly, but mistakenly, came to be seen as a "mixture" of Hindi and Urdu.

Grierson, in his highly influential Linguistic Survey of India , proposed that the names Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi be separated in use for different varieties of the Hindustani language, rather than as the overlapping synonyms they frequently were:

We may now define the three main varieties of Hindōstānī as follows:—Hindōstānī is primarily the language of the Upper Gangetic Doab, and is also the lingua franca of India, capable of being written in both Persian and Dēva-nāgarī characters, and without purism, avoiding alike the excessive use of either Persian or Sanskrit words when employed for literature. The name 'Urdū' can then be confined to that special variety of Hindōstānī in which Persian words are of frequent occurrence, and which hence can only be written in the Persian character, and, similarly, 'Hindī' can be confined to the form of Hindōstānī in which Sanskrit words abound, and which hence can only be written in the Dēva-nāgarī character. [39]

Literature

Official status

Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India (Hindi) and Pakistan (Urdu). South asia.jpg
Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India (Hindi) and Pakistan (Urdu).

Hindi, a major standardized register of Hindustani, is declared by the Constitution of India as the "official language (राजभाषा, rājabhāśā) of the Union" (Art. 343(1)) (In this context, "Union" means the Federal Government and not the entire country – India has 23 official languages). At the same time, however, the definitive text of federal laws is officially the English text and proceedings in the higher appellate courts must be conducted in English. At the state level, Hindi is one of the official languages in 10 of the 29 Indian states and three Union Territories (respectively, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Delhi). In the remaining states, Hindi is not an official language. In states like Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, studying Hindi is not compulsory in the state curriculum. However, an option to take the same as second or third language does exist. In many other states, studying Hindi is usually compulsory in the school curriculum as a third language (the first two languages being the state's official language and English), though the intensiveness of Hindi in the curriculum varies. [40]

Urdu, also a major standardized register of Hindustani, is also one of the languages recognized in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and is an official language of the Indian states of Bihar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Although the government school system in most other states emphasizes Modern Standard Hindi, at universities in cities such as Lucknow, Aligarh and Hyderabad, Urdu is spoken and learnt, and Saaf or Khaalis Urdu is treated with just as much respect as Shuddha Hindi.

Urdu is also the national language of Pakistan, where it shares official language status with English. Although English is spoken by many, and Punjabi is the native language of the majority of the population, Urdu is the lingua franca.

Hindustani was the official language of the British Raj and was synonymous with both Hindi and Urdu. [33] [41] [42] After India's independence in 1947, the Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights recommended that the official language of India be Hindustani: "Hindustani, written either in Devanagari or the Perso-Arabic script at the option of the citizen, shall, as the national language, be the first official language of the Union." [43] However, this recommendation was not adopted by the Constituent Assembly.

Hindustani outside of South Asia

Besides being the lingua franca of North India and Pakistan in South Asia, Hindustani is also spoken by many in the South Asian diaspora and their descendants around the world, including North America (in Canada, for example, Hindustani is one of the fastest growing languages [44] ), Europe, and the Middle East.

Fiji Hindi was derived from the Hindustani linguistic group and is spoken widely by Fijians of Indian origin.

Hindustani was also one of the languages that was spoken widely during British rule in Burma. Many older citizens of Myanmar, particularly Anglo-Indians and the Anglo-Burmese, still know it, although it has had no official status in the country since military rule began.

Hindustani is also spoken in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, where migrant workers from various countries live and work for several years.

Phonology

Grammar

Vocabulary

Hindustani contains around 5,500 words of Persian and Arabic origin. [45]

Writing system

"Surahi" in Samrup Rachna calligraphy Surahi in samrup rachna calligraphy.jpg
"Surahi" in Samrup Rachna calligraphy

Historically, Hindustani was written in the Kaithi, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabets. [27] Kaithi and Devanagari are two of the Brahmic scripts native to India, whereas Urdu is a derivation of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script, which is the preferred calligraphic style for Urdu.

Today, Hindustani continues to be written in the nastaliq alphabet in Pakistan. In India, the Hindi register is officially written in Devanagari, and Urdu in the nastaliq alphabet, to the extent that these standards are partly defined by their script.

However, in popular publications in India, Urdu is also written in Devanagari, with slight variations to establish a Devanagari Urdu alphabet alongside the Devanagari Hindi alphabet.

Devanagari
ə ɪ ʊ ɛː ɔː
क़ख़ग़
k q x ɡ ɣ ɡʱ ŋ
ज़झ़
t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ z d͡ʒʱ ʒ ɲ
ड़ढ़
ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɽ ɖʱɽʱ ɳ
t d n
फ़
p f b m
j ɾ l ʋ
ʃ ʂ s ɦ
Urdu alphabet
LetterName of letterTranscription IPA
اalif
بbeb/b/
پpep/p/
تtet/t/
ٹṭe/ʈ/
ثses/s/
جjīmj/d͡ʒ/
چchech/t͡ʃ/
حbaṛī heh/ h ~ ɦ /
خkhekh/x/
دdāld/d/
ڈḍāl/ɖ/
ذzāldh/z/
رrer/ r ~ ɾ /
ڑṛe/ɽ/
زzez/z/
ژzhezh/ʒ/
سsīns/s/
شshīnsh/ʃ/
صsu'ād/s/
ضzu'ād/z/
طto'et/t/
ظzo'e/z/
ع‘ain'
غghaingh/ɣ/
فfef/f/
قqāfq/q/
کkāfk/k/
گgāfg/ɡ/
لlāml/l/
مmīmm/m/
نnūnn/n/
وvā'ov, o, or ū/ʋ/, //, /ɔ/ or //
ہ, ﮩ, ﮨchoṭī heh/ h ~ ɦ /
ھdo chashmī heh/ʰ/ or /ʱ/
ءhamza'/ʔ/
یyey, i/j/ or //
ےbaṛī yeai or e/ɛː/, or //

Because of anglicisation in South Asia and the international use of the Latin script, Hindustani is occasionally written in the Latin script. This adaptation is called Roman Urdu or Romanised Hindi, depending upon the register used. Because the Bollywood film industry is a major proponent of the Latin script, the use of Latin script to write in Hindi and Urdu is growing amongst younger Internet users.[ citation needed ] Since Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible when spoken, Romanised Hindi and Roman Urdu (unlike Devanagari Hindi and Urdu in the Urdu alphabet) are mostly mutually intelligible as well.

Sample text

Following is a sample text, Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the two official registers of Hindustani, Hindi and Urdu. Because this is a formal legal text, differences in formal vocabulary are maximised.

Formal Hindi

अनुच्छेद १ — सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिये।

Nastaliq transcription:

انچھید ١ : سبھی منشیوں کو گورو اور ادھکاروں کے وشے میں جنمجات سؤتنترتا پراپت ہیں۔ انہیں بدھی اور انتراتما کی دین پراپت ہے اور پرسپر انہیں بھائی چارے کے بھاؤ سے برتاؤ کرنا چاہئے۔

Transliteration (IAST):

Anucched 1: Sabhī manushyoṇ ko gaurav aur adhikāroṇ ke vishay meṇ janm'jāt svatantratā prāpt haiṇ. Unheṇ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unheṇ bhāīchāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā chāhiye.

Transcription (IPA):

ənʊtʃʰːed ek səbʱi mənʊʂjõ ko ɡɔɾəʋ ɔr ədʱɪkaɾõ ke viʂaj mẽ dʒənmdʒat sʋətəntɾəta pɾapt hɛ̃ ʊnʱẽ bʊdʱːɪ ɔɾ əntəɾatma kiː den pɾapt hɛ ɔɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽ bʱaitʃaɾe keː bʱaʋ se bəɾtaʋ kəɾna tʃahɪe

Gloss (word-to-word):

Article 1—All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.

Translation (grammatical):

Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Formal Urdu

:دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوئے ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہیں۔ اسلئے انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہئے۔

Devanagari transcription:

दफ़ा १ — तमाम इनसान आज़ाद और हुक़ूक़ ओ इज़्ज़त के ऐतबार से बराबर पैदा हुए हैं। इन्हें ज़मीर और अक़्ल वदीयत हुई हैं। इसलिए इन्हें एक दूसरे के साथ भाई चारे का सुलूक करना चाहीए।

Transliteration (ALA-LC):

Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e haiṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

Transcription (IPA):

dəfa ek təmam ɪnsan azad ɔɾ hʊquq o izːət ke ɛtəbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛda hʊe hɛ̃ ʊnʱẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ əql ʋədiət hʊi hɛ̃ ɪslɪe ʊnʱẽ ek dusɾe ke satʰ bʱai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe

Gloss (word-to-word):

Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity's consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another's with brotherhood's treatment do must.

Translation (grammatical):

Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Hindustani and Bollywood

The predominant Indian film industry Bollywood, located in Mumbai, Maharashtra uses Hindi, Khariboli dialect, Bombay Hindi, Urdu, [46] Awadhi, Rajasthani, Bhojpuri, and Braj Bhasha, along with the language of Punjabi and with the liberal use of English or Hinglish for the dialogue and soundtrack lyrics.

Movie titles are often screened in three scripts: Latin, Devanagari and occasionally Perso-Arabic. The use of Urdu or Hindi in films depends on the film's context: historical films set in the Delhi Sultanate or Mughal Empire are almost entirely in Urdu, whereas films based on Hindu mythology or ancient India make heavy use of Hindi with Sanskrit vocabulary.

See also

Notes

  1. Hindustānī
  2. Hindūstānī [ˌɦɪndʊsˈtaːniː]

Related Research Articles

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Languages of India Languages of a geographic region

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai and a few other minor language families and isolates. India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839).

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Marwari is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and Haryana, Eastern Pakistan and some migrant communities in himalayan country Nepal. With some 7.9 million or so speakers, it is one of the largest varieties of Rajasthani. Most speakers live in Rajasthan, with a quarter million in Sindh and a tenth that number in Nepal. There are two dozen dialects of Marwari.

Dakhini or Dakkhani, also spelled Dakkani, Dakhni and Deccani (dec-ca-ni), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in southern India. It arose as a language of the Deccan sultanates ca. 1300 AD in ways similar to Urdu. It is similar to Urdu in its influence from Arabic and Persian with a Prakrit base, but differs because of the strong influence of Marathi, Telugu and Kannada spoken in the states of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and a few muslims in Tamil Nadu. This dialect has a rich and extensive literary heritage. The dialect is today only spoken in Deccan. Dakhini is the native language of the Dakhini Muslims.

Khariboli dialect

Khariboli, also known as Dehlavi or the Delhi dialect, is the language dialect and variety that developed as the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively. The term "Khariboli" has, however, been used for any literary dialect, including Braj Bhasa, and Awadhi. As a base for the medieval Hindustani language, Khariboli is a part of the Western group of the Central Zone of Indo-Aryan languages. It is spoken mainly in India in the rural area surrounding Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, and southern Uttarakhand.

Indo-Persian culture Persian aspects integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of the Indian subcontinent

Indo-Persian culture refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of the Indian subcontinent.

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Hindi–Urdu controversy Linguistic Dispute

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The Persian language in the Indian subcontinent, before the British colonized the Indian subcontinent, was the region's lingua franca and a widely used official language in north India. The language was brought into the Indian subcontinent by various Turkic and Afghan dynasties, in particular the Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Dynasty. Persian held official status in the court and the administration within these empires and it heavily influenced many of the local languages, particularly the Urdu dialect of Hindustani.

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Bibliography

Further reading