Indian people

Last updated

Flag of India.svg
Total population
c. 1.21 billion [1] [2]
2011 Census of India
c.1.34 billion [3]
2017 estimate
c.30.8 million [4]
Indian diaspora
Regions with significant populations
Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 4,100,000 [5] [6]
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 4,000,000 [7]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 3,500,000 [8]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 3,456,477 [9]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 2,012,600 [10]
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 2,000,000 [8] [11] [12] [13]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1,451,862 [14]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1,374,710 [15]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1,274,867 [16]
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 1,030,000 [17]
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 994,500 [4]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 839,504 [18]
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 796,001 [4]
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 700,000 [19]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 650,000 [20]
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 470,376 [4]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 468,800 [21]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 465,000 [4]
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 400,000 [4]
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 327,000 [4]
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 315,000 [4]
Flag of France.svg  France (Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte)456,470 [4]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 250,300 [22]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 197,301 [4]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 161,000 [23]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  The Netherlands 156,000 [4]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 155,178 [24]
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 148,000 [4]
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 120,000 [4]
Languages of India, including:
Related ethnic groups
Indian diaspora

Indians are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation in the world, containing 17.50% [25] of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular ethnicity or language; the Indian nationality consists of dozens of indigenous regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of the country. Due to emigration, the Indian diaspora is present throughout the world, notably in other parts of Asia, North America, the Caribbean, Oceania, and Africa. [4]

India Country in South Asia

India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Indigenous peoples Ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known as First peoples, Aboriginal peoples or Native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original owners and caretakers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

Languages of India Languages of a geographic region

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai and a few other minor language families and isolates. India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839).


The demonymn Indian today applies to nationals of the Republic of India, although before the partition of India in 1947, nationals residing in the entirety of British India (including what is now Pakistan and Bangladesh) were known as Indians as well. [26] [27] In Canada and the United States, the term Asian Indian and East Indian is sometimes used to avoid confusion with First Nations in Canada and Native Americans in US, which also commonly known as "Indian".

Partition of India partition of British India into the independent states of India and Pakistan in 1947

The partition of India was the partition of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent states, India and Pakistan. The Union of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, or Crown rule in India. The two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.

In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit. The Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".


Emperor Bharata Chakravartin, after whom India was named Bharatvarsha. Bharata Chakravartin - Chandragiri.jpg
Emperor Bharata Chakravartin, after whom India was named Bharatvarsha.

The name Bhārata has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India. [29] The designation "Bhārata" appears in the official Sanskrit name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Vedic and Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as "Bhārata varṣam" and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents. [30] India is named Bharatvarsha after legendary emperor Bharata Chakravartin. According to Hindu puranas and some scriptures of Jainism, India was named Bhārata after Bharata Chakravartin, the son of first Jain Tirthankar Rishabhanatha. [31] [32] In the Hindu text, Skanda Purana (chapter 37) it is stated that "Rishabhanatha was the son of Nabhiraja, and Rishabha had a son named Bharata, and after the name of this Bharata, this country is known as Bharata-varsha." [33] This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana (2,1,31), Vayu Purana,(33,52), Linga Purana(1,47,23), Brahmanda Purana (14,5,62), Agni Purana ( 107,11–12), Skanda Purana, Khanda (37,57) and Markandeya Purana (50,41) that this country is known as Bharata Varsha after Bharat Chakravartin. [34]

Indian subcontinent Peninsular region in south-central Asia south of the Himalayas

The Indian subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Puranas Encyclopedic Hindu texts on sacred rites, duties, Vedic philosophy, cosmology, genealogies, deities, pilgrimage guides and more

The word Puranas literally means "ancient, old", and it is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in Tamil and other Indian languages, several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Shiva and Devi. The Puranic genre of literature is found in both Hinduism and Jainism.

Bharata Chakravartin Jain deity and chakravartin emperor

Bharata was the first chakravartin of avasarpini. He was the eldest son of Rishabhanatha, the first Tirthankara of Jainism. According to the Jains and the Hindu Puranas, the ancient name of India was named "Bhāratavarsha" or "Bhārata" or "Bharata-bhumi" after him. He had two sons from his chief Queen Sunanda - Arkakirti and Marichi. He conquered all the six parts of the world and fought with Bahubali in the end to conquer the last remaining city.

ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत् भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत्

Rishabhanatha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabh, Bharatvarsha (India) arose from Bharata, and Sumati arose from Bharata — Vishnu Purana (2,1,31) [35]

Marudevi Mother of Rishabhanatha

Marudevī was the mother of the first Jain Tirthankara, Rishabhanatha and the queen of King Nabhi.

The Vishnu Purana also states;

उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।
वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।
"The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata." [36] [37]

While the word Indian and India is derived from Greek Ἰνδία (Indía), via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region beyond the Indus (Ἰνδός) river, since Herodotus (5th century BC) ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; "the Indian land", Ἰνδός, Indos, "an Indian", from Old Persian Hinduš and medieval term Hindustani. [38] The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, but also meaning "river" generically. [39]

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.

Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties.

Indus River River in Asia

The Indus River is one of the longest rivers in Asia. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh, a union territory of India, towards the Gilgit-Baltistan region Hindukush ranges, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan.


Maurya Empire, c.250 BCE 2.png
Map of the Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC
Cave 26, Ajanta.jpg
Buddhist rock-cut architecture, 2nd century BC
Ashoka pillar, erected by Emperor Ashoka in about 250 BC. It has been adopted as emblem of India. Photograph of the Lion Capital at Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh by Madho Prasad, c.1905.jpg
Ashoka pillar, erected by Emperor Ashoka in about 250 BC. It has been adopted as emblem of India.

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the blending of the Indus Valley Civilization and Indo-Aryan culture into the Vedic Civilization; the development of Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions; rise of sixteen oligarchic republics known as Mahajanapadas; rise of Śramaṇa movement; birth of Jainism and Buddhism in 6th-century BCE, [40] and the onset of a succession of powerful dynasties and empires for more than two millennia throughout various geographic areas of the subcontinent, including the growth of Muslim dynasties during the Medieval period intertwined with Hindu powers; the advent of European traders resulting in the establishment of the British rule; and the subsequent independence movement that led to the Partition of India and the creation of the Republic of India.

Indo-Aryan peoples Indo-European speaking ethnolinguistic group in South Asia

The Indo-Aryan peoples or the Indic peoples are a diverse collection of ethnolinguistic groups speaking Indo-Aryan languages, a subgroup of the Indo-European language family. There are over one billion native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages, most of them native to the Indian subcontinent and presently found all across South Asia, where they form the majority.

Vedas Ancient scriptures of Hinduism

The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless".

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.

The Indian people established during ancient, medieval to early eighteenth century some of the greatest empires and dynasties in South Asian history like the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Karkota Empire, Pala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire.The first great Empire of the Indian people was the Maurya Empire having Patliputra(currently Patna, Bihar) as its capital, conquered the major part of South Asia in the 4th and 3rd century BC during the reign of the Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka alongside their senior advisor, Acharya Chanakya, the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in the World. The next great ancient Empire of the Indian people was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and Hinduism and Buddhism spread to much of Asia, while Chola Empire in the south had flourishing maritime trade links with the Roman Empire during this period. The ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta invented the concept of zero and the Hindu–Arabic numeral system decimal system during this period. [41] During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia. [42]

Maratha Empire: Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals India1760 1905.jpg
Maratha Empire: Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals

During the early medieval period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent. from the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveller Sulaiman as one of the four great kings of the world. [43] The medieval south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra lived in the Rashtrakuta dynasty and was the first Indian mathematician who separated astrology from mathematics and who wrote the earliest Indian text entirely devoted to mathematics. [44] The greatest maritime Empire of the medieval Indians was the Chola dynasty. Under the great Indian Emperors Rajaraja Chola I and his successor Rajendra Chola I the Chola dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia. [45] [46] The power of the Chola empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia, as well as by the repeated embassies to China. [47]

During the late medieval period the great Vijayanagara Empire dominated the major part of southern India from the 14th to 16th century and reached its peak during the reign of the south Indian Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya [48] The medieval Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics flourished during this period under such well known south Indian mathematicians as Madhava (c. 1340-1425) who made important contributions to Trigonometery and Calculus, and Nilakhanta (c. 1444-1545) who postulated on the orbitals of planets. [49]

The Mughal Empire unified much of Indian sub-continent under one realm. Under the Mughals India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. This marked a huge influence in the Indian society. [50] The Mughal Empire balanced and pacified local societies through new administrative practices [51] [52] and had diverse and inclusive ruling elites, [53] leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. [54] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pathans, the Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. [55] [56] [57] [58]

The Marathas and Sikhs emerged in the 17th century and established the Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire which became the dominant power in India in the 18th century. [59] The Maratha Empire is credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. [60] [61] [62] [63] The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the north [64] and Bengal and Andaman Islands in the east. [65]

The decline of Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire from the late 18th century to the mid-19th century lead to large areas of India annexed by the British East India Company of the British Empire and witnessed a period of rapid development of infrastructure, economic decline and major famines. [66] [67] During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for Indian independence movement was launched, the Indian subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. [68] [69] [70]


India is one of the world's oldest civilisations. [71] The Indian culture, often labelled as an amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced and shaped by a history that is several thousand years old. [72] [73] Throughout the history of India, Indian culture has been heavily influenced by Dharmic religions. [74] They have been credited with shaping much of Indian philosophy, literature, architecture, art and music. [75] Greater India was the historical extent of Indian culture beyond the Indian subcontinent. This particularly concerns the spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, architecture, administration and writing system from India to other parts of Asia through the Silk Road by the travellers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era. [76] [77] To the west, Greater India overlaps with Greater Persia in the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains. [78] During medieval period, Islam played a significant role in shaping Indian cultural heritage [79] Over the centuries, there has been significant integration of Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs with Muslims across India [80] [81]


Goddess Lakshmi on gold coinage issued under Gupta Empire, c. 380 AD Coin of Vikramaditya Chandragupta II with the name of the king in Brahmi script 380 415 CE.jpg
Goddess Lakshmi on gold coinage issued under Gupta Empire, c. 380 AD
Holi is a major Indian festival celebrated every spring. HOLI IN INDIA - ENJOYED BY ALL.jpg
Holi is a major Indian festival celebrated every spring.

India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions. [74] Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 1 billion followers altogether, [82] [83] [84] and possibly as many as 1.5 or 1.6 billion followers. [82] [85] Throughout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and by custom; the Constitution of India has declared the right to freedom of religion to be a fundamental right. [86]

Atheism and agnosticism have a long history in India and flourished within Śramaṇa movement. [87] The Cārvāka school originated in India around the 6th century BCE and is one of the earliest form of materialistic and atheistic movement in ancient India. [88] [89] [90] Sramana, Buddhism, Jainism, Ājīvika and some schools of Hinduism like Samkhya consider atheism to be valid and reject the concept of creator deity, ritualism and supernaturalism. [91] [92] [93] India has produced some notable atheist politicians and social reformers. [94] [95]

According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practices Hinduism and 14.2% adheres to Islam, while the remaining 7.37% adheres to other religions, mostly Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christianity. [96] Zoroastrianism and Judaism each has several thousands of Indian adherents, and also have an ancient history in India. [97] India has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism and Bahá'í Faith in the world, even though these two religions are not native to India. [98] Many other world religions also have a relationship with Indian spirituality, such as the Bahá'í Faith which recognises Buddha and Krishna as manifestations of the God Almighty. [99] Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people. According to the 2012 WIN-Gallup Global Index of Religion and Atheism report, 81% of Indians were religious, 13% were not religious, 3% were convinced atheists, and 3% were unsure or did not respond. [100]

Traditionally, Indian society is grouped according to their caste. It's a system in which social stratification within various social sections defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups are often termed jāti or castes. Within a jāti , there exists exogamous groups known as gotras, the lineage or clan of an individuals. [101] Caste barriers have mostly broken down in cities but still exists in some form in rural areas. [102]

Hinduism is the majority in most states; Kashmir and Lakshadweep are Muslim majority; Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya are Christian majority; Punjab is a Sikh majority with Hindus 37%. It is to be noted that while participants in the Indian census may choose to not declare their religion, there is no mechanism for a person to indicate that he/she does not adhere to any religion. Due to this limitation in the Indian census process, the data for persons not affiliated with any religion may not be accurate. India contains the majority of the world's Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Zoroastrians and Bahá'í. Christianity is widespread in the Northeast India, parts of southern India, particularly in Kerala and among various populations of Central India. Muslims are the largest religious minority. India is also home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. [103] [104] [105]


Indian bride in traditional wedding attire Bride entering the hall - Indian Hindu Wedding.jpg
Indian bride in traditional wedding attire

Historically, India had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system or undivided family. Joint family system is an extended family arrangement prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India. [106] The family is headed by a patriarch, the oldest male, who makes decisions on economic and social matters on behalf of the entire family. The patriarch's wife generally exerts control over the household, minor religious practices and often wields considerable influence in domestic matters. A patrilineal joint family consists of an older man and his wife, his sons and unmarried daughters, his sons’ wives and children. Family income flows into a common pool, from which resources are drawn to meet the needs of all members, which are regulated by the heads of the family. [107] However, with modernisation and economic development, India has witnessed a break up of traditional joint family into more nuclear families and the traditional joint family in India accounted for a small percent of Indian households. [108] [109]

Arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. Marriage is considered a union of the two families rather than just the individuals, the process involved in an arranged marriage can be different depending on the communities and families. Recent survey study found that fewer marriages are purely arranged without consent and that the majority of surveyed Indian marriages are arranged with consent. [110] The study also suggested that Indian culture is trending away from traditional arranged marriages, they find that the marriage trends in India are similar to trends observed over last 40 years where arranged marriages was previously common, particularly in China and Japan. [110]


India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of history. Cotton was first cultivated in Indian subcontinent around the 5th millennium BC. [111] Dyes used during this period are still in use, particularly indigo, red madder, lac and turmeric. [112] Silk was woven around 2450 BC and 2000 BC. [113] [114] In 11th-century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments known as paridhan and pesas respectively and thus highlights the development of sophisticated garment manufacturing techniques during this period. [115] In the 5th century BCE, Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian textiles. [116] By the 2nd century AD, cotton, muslins and silk textiles manufactured in India were imported by the Roman Empire and was one of the major exports of ancient India to other parts of the world along with Indian spices and Wootz steel. [117] Traditional Indian clothing greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced by local culture, geography and climate. Women traditionally wear Sari, Gagra Choli, Angarkha, Phiran, Shalwar Kameez, Gharara and Bandi with Dupatta or Ghoonghat worn over head or shoulder to complete the outfit. [118] Men traditionally wear Angarkha, Achkan, Kurta, Kameez, Phiran, Sherwani and Koti for upper garment, lower garment includes Dhoti, Churidar, Shalwar, and Lungi. Pagri is usually worn around head to complete the outfit. [119] In urban centres, people often wear western clothing and variety of other contemporary fashion. [120]


Vegetarian thali with naan, daal, raita and papad Vegetarian Curry.jpeg
Vegetarian thali with naan , daal , raita and papad

Indian food varies from region to region. Staple foods of Indian cuisine include a variety of lentils (dal), whole-wheat flour (aṭṭa), rice and pearl millet (bājra), which has been cultivated in Indian subcontinent since 6200 BCE. [121] [122] Over time, segments of the population embraced vegetarianism during Śramaṇa movement [123] [124] while an equitable climate permitted a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains to be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorised any item as saatvic , raajsic or taamsic developed in Yoga tradition. [125] [126] The Bhagavad Gita prescribed certain dietary practices. During this period, consumption of various types of meat became taboo, due to being considered sacred or impure. [127] [128] Indian cuisines use numerous ingredients, deploy a wide range of food preparation styles, cooking techniques and culinary presentation depending on geographical location. [129]

Performing arts

Kathakali one of classical theatre forms of India Kathakali -Play with Kaurava.jpg
Kathakali one of classical theatre forms of India

The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda (1000 BC) that are still sung in certain Śrauta sacrifices; this is the earliest account of Indian musical hymns. [130] The Samaveda, and other Hindu texts, heavily influenced India's classical music tradition, which is known today in two distinct styles: Hindustani music and Carnatic music. Both the Hindustani and Carnatic music systems are based on the melodic base known as Rāga, sung to a rhythmic cycle known as Tāla. These principles were refined in the nātyaśāstra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD). [131]

The nātyaśāstrais an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BCE and 200 CE in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata. [132] Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. While it primarily deals with stagecraft, it has come to influence music, classical dance, and literature as well. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and virtually every other aspect of stagecraft.

Indian drama and theatre has a long history alongside its music and dance. One of the earliest known theatre play is Mṛcchakatika composed by Śudraka. Followed by Aśvaghoṣa's Śāriputraprakaraṇa and Bhāsa's Swapnavāsavadatta and Pancharātra . Most notable works are Kālidāsa's Abhijñānaśākuntala , Vikramorvaśīya and Mālavikāgnimitra . Harsha's Ratnavali , Priyadarsika , and Naganandam , other notable ancient dramatists include Bhatta Narayana, Bhavabhuti, Vishakhadatta, Thirayattam [133] and Viswanatha Kaviraja. [134]

Notable fable story-plays Panchatantra, Baital Pachisi, Kathasaritsagara, Brihatkatha and Jataka tales were performed in folk theatres since ancient period. [135] Jataka tales has become part of Southeast and East Asian folklore with the spread of Buddhism. These literature's were also influential in development of One Thousand and One Nights during medieval period. [136]

Contribution and discoveries

Indian people have played a major role in the development of the philosophy, sciences, mathematics, arts, architecture and astronomy throughout history. During the ancient period, notable mathematics accomplishment of India included Hindu–Arabic numeral system with decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, interpolation formula, Fibonacci's identity, theorem, the first complete arithmetic solution (including zero and negative solutions) to quadratic equations. [137] Chakravala method, sign convention, madhava series, and the sine and cosine in trigonometric functions can be traced to the jyā and koti-jyā. [138] Notable military inventions include war elephants, crucible steel weapons popularly known as Damascus steel and Mysorean rockets. [139] Other notable inventions during ancient period include chess, cotton, sugar, fired bricks, carbon pigment ink, ruler, lac, lacquer, stepwell, indigo dye, snake and ladder, muslin, ludo, calico, Wootz steel, incense clock, shampoo, palampore, chintz, and prefabricated homes.

Indian cultural aspects, religions, philosophy, arts and architecture have developed over several millennia and have spread through much of Asia in peaceful manner. [77] Many architectural structures of India such as Sanchi Stupa, Taj Mahal and Mahabodhi Temple are UNESCO World Heritage sites today. [140]

In modern times, Indian people have continued to contribute to mathematics, sciences and astrophysics. Among them are Satyendra Nath Bose, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Meghnad Saha, Homi J. Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and notable Nobel Prize recipients C. V. Raman, Har Gobind Khorana, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar who is notable for currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars, including black holes. [141]

National personification

Bharat Mata (Hindi, from Sanskrit भारत माता, Bhārata Mātā), Mother India, or Bhāratāmbā (from अंबा ambā 'mother') is the national personification of India as a mother goddess.

The image of Bharat Mata formed with the Indian independence movement of the late 19th century. A play by Kiran Chandra Bandyopadhyay, Bhārat Mātā, was first performed in 1873. She is usually depicted as a woman clad in an orange or saffron sari holding a flag, and sometimes accompanied by a lion. [142]

Indian diaspora

Little India
India Square JC jeh.JPG
People of Indian origin have achieved a high demographic profile in metropolitan areas worldwide, including India Square, in the heart of Bombay, Jersey City, New Jersey, US, [143] home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere [144] and one of at least 24 enclaves characterized as a Little India which have emerged within the New York City Metropolitan Area, with the largest metropolitan Indian population outside Asia, as large-scale immigration from India continues into New York. [145] [146] [147] [148]

Although, population groups originating in different parts of the Indian subcontinent and within the international borders of the modern country of India had been migrating to Southeast Asia, East Asia, Central Asia, North Africa, and even along the European mediterranean coast, the Indian diaspora generally socio-politically or historically refers to those whose families or themselves migrated to other parts of the world after the British Empire established itself in India. Population estimates vary from a conservative 12 million to 20 million diaspora. [149] [150]


The British Indian community had grown to number over one million. According to the 2001 UK Census, 1,053,411 Britons had full Indian ethnicity (representing 1.8% of the UK's population). An overwhelming majority of 99.3% resided in England (in 2008 the figure is thought to be around 97.0%). In the seven-year period between 2001 and 2009, the number of Indian-born people in the UK increased in size by 38% from 467,634 to around 647,000 (an increase of approximately 180,000). [151]


There are over 1.5 million people of Indian origin or ancestry in Canada, the majority of which live in Greater Toronto and Vancouver, with growing communities in Alberta and Quebec. Nearly 4% of the total Canadian population is of Indian ancestry, a figure higher than both the United States and Britain. According to Statistics Canada, Indo-Canadians are one of the fastest growing visible minority groups in Canada, making up the second largest non-European ethnic group in the country after Chinese Canadians. The Indo-Canadian community can trace its history in Canada back 120 years to 1897 when a contingent of Sikh soldiers visited the western coast of Canada, primarily British Columbia which at the time was very sparsely populated and the Canadian government wanted to settle in order to prevent a takeover of the territory by the United States.

South Africa

More than a million people of Indian descent live in South Africa, concentrated around the city of Durban.


About 40,000 people of Indian origin live in Tanzania mostly in the urban areas.

United States

Little India on 74th Street in Jackson Heights, Queens, New York City, has developed into a pan-South Asian business district. 74th St shopping Jax Hts jeh.jpg
Little India on 74th Street in Jackson Heights, Queens, New York City, has developed into a pan-South Asian business district.

According to the American Community Survey of the United States Census Bureau, the Indian American population in the United States grew from almost 1.67 million in 2000 to 3.1 million in 2010 which is the third-largest Asian American community in the United States after Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans.


After slavery was abolished in the European colonies, Indian were hired to become indentured labourers to fill the need for cheap labor. Indians primarily from the Awadhi, Bhojpuri, and Purvanchal regions of the Hindi Belt in the present-day states of Bihar, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh in North India and the Terai region in Nepal, along with a significant minority who came from South India, and a much extremely smaller minority who came from Bengal, Punjab, Braj, Bundelkhand, Bagelkhand, Mithila, Malwa, Jammu, Kashmir, Rohilkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kutch, Marwar, Mewar, Hadoti, Dhundhar, and Gujarat were sent to the Caribbean by the British, Dutch, and French from the late 1830s to the early 1920s as indentured laborers to work on the sugarcane, cocoa, rice, banana, and coffee estates. There are more than a million Indo-Caribbeans. Many of them live in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and Jamaica. The Indians from Bhojpuri and Awadhi speaking areas of the Hindi Belt were the majority of Indians in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and Jamaica, hence their dialect of Hindustani became known as Caribbean Hindustani and it became the lingua franca of the Indian immigrants. Since the Bhojpuri and Awadhi speaking Indians formed the largest group of Indians, the traditions and culture from the Bhojpur, Purvaanchal, and Awadh regions became the dominant culture for the Indian in those countries. France had sent Indians from Southern India to their colonies in the Caribbean as indentured laborers, hence there are also many people of Indian descent living in Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana, most who are of South Indian descent. Many Indo-Caribbeans have migrated to the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, and France, and few of them have even migrated to the neighboring Latin American countries as migrant workers. A majority of Indo-Caribbean are Hindus, while there is significant minority of Muslims and Christians, along with smaller numbers of Jains, Sikhs, Buddhist, Bahá'ís, or adherents of another faith. Indo-Caribbeans are known as the descendants of the jahajis or girmityas. [152] [152] [153] [154] [152] [155] [156]


Recent genome studies appear to show that South Asians are mixture of two major ancestral components, one component restricted to South Asia and the other component shared with Central Asia, West Asia, and Europe. [157] [158]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hindus Adherent of Hinduism

Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.

History of India Historical aspects of the Indian subcontinent

According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. However, the earliest known human remains in South Asia date to 30,000 years ago. Settled life, which involves the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia around 7,000 BCE. At the site of Mehrgarh, Balochistan, Pakistan, presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle. By 4,500 BCE, settled life had spread more widely, and began to gradually evolve into the Indus Valley Civilization, an early civilization of the Old world, which was contemporaneous with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. This civilisation flourished between 2,500 BCE and 1900 BCE in what today is Pakistan and north-western India, and was noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage, and water supply.

Indian religions The religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. These religions are also all classified as Eastern religions. Although Indian religions are connected through the history of India, they constitute a wide range of religious communities, and are not confined to the Indian subcontinent.

Bhajan A free form singing of poems or hymns in Indian traditions

A bhajan literally means "sharing". It also refers to any song with religious theme or spiritual ideas, in any of the regional languages from the Indian subcontinent.

Bhakti literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity". It was originally used in Hinduism, referring to devotion and love for a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. In ancient texts such as the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, the term simply means participation, devotion and love for any endeavor, while in the Bhagavad Gita, it connotes one of the possible paths of spirituality and towards moksha, as in bhakti marga.

Bhakti movement Period of common mens devotion to god in Medieval Indian Subcontinent.

The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later acted as the defacto catalyst to the formation and subsequent revolutionization in the form of Sikhism. It originated in eighth-century south India, and spread northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reaching its zenith between the 15th and 17th century CE.

Historical Vedic religion Religious ideas and practices among most Indo-Aryan-speaking peoples of ancient India after about 1500 BCE

The historical Vedic religion refers to the religious ideas and practices among most Indo-Aryan-speaking peoples of ancient India after about 1500 BCE. These ideas and practices are found in the Vedic texts, and they were one of the major influences that shaped contemporary Hinduism.

Hinduism in Southeast Asia

Hinduism in Southeast Asia has a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history. As the Indic scripts were introduced from India, people of Southeast Asia entered the historical period by producing their earliest inscriptions around the 1st to 5th century CE. Today, the only practicing Hindus in Southeast Asia other than Overseas Indians are the Balinese and Tenggerese minorities in Indonesia, and the Cham minority in Cambodia and southern Vietnam.

Names for India south india

The Republic of India has two principal short names in both official and popular English usage, each of which is historically significant, "India" and "Bharat". The first article of the Constitution of India states that "India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of states," implicitly codifying "India" and "Bharat" as equally official short names for the Republic of India. A third name, "Hindustan", is sometimes an alternative name for the region comprising most of the modern Indian states of the subcontinent when Indians speak among themselves. The usage of "Bharat", "Hindustan", or "India" depends on the context and language of conversation.

History of Hinduism denotes a wide variety of related religious traditions native to the Indian subcontinent. Its history overlaps or coincides with the development of religion in Indian subcontinent since the Iron Age, with some of its traditions tracing back to prehistoric religions such as those of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization. It has thus been called the "oldest religion" in the world. Scholars regard Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder.

Indian nationalism

Indian nationalism developed as a concept during the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Raj. Indian nationalism is an instance of territorial nationalism, inclusive of all its people, despite their diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds. It continues to strongly influence the politics of India and reflects an opposition to the sectarian strands of Hindu nationalism and Muslim nationalism.

Hinduism in India today hinduism

Hinduism is the largest religion in India, with 80% of the population identifying themselves as Hindus, that accounts for 966 million Hindus in India as of National Census of India, while 14.2% of the population follow Islam and the remaining 6% adhere to other religions. The vast majority of Hindus in India belong to Shaivite and Vaishnavite denominations. India is one of the three countries in the world where Hinduism is the majority.

Rishabha (Hinduism) Hindu sage

In Hinduism, Rishabha is one of the twenty four avatars of Vishnu in the Bhagavata Purana. Rishabha is also considered as the avatar of Lord Shiva

Punjabi Hindus are a group of people that adhere to Hinduism and have their roots and origin in the Punjab region of the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Most Punjabi Hindus are concentrated in the Indian states of Punjab and Delhi, and in the union territory of Chandigarh, with additional populations in parts of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and some parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat. They also have significant presence in Jammu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Rishabhanatha First Tirthankara of Jainism

Rishabhanatha is the first Tirthankara of Jainism and the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty. He was the first of twenty-four teachers in the present half-cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a "ford maker" because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths (saṃsāra). He is also known as Ādinātha which translates into "First (Adi) Lord (nātha)", as well as Adishvara, Yugadideva, Prathamaraja, and Nabheya. Along with Mahavira, Parshvanatha and Neminatha, Rishabhanatha is one of the four Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.

Hinduism in Uganda

Hinduism in Uganda arrived when the colonial British Empire brought Hindus along with other Indian workers to its East African colonies in late 19th and early 20th centuries. The largest arrival of Hindu immigrants to Uganda, some educated and skilled but mostly poor and struggling from the famine-prone areas of Punjab and Gujarat, was to help construct the Kenya-Uganda Railway connecting landlocked parts of Uganda and Kenya with the port city of Mombasa. The largest departure of Hindus from Uganda occurred when General Idi Amin expelled them and seized their properties in 1972.

Religion in India Religions in the modern nation of India

Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. India is a secular state with no state religion. The Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practices Hinduism, 14.2% adheres to Islam, 2.3% adheres to Christianity, and 1.7% adheres to Sikhism. Zoroastrianism, Sanamahism and Judaism also have an ancient history in India, and each has several thousands of Indian adherents. India has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism and Bahá'í Faith in the world, even though these religions initially grew in Persia. Throughout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and custom; the Constitution of India has declared the right to freedom of religion to be a fundamental right.

Rama Hindu deity

Rama or Ram, also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism. He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being.

Jainism and Hinduism are two ancient Indian religions. There are some similarities and differences between the two religions. Temples, gods, rituals, fasts and other religious components of Jainism are different from those of Hinduism.


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