Awadh

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Awadh
India Awadh locator map.svg
Location of Awadh
Continent Asia
Countries India and Nepal
States Uttar Pradesh (India) and Province No. 5 (Nepal)
Divisions Lucknow division,
Ayodhya division,

Varanasi division

some districts of Kanpur division,
Kanpur division,
Allahabad division
Nepalgunj division,
Mirzapur
Languages Awadhi dialect of Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu)
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Gate of the Lal-Baugh at Fyzabad; by Thomas and William Daniell, 1801* (BL). Lalbagh gate faizabad c.1801.jpg
Gate of the Lal-Baugh at Fyzabad; by Thomas and William Daniell, 1801* (BL).

Awadh (Hindi : अवध, Urdu : اوَدھ, Awadhi:𑂃𑂫𑂡), ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ), known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5. Its inhabitants are referred to as Awadhis.

Uttar Pradesh State in India

Uttar Pradesh is a state considered to be part of central, northern and north-central India. Abbreviated as UP, it is the most populous state in the Republic of India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It is located in the north-central region of the Indian subcontinent, has over 200 million inhabitants. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganges further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Independence Day (India) national holiday in India

Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly. India still retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to full republican constitution. India attained independence following the Independence Movement noted for largely non-violent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British India was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties, and the displacement of nearly 15 million people due to religious violence. On 15 August 1947, the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the incumbent Prime Minister customarily raises the flag and gives an address to the nation.

Contents

It was established as one of the twelve original subahs (top-level imperial provinces) under 16th-century Mughal emperor Akbar and became a hereditary tributary polity around 1722 AD, with Ayodhya as its initial capital and Saadat Ali Khan as its first Subadar Nawab and progenitor of a dynasty of Nawabs of Awadh (often styled Nawab Wazir al-Mamalik). The traditional capital of Awadh was Faizabad, but the capital was later moved to Lucknow, also the station of the British Resident, which now is the capital of Uttar Pradesh. Nepalgunj now is the capital of Province No. 5 of Nepal.

A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire. The word is derived from Arabic and Persian. The governor/ruler of a Subah was known as a subahdar, which later became subedar to refer to a ranking officer in the Pakistan Army. The subahs were established by badshah (emperor) Akbar the Great during his administrative reforms of years 1572-1580; initially they numbered to 12, but his conquests expanded the number of subahs to 15 by the end of his reign. Subahs were divided into Sarkars, or districts. Sarkars were further divided into Parganas or Mahals. His successors, most notably Aurangzeb, expanded the number of subahs further through their conquests. As the empire began to dissolve in the early 18th century, many subahs became effectively independent, or were conquered by the Marathas or the British.

Mughal Empire dynastic empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the first two Mughal emperors had both parents from Central Asian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs.

Ayodhya Metropolitan City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Ayodhya is a city located in Ayodhya district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It shares municipal corporation with neighbouring Faizabad. The city is identified with the legendary city of Ayodhya, and as such, is the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana. The accuracy of this identification is central to the Ayodhya dispute: modern scholars variously believe that the present-day Ayodhya is same as the legendary Ayodhya, or that the legendary city is a mythical place that came to be identified with the present-day Ayodhya only during the Gupta period around the 4th-5th century CE.

Modern definition

Presently, Awadh geographically includes the districts of Ambedkar Nagar, Bahraich, Balrampur, Barabanki, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar, ,Faizabad, Gonda, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lucknow, Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Shravasti, Siddharth Nagar, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Unnao, Kanpur, Kanpur Dehat, Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Allahabad from Lower Doab. It also includes a few district of Province No. 5 of Nepal. The region is home to a distinct dialect, Awadhi, spoken by Awadhis.

Ambedkar Nagar district District of Uttar Pradesh in India

Ambedkar Nagar district is a district in the Ayodhya division of Uttar Pradesh in India. This district was created on September 29, 1995 and was named in memory of Bhimrao Ambedkar, who worked for the advancement of the deprived classes, women and other weaker sections of society.

Bahraich district District of Uttar Pradesh in India

Bahraich district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and Bahraich town is the district headquarters. Bahraich District is a part of Devipatan Division.

Barabanki district District of Uttar Pradesh in India

Barabanki district is one of four districts of Ayodhya division, lies at the very heart of Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and forms as it were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate. It is situated between 27°19' and 26°30' north latitude, and 80°05' and 81°51’ east longitude; it runs in a south-easterly direction, confined by the nearly parallel streams of the Ghaghara and Gomti. With its most northern point it impinges on the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is washed by the waters of the Ghagra, beyond which lie the districts of Bahraich district and Gonda district. Its eastern frontier marches with Faizabad district, and the Gomti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the Sultanpur district. On the west it adjoins the Lucknow district. The extreme length of the district from east to west may be taken at 57 miles (92 km), and the extreme breadth at 58 mi (93 km); the total area is about 1,504 sq mi (3,900 km2): its population amounts to 2,673,581, being at the rate of 686.50 per square kilometre (1,778.0/sq mi). Barabanki city is the district headquarters.

History

Awadh, known as the granary of India, was important strategically for the control of the Doab, a fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans.

Doab Land between two converging, or confluent, rivers

Doab is a term used in the Indian subcontinent for the "tongue," or water-rich tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers ."

Ganges river in Bangladesh and India with major tributeries from Nepal

The Ganges, or Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of the Indian subcontinent which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India. After entering West Bengal, it divides into two rivers: the Hooghly and the Padma River. The Hooghly, or Adi Ganga, flows through several districts of West Bengal and into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. The other, the Padma, also flows into and through Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna river which ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.

Yamuna river in India

The Yamuna, also known as the Jumna or Jamuna, is the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft) on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Prayagraj (Allahabad), which is a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years.

Ancient

Awadh's political unity can be traced back to the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala, with Ayodhya as its capital. Modern Awadh finds historical mention only in the Mughal time of Akbar the Great, in the late 16th century.

Kosala former country in India

Kingdom of Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh. It emerged as a small state during the late Vedic period, with connections to the neighboring realm of Videha. Kosala belonged to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture, and the Kosala region gave rise to the Sramana movements, including Jainism and Buddhism. It was culturally distinct from the Painted Grey Ware culture of the Vedic Aryans of Kuru-Pancala west of it, following independent development toward urbanisation and the use of iron.

In prehistoric times, Awadh, reputedly the kingdom of Bikukshi, contained five main divisions : [1]

  1. Uttara Kosala or the trans-Ghaghra districts, now known as Bahraich, Gonda, Basti and Gorakhpur.
  2. Silliana, consisting of lower range of hills to the north of Uttara Kosala, now belonging to Nepal, with the Tarai at its base.
  3. Pachhimrath, which may be roughly described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti west to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur. This division included about third of present district of Faizabad (including Ambedkar Nagar), a small portion of the north of Sultanpur, greater part of Barabanki, and sections of the Lucknow and Sitapur districts.
  4. Purabrath, which may be roughly described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti east to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur. This division included about two-thirds of present district of Faizabad (including Ambedkarnagar), the north-eastern corner of Sultanpur, and parts of Mirzapur district , Pratapgarh District and Jaunpur.
  5. Arbar, extended soutwards Gomti to the Sai river.

Before Independence

Since 1350 AD different parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, East India Company and the British Raj. Kanpur was one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and emerged as an important city of North India.

For about eighty-four years (from 1394 to 1478,), Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur; emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jehangir granted an estate in Awadh to a nobleman, Sheik Abdul Rahim, who had won his favour. Sheik Abdul Rahim later built Machchi Bhawan in this estate; this later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzades, controlled the region. Until 1719, the Subah of Awadh (bordering (Old) Delhi, Agra, Illahabad and Bihar) was a province of the Mughal Empire, administered by a Nazim or Subah Nawab (Governor) appointed by the Emperor. Nawab –the plural of the Arabic word 'Naib', meaning 'assistant'– was the term given to subahdars (provincial governors) appointed by the Mughal emperor all over India to assist him in managing the Empire. In the absence of expeditious transport and communication facilities, they were practically independent rulers of their territory and wielded the power of life and death over their subjects. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan, also called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad [2] near Lucknow. The Nawabs of Lucknow were in fact the Nawabs of Awadh, but were so referred to because after the reign of the third Nawab, Lucknow became the capital of their realm, where the British station Residents ('diplomatic' colonial Agents) from 1773. The city was North India's cultural capital; its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under them music and dance flourished, and many monuments were erected. [3] Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.

Awadh under the Mughals

From the pre-historic period to the time of Akbar, the limits of the subah (imperial top-level province) and its internal divisions seem to have been constantly changing, and the name of Oudh, or Awadh, seems to have been applicable to only one of the ancient divisions or Sarkars , nearly corresponding to old Pachhimrath. The title of Subehdar (governor) of Awadh is mentioned as early as 1280 AD, but it can only have denoted the governor of the tract of the country above defined. The Awadh of Mughal Badshah (Emperor) Akbar was one of the twelve (or fifteen) subahs into which he divided the Mughal Empire as it stood in 1590 AD. As constituted at the end of the sixteenth century, the Subah contained five sarkars, viz. Awadh, Lucknow, Bahraich, Khairabad and Gorakhpur, which in turn were divided in numerous mahals and dasturs (districts).

Khan Zaman Khan Ali Asghar son of Qazi Ghulam Mustafa was appointed as Subahdar of Awadh during the reign of Farrukhsiyar. This appointment was made in place of 'Aziz Khan Chughtai'. [4] Later on, Mahabat Khan was appointed as Subahdar of Awadh in place of Khan Zaman Khan Ali Asghar, who was all over again transferred to Azimabad (Patna) as Subahdar in place of 'Sar Buland Khan'. [5]

Mahi Maraatib fish emblazoned over the gateway to Safdarjung's tomb Mahi Maraatib fish emblazoned over the gateway to Safdarjung's tomb.jpg
Mahi Maraatib fish emblazoned over the gateway to Safdarjung's tomb

It seems to have been of nearly the same extent as the Province of Oudh at the time of annexation to British India in 1858, and to have differed only in including Gorakhpur, Basti, and Azamgarh, and in excluding Tanda, Aldemau, Rajesultanpur and Manikpur, or the territory to the east and South of Faizabad, Sultanpur and Pratapgarh. [6]

Under the hereditary Nawabs of Awadh

Very powerful Saadat Ali Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, who laid the foundation of Faizabad. Saadat Ali Khan I.jpg
Very powerful Saadat Ali Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, who laid the foundation of Faizabad.
Safdarjung, the second Nawab of Awadh, who made Faizabad a military headquarters. Safdarjung, second Nawab of Awadh, Mughal dynasty. India. early 18th century.jpg
Safdarjung, the second Nawab of Awadh, who made Faizabad a military headquarters.
Shuja-ud-Daula, the third Nawab in Faizabad, pictured with Four Sons, General Barker and other Military Officers. Nawab shuja ud daulah.jpg
Shuja-ud-Daula, the third Nawab in Faizabad, pictured with Four Sons, General Barker and other Military Officers.
Gulab Bari in Faizabad is the tomb of Shuja-ud-Daula, The third Nawab of Awadh. GulabBari.jpg
Gulab Bari in Faizabad is the tomb of Shuja-ud-Daula, The third Nawab of Awadh.
Bara Imambara in Lucknow is the tomb of Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab of Awadh. Adnanwiki.badaimambada1.JPG
Bara Imambara in Lucknow is the tomb of Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab of Awadh.

As the Mughal power declined and the emperors lost their paramountcy and they became first the puppets and then the prisoners of their feudatories, so Awadh grew stronger and more independent. Its capital city was Faizabad. Saadat Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, laid the foundation of Faizabad at the outskirt of ancient city of Ayodhya. Faizabad developed as a township during the reign of Safdar Jang, the second nawab of Avadh (1739–54), who made it his military headquarters while his successor Shuja-ud-daula made it a full-fledged capital city. Suja-ud-daula, the third Nawab of Awadh, built a fort known as Chhota Calcutta, now in ruins. In 1765 he built the Chowk and Tirpaulia and subsequently laid out the Anguribagh and Motibagh to the south of it, Asafbagh and Bulandbagh to the west of the city. During the reign of Shuja-Ud-Daula, Faizabad attained such a prosperity which it never saw again. The Nawabs graced Faizabad with several beautiful buildings, notable among them being the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Gulab Bari is a striking building of fine properties, standing in a garden surrounded by a wall, approachable through two large gateways. These buildings are particularly interesting for their assimilative architectural styles. Shuja-ud-daula's wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816. It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Awadh, which was built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum's tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great distinction and rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum's death in 1815 till the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad gradually fell into decay. The glory of Faizabad finally eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. [7]

The Nawabs of Awadh were a Persian Shia Muslim dynasty from Nishapur, [8] [9] who not only encouraged the existing Persian-language belle-lettrist activity to shift from Delhi, but also invited, and received, a steady stream of scholars, poets, jurists, architects, and painters from Iran. [10] Thus Persian was used in government, in academic instruction, in high culture, and in court,. [10]

Saadat Khan Burhanul Mulk was appointed Nawab in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad [11] near Lucknow. He took advantage of a weakening Mughal Empire in Delhi to lay the foundation of the Awadh dynasty. His successor was Safdarjung the very influential noble at the Mughal court in Delhi. Until 1819, Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Nawab.

Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the Doab, the fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans.

The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim the fugitive Nawab of Bengal. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the British East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident at Lucknow in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined in not capturing Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.

Asaf-Ud-Dowlah, The fourth Nawab of Awadh, who shifted the capital of Awadh from Faizabad to Lucknow. Asifportrait2 - Asuf ud Daula.jpg
Asaf-Ud-Dowlah, The fourth Nawab of Awadh, who shifted the capital of Awadh from Faizabad to Lucknow.
Hyder Beg Khan, minister to Nawab of Awadh, Asaf-ud-Daula Portrait of Hyder Beg Khan, the Minister to the Nawab of A Wadh, Asaf-Au-Daula crop.jpg
Hyder Beg Khan, minister to Nawab of Awadh, Asaf-ud-Daula

Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab and son of Shuja-ud-Daula, moved the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow in 1775 and laid the foundation of a great city. His rule saw the building of the Asafi Imambara and Rumi Darwaza, built by Raja Tikait Rai Nawab Wazir (Diwan) of Awadh, which till date are the biggest architectural marvels in the city. Asaf-ud-Daula made Lucknow one of the most prosperous and glittering cities in all India. It is said, he moved because he wanted to get away from the control of a dominant mother. On such a thread did the fate of the great city of Lucknow depend.

In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made part of the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though they continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name till 1819.

Silver rupee of Awadh, struck in the name of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II at Lucknow in AH 1229 (=1814-15 CE). The coin features a stylised fish on the reverse, the dynastic symbol of the Nawabs of Awadh, seen also on the Awadh flag. At this time, the fiction that Awadh was subject to the Mughal emperor was maintained. Silver rupee of Awadh.jpg
Silver rupee of Awadh, struck in the name of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II at Lucknow in AH 1229 (=1814–15 CE). The coin features a stylised fish on the reverse, the dynastic symbol of the Nawabs of Awadh, seen also on the Awadh flag. At this time, the fiction that Awadh was subject to the Mughal emperor was maintained.
Silver rupee of Wajid Ali Shah, struck at Lucknow in AH 1267 (1850-51 CE) and showing the Awadh coat of arms. Starting in 1819, coins no longer mentioned the Mughal emperor, but were struck in the nawab's own name. Rupee of Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh.jpg
Silver rupee of Wajid Ali Shah, struck at Lucknow in AH 1267 (1850–51 CE) and showing the Awadh coat of arms. Starting in 1819, coins no longer mentioned the Mughal emperor, but were struck in the nawab's own name.

Coins were struck under the nawab's control for the first time in 1737, at a new mint opened in Banaras, although the coins named the Mughal emperor, not the nawab. [12] After the Battle of Buxar, the British seized Banaras, and so the mint was moved in 1776 to Lucknow. From there, coins in the name of the Mughal emperor continued to be struck, and they continued to name Muhammadabad Banaras as the mint. It was only in 1819 that Nawab Ghaziuddin Haidar finally started to strike coins in his own name. Soon thereafter, Awadhi coins started to feature the kingdom's European style coat of arms.

The wars and transactions in which Shuja-ud-Daula was engaged, both with and against the British East India Company, led to the addition of Karra, Allahabad, Fatehgarh, Kanpur, Etawah, Mainpuri, Farrukhabad and Rohilkhand, to the Oudh dimensions, and thus they remained until the treaty of 1801 with Saadat Ali Khan, by which province was reduced considerably as half of Oudh was ceded to the British East India Company. Khairigarh, Kanchanpur, and what is now the Nepal Terai, were ceded in 1816, in liquidation of Ghazi ud din Haider's loan of a million sterling towards the expense of Nepal War; and at the same time pargana of Nawabganj was added to Gonda district in exchange for Handia, or Kawai, which was transferred from Pratapgarh to Allahabad. [6]

British rule

Gates of the Palace at Lucknow by W. Daniell, 1801 Gates of Palace at Lucknow William Daniell 1801.jpg
Gates of the Palace at Lucknow by W. Daniell, 1801

The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-19th century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control. They started looking about for an excuse, which the decadent Nawabs readily provided. On 1 May 1816, a British protectorate was signed.

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1903 United Provinces 1903.gif
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1903

In 1856 the East India Company annexed the state under the Doctrine of Lapse, which was placed under a Chief Commissioner. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta (Bengal). In the subsequent Revolt of 1857, his 14-year-old son Birjis Qadra son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities.

In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow.

The Tarai to the north of Bahraich including large quantity of valuable forest and grazing ground, was made over to the Nepal Darbar in 1860, in recognition of their services during the Revolt of 1857, and in 1874 some further cessions, on a much smaller scale, but without any apparent reason, were made in favour of the same Government. [6]

In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.

Rulers

Culture

Awadh in regions of today's Uttar Pradesh UP region map.gif
Awadh in regions of today's Uttar Pradesh

The region of Awadh is considered to be the center of Ganga-Jamuni culture. [13] .Muslim population is 17.73% of total population.

Sham-e-Awadh

Sham-e-Awadh is a famous term popular for glorious evenings in the Awadh capitals of Faizabad and later (and even today and to a greater extent) Lucknow. The evenings of Lucknow are considered unique.

Awadh was established in 1722 AD. with Faizabad as its capital. Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula's son Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab of Awadh, shifted the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow; this led to the decline of Faizabad and glorious rise of Lucknow.

Just as Banares (Varanasi) is famous for its mornings, so Lucknow is for its evenings. Many of its well-known buildings were erected on the banks of river Gomti in the time of Nawabs. The Nawabs used to take in a view of the river Gomti and its architectural beauty in the evening hours, giving rise to Sham-e-Awadh's romantic reputation. [14]

There is a saying: 'Sham-e-Awadh, Subah-e-Benares', meaning evening of the Awadh,morning of the Benares.

Awadhi cuisine

Kebabs are an important part of Awadhi cuisine Galawati Kebabs.JPG
Kebabs are an important part of Awadhi cuisine

Awadhi Cuisine is primarily from the city of Lucknow and its environs. The cooking patterns of the city are similar to those of Central Asia, the Middle East, and Northern India as well. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Awadh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques, and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of Kashmir, Punjab and Hyderabad; and the city is famous for its Nawabi foods.

The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow today. [15] Their spread would consist of elaborate dishes like kebabs, kormas, biryani, kaliya, nahari-kulchas, zarda, sheermal, Taftan, roomali rotis and warqi parathas. The richness of Awadh cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron.

The events surrounding the 1856 overthrow of Wajid Ali Shah and the annexation of Awadh by the British are depicted in the 1977 film The Chess Players by the acclaimed Indian director Satyajit Ray. This film is based on famous Urdu story Shatranj Ke Khilari by the great Hindi-Urdu novelist writer Munshi Premchand.

The movies of Umrao Jaan are based on two cultural cities of Awadh, Lucknow and Faizabad.

The region has been in the center of various period films of Bollywood and modern films like Main, Meri Patni Aur Woh and Paa to name a few. It has also been shot in various songs of Bollywood.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Faizabad City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Faizabad is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which forms a municipal corporation with Ayodhya. It is the headquarters of Faizabad district and Faizabad division. On 6 November 2018 the Chief Minister of UP, Yogi Adityanath, announced that the district will be renamed to Ayodhya and now it has also been approved by the UP cabinet. Faizabad is situated on the banks of river Ghaghra about 130 km east of state capital Lucknow. It was the first capital of the Nawabs of Awadh and has monuments built by the Nawabs, like the Tomb of Bahu Begum, Gulab Bari.

Shuja-ud-Daula 18th-century Indian nobleman

Shuja-ud-Daulah was the Subedar Nawab of Oudh from 5 October 1754 to 26 January 1775.

Safdar Jang 18th-century Indian nobleman

Abul Mansur Mirza Muhammad Muqim Ali Khan better known as Safdar Jang ,(b. c. 1708 – d. 5 October 1754), was the Subadar Nawab of Oudh from 19 March 1739 to 5 October 1754. He was a descendant of Qara Yusuf from the Kara Koyunlu.

Shah Alam II 16th Mughal Emperor

Ali Gohar, historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. His power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The kingdom of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam', Palam being a suburb of Delhi.

Asaf-ud-Daula Nawab wazir of Oudh

Asaf-ud-Daula was the nawab wazir of Oudh ratified by Shah Alam II, from 26 January 1775 to 21 September 1797, and the son of Shuja-ud-Dowlah. His mother and grandmother were the begums of Oudh.

Nawab of Awadh

The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh in north India during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Nawabs of Awadh belonged to a dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur, Iran. In 1724, Nawab Sa'adat Khan established the Oudh State with their capital in Faizabad and Lucknow.

Saadat Ali Khan II fifth nawab wazir of Oudh, India

Saadat Ali Khan was the fifth nawab wazir of Oudh from 21 January 1798 to 11 July 1814, and the son of Muhammad Nasir. He was of Persian origin.

Nasir-ud-Din Haidar Shah Nawab of Awadh

Nasir-ud-Din Haidar Shah was the second King of Oudh from 19 October 1827 to 7 July 1837.

Faizullah Khan nawab of Rampur

Syed Faizullah Khan was the first Nawab of Rampur. The princely state of Rampur was set up in 1774, after the First Rohilla War, by the dismemberment of the Rohilla state of Rohilkhand. Faizullah Khan, the surviving heir of Ali Mohammed Khan and opponent of the forces of Awadh and the British East India Company in the war, was installed as ruler of what was a state. It bordered the Maratha Empire to the south, making it a strategic point.

Muhammad Ali Shah Nawab of Awadh

Muhammad Ali Shah was the third Nawab of Oudh from 7 July 1837 to 7 May 1842.

Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan 18th-century Nawab of Bengal

Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan was the Nawab of Bengal. He married Zainab un-nisa Begum and Azmat un-nisa Begum, the daughters of Murshid Quli Khan by Nasiri Banu Begum. Shuja-ud-Din's third wife was Durdana Begum Sahiba. After the death of his father-in-law on 30 June 1727, he ascended to the Masnad (throne) of the Nawab.

Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah first King of Oudh

Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah was the last nawab wazir of Oudh from 11 July 1814 to 19 October 1818 and first King of Oudh from 19 October 1818 to 19 October 1827.

Wazir Ali Khan Nawab wazir of Oudh

Wazir Ali Khan (b. 19 April 1780 – d. 15 May 1817) was the fourth nawab wazir of Oudh from 21 September 1797 to 21 January 1798, and the adopted son of Asaf-Ud-Dowlah.

History of Bareilly

According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali' by Kṛṣṇā. When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahicchattra in Bareilly. The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichhatra.

Bahu Begum ka Maqbara

Bahu Begum ka Maqbara is the Tomb of Queen Bride Begum Unmatuzzohra Bano alias Bahu Begum a memorial built for queen of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula. Its one of the tallest buildings in Faizabad and is a notable example of non-mughal Muslim architecture. Sadly, this monument is a victim of neglect and is crumbling.

Gulab Bari

Gulab Bari the Tomb of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula is in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. This place has a good collection of roses of various varieties set by the sides of water fountains. Gulab Bari is the maqbara (Mausoleum) of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula, the third Nawab of Oudh in the campus. This monument has declared to be of National Importance under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 as updated by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 2010. Further under Sub-section 20 (a) and 20 (b) of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Monuments and Remains Act, 2010.

History of Faizabad The Historical Capital City Of Avadh in Avadh, India

The earliest reference made to Fyzabad or now Faizabad is said to be in the Ramayana, in which the city is referred to as Saket, the mythical private estate of King Dashrath, father of Lord Ram but the other sources indicate that Saket, which means Heaven in Sanskrit, is the ancient name of holy city of Ayodhya not Faizabad. However, more accurately, the reference is found in Medieval and Modern history, when Nawab Saadat Ali Khan, Burhan-ul-Mulk was given the charge of the Subah of Awadh around 1722 by the Mughal Court. Nawab Sa'adat Khan made the first settlements along the banks of Ghaghra with a cantonment consisting of a fortress and mud barracks. Due to these temporary dwellings, Faizabad was first known as 'Bangla' .

Oudh State

The Oudh State was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until annexation by the British in 1856. Oudh, the now obsolete but once official English-language name of the state, also written historically as Oude, derived from the name of Ayodhya.

Massacre of Benares Murder of five Europeans on 14 January 1799 in Lucknow by Wazir Ali Khan & supporters

The Massacre of Benares is the name given to the minor and unsuccessful insurrection of Wazir Ali Khan, deposed Nawab of Awadh, at Benares in northern India in 1799, in which five British East India Company officials and civilians were murdered. Wazir Ali's uprising resulted in his imprisonment for the remainder of his life.

References

  1. Irwin, Henry Crossly (1880). The Garden of India. Or, Chapters on Oudh History and Affairs. London: W. H. Allen. p. 106.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. "Faizabad, town, India". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. 2001–07 Archived 7 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Lucknow City". Laxys.com. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  4. Tazkirat us-Salatin Chaghta – A Mughal Chronicle of Post Aurangzeb Period (1707–1724) by Muhammad Hadi Kamwar Khan; edited Persian text and with an Introduction by Muzaffar Alam (1980), Centre of Advanced Study Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (U.P.) -202001, India(page 234)
  5. Tazkirat us-Salatin Chaghta – A Mughal Chronicle of Post Aurangzeb Period (1707–1724) by Muhammad Hadi Kamwar Khan; edited Persian text and with an Introduction by Muzaffar Alam (1980), Centre of Advanced Study Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (U.P.) -202001, India(page 236)
  6. 1 2 3 Irwin, Henry Crossly (1880). The Garden of India. Or, Chapters on Oudh History and Affairs. London: W. H. Allen. p. 107.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. "Welcome to Faizabad History". official website of Faizabad district.
  8. Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam By Juan Ricardo Cole
  9. Art and culture: endeavours in interpretation By Ahsan Jan Qaisar, Som Prakash Verma, Mohammad Habib
  10. 1 2 Encyclopædia Iranica "Avadh", E. Yarshater
  11. "Faizabad, town, India" Archived 7 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine . The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. 2001–07
  12. P.L. Gupta: Coins, 4th ed., New Delhi: National Book Trust, p. 178.
  13. Malika Mohammada, The foundations of the composite culture in India, Aakar Books, 2007, ISBN   978-81-89833-18-3, ... developed in Awadh as a genre of composite creativity. ... of multiple Indian cultural traditions and provided glimpses of the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb of north India with Lucknow as its centre ...
  14. "Lucnow revisited again". lucknowrevisited.blogspot.com Monday, 26 February 2007.
  15. The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum – Lead Article. Tribuneindia.com (13 July 2003). Retrieved on 18 July 2013.

Further reading