States and union territories of India

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States and union territories of India
Category Federated states
Location Republic of India
Number28 States
8 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim – 610,577 (lowest)
Uttar Pradesh – 199,812,341 (highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep – 64,473 (lowest)
Delhi – 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: Goa – 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) (smallest)
Rajasthan – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) (largest)
Union territories: Lakshadweep – 32 km2 (12 sq mi) (smallest)
Ladakh – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) (largest)
Government
Subdivisions

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories, [1] with a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

Contents

History

Administrative divisions of India in 1951 India Administrative Divisions 1951.svg
Administrative divisions of India in 1951

Pre-independence

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [ excessive citations ] The British Raj mostly retained the administrative structure of the preceding Mughal Empire. India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies), directly governed by the British, and princely states, which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". [13] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:[ citation needed ]

States reorganisation (1951–1956)

Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. [14]

The French enclave of Chandernagore was transferred to West Bengal in 1954. In the same year Pondicherry, comprising the former French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon and Mahé, was transferred to India; this became a union territory in 1962. [15]

Also in 1954, pro-India forces liberated the Portuguese-held enclaves of Dadrá and Nagar Aveli, declaring the short-lived de facto state of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 1961, India annexed it as the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. [16] [17] [18] [19]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. [20]

As a result of this act:

Post-1956

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. [21] The former Union Territory of Nagaland achieved statehood on 1 December 1963. [22] The Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. [23] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. [24] [25]

Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969. The north-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972. [26] Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. [27] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while erstwhile union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu's northern exclaves Damão and Diu became a separate union territory as Daman and Diu. [28]

In November 2000, three new states were created, namely:

Pondicherry was renamed Puducherry in 2007 and Orissa was renamed Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 from ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. [33] [34]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from 31 October 2019. [35] Later that year in November, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, effective from 26 January 2020. [36] [37] [38]

Current proposals

States and Union territories

States

State ISO Vehicle
code
Zone CapitalLargest cityStatehoodPopulation
(2011)[ citation needed ]
Area
(km2)
Official
languages [39]
Additional official
languages [39]
Andhra Pradesh IN-APAP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 195649,506,799162,975 Telugu Urdu [40]
Arunachal Pradesh IN-ARAR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 19871,383,72783,743 English
Assam IN-ASASNorth-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 195031,205,57678,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BRBR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950104,099,45294,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CTCG Central Raipur [lower-alpha 1] 1 November 200025,545,198135,194 Hindi Chhattisgarhi
Goa IN-GAGA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 19871,458,5453,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJGJWestern Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 196060,439,692196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HRHR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 196625,351,46244,212 Hindi Punjabi [41] [42]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HPHPNorthern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter) [43]
Shimla 25 January 19716,864,60255,673 Hindi Sanskrit [44]
Jharkhand IN-JHJHEastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 200032,988,13474,677 Hindi Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu [45] [46]
Karnataka IN-KAKASouthern Bangalore 1 November 195661,095,297191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KLKLSouthern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 195633,406,06138,863 Malayalam English [47]
Madhya Pradesh IN-MPMPCentral Bhopal Indore 26 January 195072,626,809308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MHMHWestern Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter) [48] [49]
Mumbai 1 May 1960112,374,333307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MNMNNorth-Eastern Imphal 21 January 19722,855,79422,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-MLMLNorth-Eastern Shillong 21 January 19722,966,88922,720 English Khasi [lower-alpha 2]
Mizoram IN-MZMZNorth-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 19871,097,20621,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NLNLNorth-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 19631,978,50216,579 English
Odisha IN-ORODEastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 195041,974,218155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PBPBNorthern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 196627,743,33850,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJRJNorthern Jaipur 26 January 195068,548,437342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SKSKNorth-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975610,5777,096 English, Nepali Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TNTNSouthern Chennai 1 November 195672,147,030130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TGTSSouthern Hyderabad [lower-alpha 3] 2 June 201435,193,978 [54] 112,077 [54] Telugu Urdu [55]
Tripura IN-TRTRNorth-Eastern Agartala 21 January 19723,673,91710,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UPUPCentral Lucknow 26 January 1950199,812,341243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UTUKCentral Bhararisain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter) [56]
Dehradun 9 November 200010,086,29253,483 Hindi Sanskrit [57]
West Bengal IN-WBWBEastern Kolkata 26 January 195091,276,11588,752 Bengali, Nepali [lower-alpha 4] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu
  1. Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
  2. Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  3. Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. [50] [51] [52] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. [53] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.[ citation needed ]
  4. Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.

Union territories

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
code
Zone CapitalLargest cityUT establishedPopulation Area
(km2)
Official
languages
Additional official
languages
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-ANANSouthern Port Blair 1 November 1956380,5818,249 Hindi English
Chandigarh IN-CHCHNorthern Chandigarh 1 November 19661,055,450114English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DHDDWestern Daman 26 January 2020586,956603 Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, English
Delhi IN-DLDLNorthern New Delhi Delhi 1 November 195616,787,9411,490 Hindi, English Punjabi, Urdu [58]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JKJKNorthern Srinagar (Summer) [59] [60]
Jammu (Winter) [60] [61]
Srinagar 31 October 201912,258,43342,241 Kashmiri, Dogri, Urdu, Hindi, English
Ladakh IN-LALANorthern Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter) [62]
Leh 31 October 2019290,49259,146 Hindi, English
Lakshadweep IN-LDLDSouthern Kavaratti 1 November 195664,47332 Malayalam, English
Puducherry IN-PYPYSouthern Puducherry 16 August 19621,247,953492 Tamil, English Telugu, Malayalam, French

Former states and union territories

Former states

MapStateCapitalYearsPresent-day state(s)
Ajmer in India (1951).svg Ajmer State Ajmer 1950–1956 Rajasthan
Andhra-India 1953.svg Andhra State Kurnool 1953–1956 Andhra Pradesh
Bhopal in India (1951).svg Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Bilaspur in India (1951).svg Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1950–1954 Himachal Pradesh
Bombay in India (1951).svg Bombay State Bombay 1950–1960 Maharashtra, Gujarat, and partially Karnataka
Coorg in India (1951).svg Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Karnataka
Punjab, India (1956-1966).png East Punjab Shimla (1947–1953)
Chandigarh (1953–1966)
1947–1966 Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh UT
Hyderabad in India (1951).svg Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–1956 Telangana, and partially Maharashtra and Karnataka
Jammu and Kashmir in India (de-facto) (claims hatched).svg
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1952–2019 Jammu and Kashmir UT and

Ladakh UT

Kutch in India (1951).svg Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Gujarat
Madhya Bharat in India (1951).svg Madhya Bharat Indore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Madras in India (1951).svg Madras State Madras 1950–1969 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and partially Karnataka and Kerala
Mysore in India (1951).svg Mysore State Bangalore 1947–1973 Karnataka
PEPSU in India (1951).svg Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab and Haryana
Saurashtra in India (1951).svg Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Gujarat
Travancore-Cochin in India (1951).svg Travancore–Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala and partially Tamil Nadu
Vindhya Pradesh in India (1951).svg Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh

Former union territories

MapName Zone CapitalAreaUT establishedUT disestablishedNow part of
IN-AR.svg Arunachal Pradesh North-Eastern Itanagar 83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi)21 January 197220 February 1987As an Indian state
IN-DN.svg Dadra and Nagar Haveli Western Silvassa 491 km2 (190 sq mi)11 August 196126 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
IN-DD.svg Daman and Diu Western Daman 112 km2 (43 sq mi)30 May 198726 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
IN-GDD.svg Goa, Daman and Diu Western Panaji 3,814 km2 (1,473 sq mi)19 December 196130 May 1987 Goa state and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
IN-HP.svg Himachal Pradesh Northern Shimla 55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi)1 November 195625 January 1971As an Indian state
IN-MN.svg Manipur North-Eastern Imphal 22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi)1 November 195621 January 1972As an Indian state
IN-MZ.svg Mizoram North-Eastern Aizawl 21,087 km2 (8,142 sq mi)21 January 197220 February 1987As an Indian state
IN-NL.svg Nagaland North-Eastern Kohima 16,579 km2 (6,401 sq mi)29 November 19571 December 1963As an Indian state
IN-TR.svg Tripura North-Eastern Agartala 10,491.65 km2 (4,050.85 sq mi)1 November 195621 January 1972As an Indian state

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. [63]

See also

Related Research Articles

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