States and union territories of India

Last updated

States and union territories of India
Category Federated states
Location Republic of India
Number28 States
8 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim - 610,577 (lowest); Uttar Pradesh - 199,812,341(highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep - 64,473 (lowest); Delhi - 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa  – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: 32 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep  – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) Ladakh
Government State governments, Union government (Union territories)
Subdivisions Districts, Divisions
Emblem of India.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
India

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

Contents

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. [1]

History

Administrative division of India in 1951 India Administrative Divisions 1951.svg
Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-independence

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [ excessive citations ] During the British Raj, the preceding (Moghul) administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". [13] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:[ citation needed ]

States reorganization (1951–1956)

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé. [14] Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. [15]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. [16] As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.

Post-1956

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. [17] Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963. [18] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. [19] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. [20] [21]

Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972. [22] Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. [23] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. [24]

In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar. [25] [26] [27] [28] Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. [29] [30]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from 31 October 2019. [31]

In November 2019, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, effective from 26 January 2020. [32] [33] [34]

Current proposals

List

States

State ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
code
Zone CapitalLargest cityStatehoodPopulation [35] Area
(km2)
Official
languages [36]
Additional official
languages [36]
Andhra Pradesh IN-APAP Southern Hyderabad (de jure)
Amaravati (de facto) Note 1 [37] [38]
Visakhapatnam 1 October 195349,506,799160,205 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-ARAR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 19871,383,72783,743 English
Assam IN-ASASNorth-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 195031,205,57678,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BR
BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950104,099,45294,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CTCG Central Naya Raipur 1 November 200025,545,198135,194 Hindi
Goa IN-GAGA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 19871,458,5453,702 Konkani English, Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJGJWestern Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 196060,439,692196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HRHR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 196625,351,46244,212 Hindi Punjabi [39] [40]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HPHPNorthern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)
Shimla 25 January 19716,864,60255,673 Hindi English
Jharkhand IN-JHJHEastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 200032,988,13474,677 Hindi Urdu [41]
Karnataka IN-KAKASouthern Bangalore 1 November 195661,095,297191,791 Kannada English
Kerala IN-KLKLSouthern Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1 November 195633,406,06138,863 Malayalam English
Madhya Pradesh IN-MPMPCentral Bhopal Indore 1 November 195672,626,809308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MHMHWestern Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter) [42]
Mumbai 1 May 1960112,374,333307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MNMNNorth-Eastern Imphal 21 January 19722,855,79422,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-MLMLNorth-Eastern Shillong 21 January 19722,966,88922,720 English Khasi [lower-alpha 1]
Mizoram IN-MZMZNorth-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 19871,097,20621,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NLNLNorth-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 19631,978,50216,579 English
Odisha IN-ORODEastern Bhubaneswar 1 April 193641,974,218155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PBPBNorthern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 196627,743,33850,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJRJNorthern Jaipur 1 November 195668,548,437342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SKSKNorth-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975610,5777,096 Nepali, English Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TNTNSouthern Chennai 26 January 195072,147,030130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TGTSSouthern Hyderabad Note 1 2 June 201435,193,978 [43] 114,840 [43] Telugu, Urdu [44]
Tripura IN-TRTRNorth-Eastern Agartala 21 January 19723,673,91710,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UPUPNorthern Lucknow Kanpur 26 January 1950199,812,341243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UTUKNorthern Dehradun Note 2 9 November 200010,086,29253,483 Hindi Sanskrit [45]
West Bengal IN-WBWBEastern Kolkata 26 January 195091,276,11588,752 Bengali, Nepali [lower-alpha 2] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Urdu

Union territories

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle code CapitalLargest cityPopulation [35] Area
(km2)
Official
languages [36]
Additional official
languages [36]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-ANAN Port Blair 380,5818,249 English, Hindi
Chandigarh IN-CHCH Chandigarh [lower-alpha 3] 1,055,450114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DDDD Daman 586,956603 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Konkani Hindi
Delhi IN-DLDL New Delhi [lower-alpha 4] 16,787,9411,490 Hindi Punjabi, Urdu [50]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JKJK Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar 12,258,43355,538 Note 3 Hindi, English Dogri, Kashmiri, Urdu
Ladakh IN-LHLA Leh, Kargil Leh 290,492174,852 Note 4 Ladakhi Balti
Lakshadweep IN-LDLD Kavaratti 64,47332 Malayalam English
Puducherry IN-PYPY Pondicherry 1,247,953492 English, [51] Tamil Malayalam, Telugu

^Note 3 Jammu and Kashmir has 42,241 km2 of area administered by India and 13,297 km2 of area controlled by Pakistan under Azad Kashmir which is claimed by India as part of Jammu and Kashmir.

^Note 4 Ladakh has 59,146 km2 of area administered by India and 72,971 km2 of area controlled by Pakistan under Gilgit-Baltistan, which is claimed by India as part of Ladakh. Additionally, it has 5,180 km2 of area controlled by the People's Republic of China under Trans-Karakoram Tract and 37,555 km2 of area controlled by the People's Republic of China under Aksai Chin, which is claimed by India as part of Ladakh.

Former states

MapStateCapitalYearsSuccessor state(s)
Madhya Bharat in India (1951).svg Madhya Bharat Indore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1947–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Eastern States Union Raipur 1947–1948 Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh
Madras in India (1951).svg Madras State Madras 1950–1969 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
Mysore in India (1951).svg Mysore State Mysore 1947–1973 Karnataka
PEPSU in India (1951).svg Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab
Bombay in India (1951).svg Bombay State Bombay 1947–1960 Maharashtra, Gujarat
Bhopal in India (1951).svg Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Saurashtra in India (1951).svg Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Bombay State
Coorg in India (1951).svg Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Mysore State
Travancore-Cochin in India (1951).svg Travancore-Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala, Madras State
Hyderabad in India (1951).svg Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–1956 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (since 2014) and partially Maharashtra, North Karnataka
Vindhya Pradesh in India (1951).svg Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Kutch in India (1951).svg Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Bombay State
Bilaspur in India (1951).svg Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1948–1954 Himachal Pradesh
Cooch Behar from 1931 Imperial Gazetteer.jpg Cooch Behar State Cooch Behar 1949 West Bengal
Ajmer in India (1951).svg Ajmer State Ajmer 1947–1956 Rajasthan
Jammu and Kashmir in India (de-facto) (claims hatched).svg
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1954–2019 Jammu and Kashmir (union territory) and

Ladakh

See also

Notes

  1. Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  2. Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
  3. Chandigarh is both a city and a union territory.
  4. Delhi is both a city and a union territory.

Related Research Articles

ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.

The administrative divisions of India are subnational administrative units of India; they compose a nested hierarchy of country subdivisions.

Outline of India Overview of and topical guide to India

The following outline is provided as an overview of, and topical guide to, India:

A Union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories governed directly by the central Government of India.

States Reorganisation Act, 1956 Indian act of reformation pertaining to the boundaries of states and territories

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.

Zonal Council States of India that have been grouped into five zones to foster cooperation among them

Zonal Councils are advisory councils and are made up of the states of India that have been grouped into five zones to foster cooperation among them. These were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:

Arunachal Pradesh Mahila Congress is the wing of All India Mahila Congress serving in Arunachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political group

The elected committee that directs the Congress Party in an Indian state is known as Pradesh Mahila Congress (PMC). It is elected by card-holding members of the Congress, the world's largest political organisation, and in turn to elect State Mahila Congress Presidents and delegates to the All India Mahila Congress.

Karnataka Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political party

Karnataka Pradesh Mahila Congress is the unit of the All India Mahila Congress for the state of Karnataka. Its head office is situated at the Congress Bhawan, Queens Road, Bangalore (Bengaluru).

Madhya Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political party

The elected committee that directs the All India Mahila Congress in an Indian state is known as Pradesh Mahila Congress (PMC). It is elected by card-holding members of the Congress, the world's largest political organisation, and in turn to elect State Mahila Congress Presidents and delegates to the All India Mahila Congress.

The Manipur Pradesh Mahila Congress (MPMC) is the unit of the All India Mahila Congress for the state of Manipur, India. Its head office is situated at the Congress Bhawan, B.T. Road, Imphal.

Meghalaya Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political group

The elected committee that directs the All India Mahila Congress in an Indian state is known as Pradesh Mahila Congress (PMC). It is elected by card-holding members of the Congress, the world's largest political organisation, and in turn to elect State Mahila Congress Presidents and delegates to the All India Mahila Congress.

Nagaland Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political group

The NagalandPradesh Mahila Congress (PMC) is the elected committee that directs the All India Mahila Congress in the Indian state of Nagaland. It is elected by members of the Congress, the world's largest political organisation, and in turn elects State Mahila Congress Presidents and delegates to the All India Mahila Congress.

Punjab Pradesh Mahila Congress is the affiliate of the All India Mahila Congress in the state of Punjab. It is headed by Mamta Dutta.

Telangana Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political party

Telangana Pradesh Mahila Congress or TPMC is a state unit of the All India Mahila Congress (AIMC) in the state of Telangana, India.

Tripura Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee Indian political group

The elected committee that directs the All India Mahila Congress in an Indian state is known as Pradesh Mahila Congress (PMC). It is elected by card-holding members of the Congress, the world's largest political organisation, and in turn to elect State Mahila Congress Presidents and delegates to the All India Mahila Congress.

Mumbai Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee The elected committee that directs the Congress Party in an Indian state

The elected committee that directs the Congress Party in an Indian state is known as Pradesh Mahila Congress (PMC). It is elected by card-holding members of the Congress, the world's largest political organisation, and in turn to elect State Mahila Congress Presidents and delegates to the All India Mahila Congress.

The 2019 Santosh Trophy qualifiers was the qualifying round for the 73rd edition of the Santosh Trophy, the premier competition in India for teams representing their regional and state football associations.

The 2019–20 Hero Santosh Trophy qualifiers will be the qualifying round for the 74th edition of the Santosh Trophy, the premier competition in India for teams representing their regional and state football associations.

References

  1. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  2. Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN   978-0-07-048369-9.
  3. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN   978-81-208-0436-4.
  4. Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1.
  5. V.D. Mahajan (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 121, 122. ISBN   978-8121903646.
  6. Antonova, K.A.; Bongard-Levin, G.; Kotovsky, G. (1979). A History of India Volume 1. Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers.
  7. Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
  8. "India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  9. Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN   978-0-19-560686-7.
  10. Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202.
  11. "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  12. Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
  13. "Article 1". Constitution of India. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
  14. "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  15. "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". 28 March 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  16. "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  17. J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90.
  18. "Nagaland History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  19. "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  20. "The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  21. "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  22. "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  23. "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  24. "Goa Chronology". goaonline.in. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  25. "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  26. "Chhattisgarh state – History". Cg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  27. Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  28. "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  29. "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  30. "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  31. "Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill (No. XXIX of) 2019" (PDF). Parliament of India. 5 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  32. Dutta, Amrita Nayak (10 July 2019). "There will be one UT less as Modi govt plans to merge Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu". New Delhi. The Print. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  33. https://www.devdiscourse.com/article/national/754685-govt-plans-to-merge-2-uts----daman-and-diu-dadra-and-nagar-haveli
  34. http://164.100.47.4/BillsTexts/LSBillTexts/Asintroduced/366_2019_LS_Eng.pdf
  35. 1 2 "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011".
  36. 1 2 3 4 "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  37. 1 2 "After 2200 Years, Amaravati Gets Back Power!".
  38. "Data". ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  39. "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. 28 January 2010.
  40. "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". Zee news. 28 January 2010.
  41. "Research data". ierj.in.
  42. Monsoon session to start in Maha’s winter Capital Nagpur from July 4
  43. 1 2 "Telangana State Profile" (PDF). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  44. "Urdu Gets First Language Status".
  45. "Sanskrit: Reviving the language in today's India – Livemint".
  46. "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times of India. 2 June 2014.
  47. "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.[ permanent dead link ]
  48. "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section" (PDF). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  49. Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 June 2014). "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV.
  50. "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  51. "Regional data" (PDF). lawsofindia.org.