Punjab Province (British India)

Last updated

Punjab Province
Province of British India
1849–1947
Arms of British Punjab.jpg
Coat of arms
Punjab 1909.jpg
Map of British Punjab 1909
British Punjab 1909.svg
Capital
History
Government
   Motto Crescat e Fluviis
"Let it grow from the rivers"
Historical eraNew Imperialism
30 March 1849
  Delhi Territory transferred to Punjab from North-Western Provinces
1858
  North-West Frontier Province separated from Punjab
1901
14–15 August 1947
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sikh Empire flag.svg 1849:
Sikh Empire
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg 1858:
North-Western Provinces
1901:
North-West Frontier Province
British Raj Red Ensign.svg
1947:
West Punjab
Flag of Pakistan.svg
East Punjab Flag of India.svg
Today part of

Punjab was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, and was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. It had an area of 358,354.5 km2. The province comprised five administrative divisions, Delhi, Jullundur, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. [1] In 1947, the partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly independent dominions of India and Pakistan respectively.

Contents

Etymology

The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu, [2] the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. [3] The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", and was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests. [4] [5] The later name Punjab is a compound of two Persian words [6] [7] Panj (five) and āb (water) and was introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors [8] of India and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. [9] [10] Punjab literally means "(The Land of) Five Waters" referring to the rivers: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas. [11] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest.

Geography

Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces. [1] In total Punjab had an area of approximately 357 000 km square about the same size as modern day Germany, being one of the largest provinces of the British Raj.

It encompassed the present day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union) and the Pakistani regions of the Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province: the North-West Frontier Province.

History

Company rule

Iln1864leftmax.jpg
Iln1864rightmax.jpg
The Durbar, or assembly of native princes and nobles, convened by Sir John Lawrence at Lahore

On 21 February 1849, the East India Company decisively defeated the Sikh Empire at the Battle of Gujrat bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Following the victory, the East India Company annexed the Punjab on 2 April 1849 and incorporated it within British India. The province whilst nominally under the control of the Bengal Presidency was administratively independent. Lord Dalhousie constituted the Board of Administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers. The Board was led by Sir Henry Lawrence, who had previously worked as British Resident at the Lahore Durbar and also consisted of his younger brother John Lawrence and Charles Grenville Mansel. [12] Below the Board, a group of acclaimed officers collectively known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men" assisted in the administration of the newly acquired province. The Board was abolished by Lord Dalhousie in 1853; Sir Henry was assigned to the Rajputana Agency, and his brother John succeeded as the first Chief Commissioner.

Recognising the cultural diversity of the Punjab, the Board maintained a strict policy of non-interference in regard to religious and cultural matters. [13] Sikh aristocrats were given patronage and pensions and groups in control of historical places of worship were allowed to remain in control. [13]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Punjab remained relatively peaceful. [14] In May, John Lawrence took swift action to disarm potentially mutinous sepoys and redeploy most European troops to the Delhi ridge. [15] Finally he recruited new regiments of Punjabis to replace the depleted force, and was provided with manpower and support from surrounding princely states such as Jind, Patiala, Nabha and Kapurthala and tribal chiefs on the borderlands with Afghanistan. By 1858, an estimated 70,000 extra men had been recruited for the army and militarised police from within the Punjab. [14]

British Raj

The Punjab in 1880 Pope1880Panjab3.jpg
The Punjab in 1880

In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. [16] Delhi Territory was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to the Punjab in 1858, partly to punish the city for the important role the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, and the city as a whole, played in the 1857 Rebellion. [17]

Sir John Lawrence, then Chief Commissioner, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor on 1 January 1859. In 1866, the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court. The direct administrative functions of the Government were carried by the Lieutenant-Governor through the Secretariat, comprising a Chief Secretary, a Secretary and two Under-Secretaries. They were usually members of the Indian Civil Service. [18] The territory under the Lieutenant consisted of 29 Districts, grouped under 5 Divisions, and 43 Princely States. Each District was under a Deputy-Commissioner, who reported to the Commissioner of the Division. Each District was subdivided into between three and seven tehsils, each under a tahsildar, assisted by a naib (deputy) tahsildar. [19]

In 1885 the Punjab administration began an ambitious plan to transform over six million acres of barren waste land in central and western Punjab into irrigable agricultural land. The creation of canal colonies was designed to relieve demographic pressures in the central parts of the province, increase productivity and revenues, and create a loyal support amongst peasant landholders. [20] The colonisation resulted in an agricultural revolution in the province, rapid industrial growth, and the resettlement of over one million Punjabis in the new areas. [21] A number of towns were created or saw significant development in the colonies, such as Lyallpur, Sargodha and Montgomery. Colonisation led to the canal irrigated area of the Punjab increasing from three to fourteen million acres in the period from 1885 to 1947. [22]

The beginning of the twentieth century saw increasing unrest in the Punjab. Conditions in the Chenab colony, together with land reforms such as the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 and the Colonisation Bill, 1906 contributed to the 1907 Punjab unrest. The unrest was unlike any previous agitation in the province as the government had for the first time aggrieved a large portion of the rural population. [23] Mass demonstrations were organised, headed by Lala Lajpat Rai, a leader of the Hindu revivalist sect Arya Samaj. [23] The unrest resulted in the repeal of the Colonisation Bill and the end of paternalist policies in the colonies. [23]

During the First World War, Punjabi manpower contributed heavily to the Indian Army. Out of a total of 683,149 combat troops, 349,688 hailed from the province. [24] In 1918, an influenza epidemic broke out in the province, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 962,937 people or 4.77 percent of the total estimated population. [25] In March 1919 the Rowlatt Act was passed extending emergency measures of detention and incarceration in response to the perceived threat of terrorism from revolutionary nationalist organisations. [26] This led to the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre in April 1919 where the British colonel Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on a group of some 10,000 unarmed protesters and Baisakhi pilgrims. [27]

Administrative reforms

The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms enacted through the Government of India Act 1919 expanded the Punjab Legislative Council and introduced the principle of dyarchy, whereby certain responsibilities such as agriculture, health, education, and local government, were transferred to elected ministers. The first Punjab Legislative Council under the 1919 Act was constituted in 1921, comprising 93 members, seventy per cent to be elected and rest to be nominated. [28] Some of the British Indian ministers under the dyarchy scheme were Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk and Lala Hari Kishen Lal. [29] [30]

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy to Punjab replacing the system of dyarchy. It provided for the constitution of Punjab Legislative Assembly of 175 members presided by a Speaker and an executive government responsible to the Assembly. The Unionist Party under Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan formed the government in 1937. Sir Sikandar was succeeded by Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana in 1942 who remained the Premier till partition in 1947. Although the term of the Assembly was five years, the Assembly continued for about eight years and its last sitting was held on 19 March 1945. [31]

Partition

The struggle for Indian independence witnessed competing and conflicting interests in the Punjab. The landed elites of the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities had loyally collaborated with the British since annexation, supported the Unionist Party and were hostile to the Congress party led independence movement. [32] Amongst the peasantry and urban middle classes, the Hindus were the most active National Congress supporters, the Sikhs flocked to the Akali movement whilst the Muslims eventually supported the Muslim League. [32]

Since the partition of the sub-continent had been decided, special meetings of the Western and Eastern Section of the Legislative Assembly were held on 23 June 1947 to decide whether or not the Province of the Punjab be partitioned. After voting on both sides, partition was decided and the existing Punjab Legislative Assembly was also divided into West Punjab Legislative Assembly and the East Punjab Legislative Assembly. This last Assembly before independence, held its last sitting on 4 July 1947. [33]

Demographics

Population history
YearPop.±%
185517,600,000    
189122,915,894+30.2%
190124,367,113+6.3%
191123,791,841−2.4%
192125,101,514+5.5%
193128,490,869+13.5%
194134,309,861+20.4%
Source: Census of India
[34] :8

The first British census of the Punjab was carried out in 1855. This covered only British territory to the exclusion of local princely states, and placed the population at 17.6 million. The first regular census of British India carried out in 1881 recorded a population of 20.8 million people. The final British census in 1941 recorded 34.3 million people in the Punjab, which comprised 29 districts within British territory, 43 princely states, 52,047 villages and 283 towns. [35]

In 1881, only Amritsar and Lahore had populations over 100,000. The commercial and industrial city of Amritsar (152,000) was slightly larger than the cultural capital of Lahore (149,000). Over the following sixty years, Lahore increased in population fourfold, whilst Amritsar grew two-fold. By 1941, the province had seven cities with populations over 100,000 with emergence and growth of Rawalpindi, Multan, Sialkot, Jullundur and Ludhiana. [35]

The colonial period saw large scale migration within the Punjab due to the creation of canal colonies in western Punjab. The majority of colonists hailed from the seven most densely populated districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jullundur, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Ambala and Sialkot, and consisted primarily of Khatris, Jats, Arains, Sainis, Kambohs and Rajputs. The movement of many highly skilled farmers from eastern and central Punjab to the new colonies, led to western Punjab becoming the most progressive and advanced agricultural region of the province. The period also saw significant numbers of Punjabis emigrate to other regions of the British Empire. The main destinations were East Africa - Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, Southeast Asia - Malaya and Burma, Hong Kong and Canada. [35]

Religion

The Punjab was a religiously eclectic province, comprising three major groups: Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. By 1941, the religious Muslims constituting an absolute majority at 53.2%, whilst the Hindu population was at 29.1%. The period between 1881 and 1941 saw a significant increase in the Sikh and Christian populations, growing from 8.2% and 0.1% to 14.9% and 1.9% respectively. [35] The decrease in the Hindu population has been attributed to the conversion of Hindus mainly to Sikhism and Islam, and also to Christianity. [35]

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of the British India(1881–1941) [35]
Religious
group
Population
% 1881
Population
% 1891
Population
% 1901
Population
% 1911 [lower-alpha 1]
Population
% 1921
Population
% 1931
Population
% 1941
Islam47.6%47.8%49.6%51.1%51.1%52.4%53.2%
Hinduism43.8%43.6%41.3%35.8%35.1%30.2%29.1%
Sikhism8.2%8.2%8.6%12.1%12.4%14.3%14.9%
Christianity0.1%0.2%0.3%0.8%1.3%1.5%1.5%
Other religions / No religion0.3%0.2%0.2%0.2%0.1%1.6%1.3%

Administrative divisions

Districts of Punjab with Muslim (green) and non-Muslim (pink) majorities, as per 1941 census Punjab-religion-2.jpg
Districts of Punjab with Muslim (green) and non-Muslim (pink) majorities, as per 1941 census
Punjab (British India): British Territory and Princely States
DivisionDistricts in British Territory / Princely States
Rawalpindi Division
Lahore Division
Multan Division
Jullundur Division
Delhi Division
Total area, British Territory97,209 square miles
Native States
Total area, Native States36,532 square miles
Total area, Punjab133,741 square miles

Agriculture

Within a few years of its annexation, the Punjab was regarded as British India's model agricultural province. From the 1860s onwards, agricultural prices and land values soared in the Punjab. This stemmed from increasing political security and improvements in infrastructure and communications. New cash crops such as wheat, tobacco, sugar cane and cotton were introduced. By the 1920s the Punjab produced a tenth of India's total cotton crop and a third of its wheat crop. Per capita output of all the crops in the province increased by approximately 45 percent between 1891 and 1921, a growth contrasting to agricultural crises in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa during the period. [36]

The Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute became the first higher educational agricultural institution in the Punjab when established in 1906. Rapid agricultural growth, combined with access to easy credit for landowners, led to a growing crisis of indebtedness. [37] When landowners were unable to pay down their loans, urban based moneylenders took advantage of the law to foreclose debts of mortgaged land. [37] This led to a situation where land increasingly passed to absentee moneylenders who had little connection to the villages were the land was located. The colonial government recognised this as a potential threat to the stability of the province, and a split emerged in the government between paternalists who favoured intervention to ensure order, and those who opposed state intervention in private property relations. [36] The paternalists emerged victorious and the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 prevented urban commercial castes, who were overwhelmingly Hindu, from permanently acquiring land from statutory agriculturalist tribes, who were mainly Muslim and Sikh. [38]

Accompanied by the increasing franchise of the rural population, this interventionist approach led to a long lasting impact on the political landscape of the province. The agricultural lobby remained loyal to the government, and rejected communalism in common defence of its privileges against urban moneylenders. [36] This position was entrenched by the Unionist Party. The Congress Party's opposition to the Act led to it being marginalised in the Punjab, reducing its influence more so than in any other province, and inhibiting its ability to challenge colonial rule locally. The political dominance of the Unionist Party would remain until partition, and significantly it was only on the collapse of its power on the eve of independence from Britain, that communal violence began to spread in rural Punjab. [36]

Army

In the immediate aftermath of annexation, the Sikh Khalsa Army was disbanded, and soldiers were required to surrender their weapons and return to agricultural or other pursuits. [13] The Bengal Army, keen to utilise the highly trained ex-Khalsa army troops began to recruit from the Punjab for Bengal infantry units stationed in the province. However opposition to the recruitment of these soldiers spread and resentment emerged from sepoys of the Bengal Army towards the incursion of Punjabis into their ranks. In 1851, the Punjab Irregular Force also known as the 'Piffars' was raised. Initially they consisted of one garrison and four mule batteries, four regiments of cavalry, eleven of infantry and the Corps of Guides, totalling approximately 13,000 men. [39] The gunners and infantry were mostly Punjabi, many from the Khalsa Army, whilst the cavalry had a considerable Hindustani presence. [39]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, eighteen new regiments were raised from the Punjab which remained loyal to the East India Company throughout the crisis in the Punjab and United Provinces. [40] By June 1858, of the 80,000 native troops in the Bengal Army, 75,000 were Punjabi of which 23,000 were Sikh. [41] In the aftermath of the rebellion, a thorough re-organisation of the army took place. Henceforth recruitment into the British Indian Army was restricted to loyal peoples and provinces. Punjabi Sikhs emerged as a particularly favoured martial race to serve the army. [42] In the midst of The Great Game, and fearful of a Russian invasion of British India, the Punjab was regarded of significant strategic importance as a frontier province. In addition to their loyalty and a belief in their suitability to serve in harsh conditions, Punjabi recruits were favoured as they could be paid at the local service rate, whereas soldiers serving on the frontier from more distant lands had to be paid extra foreign service allowances. [43] By 1875, of the entire Indian army, a third of recruits hailed from the Punjab. [44]

In 1914, three fifths of the Indian army came from the Punjab, despite the region constituting approximately one tenth of the total population of British India. [44] During the First World War, Punjabi Sikhs alone accounted for one quarter of all armed personnel in India. [42] Military service provided access to the wider world, and personnel were deployed across the British Empire from Malaya, the Mediterranean and Africa. [42] Upon completion of their terms of service, these personnel were often amongst the first to seek their fortunes abroad. [42] At the outbreak of the Second World War, 48 percent of the Indian army came from the province. [45] In Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Attock, the percentage of the total male population who enlisted reached fifteen percent. [46] The Punjab continued to be the main supplier of troops throughout the war, contributing 36 percent of the total Indian troops who served in the conflict. [47]

The huge proportion of Punjabis in the army meant that a significant amount of military expenditure went to Punjabis and in turn resulted in an abnormally high level of resource input in the Punjab. [48] It has been suggested that by 1935 if remittances of serving officers were combined with income from military pensions, more than two thirds of Punjab's land revenue could have been paid out of military incomes. [48] Military service further helped reduce the extent of indebtedness across the Province. In Hoshiarpur, a notable source of military personnel, in 1920 thirty percent of proprietors were debt free compared to the region's average of eleven percent. [48] In addition, the benefits of military service and the perception that the government was benevolent towards soldiers, affected the latter's attitudes towards the British. [41] The loyalty of recruited peasantry and the influence of military groups in rural areas across the province limited the reach of the nationalist movement in the province. [41]

Communications and transport

In 1853, the Viceroy Lord Dalhousie issued a minute stressing the military importance of railways across India. [49] In the Punjab however, initially it was strategic commercial interests which drove investment in railways and communications from 1860. [49]

Independent railway companies emerged such as the Scinde, Punjab and Delhi railways to build and operate new lines. In 1862 the first section of railway in the Punjab was constructed between Lahore and Amritsar, and Lahore Junction railway station opened. Lines were opened between Lahore and Multan in 1864, and Amritsar and Delhi in 1870. [49] The Scinde, Punjab and Delhi railways merged to form the Scinde, Punjab & Delhi Railway in 1870, creating a link between Karachi and Lahore via Multan. The Punjab Northern State Railway linked Lahore and Peshawar in 1883. By 1886, the independent railways had amalgamated into North Western State Railway. [49]

The construction of railway lines and the network of railway workshops generated employment opportunities, which in turn led to increased immigration into cantonment towns. [49] As connectivity increased across the province, it facilitated the movement of goods, and increased human interaction. It has been observed that the Ferozpur, Lahore and Amritsar began to develop into one composite cultural triangle due to the ease of connectivity between them. [49] Similarly barriers of spoken dialects eroded over time, and cultural affinities were increasingly fostered. [49]

Education

In 1854, the Punjab education department was instituted with a policy to provide secular education in all government managed institutions. [50] Privately run institutions would only receive grants-in-aid in return for providing secular instruction. [50] By 1864 this had resulted in a situation whereby all grants-in-aid to higher education schools and colleges were received by institutions under European management, and no indigenous owned schools received government help. [50]

In the early 1860s, a number of educational colleges were established, including Lawrence College, Murree, King Edward Medical University, Government College, Lahore, Glancy Medical College and Forman Christian College. In 1882, Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner published a damning report on the state of education in the Punjab. He lamented the failure to reconcile government run schools with traditional indigenous schools, and noted a steady decline in the number of schools across the province since annexation. [51] He noted in particular how Punjabi Muslim's avoided government run schools due to the lack of religious subjects taught in them, observing how at least 120,000 Punjabis attended schools unsupported by the state and describing it as 'a protest by the people against our system of education.' [52] Leitner had long advocated the benefits of oriental scholarship, and the fusion of government education with religious instruction. In January 1865 he had established the Anjuman-i-Punjab, a subscription based association aimed at using a European style of learning to promote useful knowledge, whilst also reviving traditional scholarship in Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit. [53] In 1884, a reorganisation of the Punjab education system occurred, introducing measures tending towards decentralisation of control over education and the promotion of an indigenous education agency. As a consequence several new institutions were encouraged in the province. The Arya Samaj opened a college in Lahore in 1886, the Sikhs opened the Khalsa College whilst the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam stepped in to organise Muslim education. [54] In 1886, the Punjab Chiefs' College, later renamed Aitchison College, was opened to further the education of the elite classes.

Language

In 1837, Persian had been abolished as the official language of Company administration and replaced by local Indian vernacular languages. In the Sikh Empire, Persian continued to be the official state language. [55] Shortly after annexing the Punjab in 1849, the Board of Administration canvassed local officials in each of the provinces's six divisions to decide which language was "best suited for the Courts and Public Business". [56] Officials in the western divisions recommended Persian whilst eastern officials suggested a shift to Urdu. [56] In September 1849 a two language policy was instituted throughout the province. The language policy in the Punjab differed from other Indian provinces in that Urdu was not a widespread local vernacular. In 1849 John Lawrence noted "that Urdu is not the language of these districts and neither is Persian". [56]

In 1854, the Board of Administration abruptly ended the two language policy and Urdu was designated as the official language of government across the province. The decision was motivated by new civil service rules requiring all officials pass a test in the official language of their local court. In fear of potentially losing their jobs, officials in Persian districts petitioned the Board to replace Persian with Urdu, believing Urdu the easier language to master. [57] Urdu remained the official administrative language until 1947.

Officials, although aware that Punjabi was the colloquial language of the majority, instead favoured the use of Urdu for a number of reasons. Criticism of Punjabi included the belief that it was simply a form of patois, lacking any form of standardisation, and that "would be inflexible and barren, and incapable of expressing nice shades of meaning and exact logical ideas with the precision so essential in local proceedings." [57] Similar arguments had earlier been made about Bengali, Oriya and Hindustani, however those languages were later adopted for local administration. Instead it is believed the advantages of Urdu served the administration greater. Urdu, and initially Persian, allowed the Company to recruit experienced administrators from elsewhere in India who did not speak Punjabi, to facilitate greater integration with other Indian territories which were administered with Urdu, and to helped foster ties with local elites who spoke Persian and Urdu and could act as intermediaries with the wider populace. [57]

Government

Early administration

In 1849, a Board of Administration was put in place to govern the newly annexed province. The Board was led by a President and two assistants. Beneath them Commissioners acted as Superintendents of revenue and police and exercised the civil appellate and the original criminal powers of Sessions Judges, whilst Deputy Commissioners were given subordinate civil, criminal and fiscal powers. [58] In 1853, the Board of Administration was abolished, and authority was invested in a single Chief Commissioner. The Government of India Act 1858 led to further restructuring and the office of Lieutenant-Governor replaced that of Chief Commissioner.

Although The Indian Councils Act, 1861 laid the foundation for the establishment of a local legislature in the Punjab, the first legislature was constituted in 1897. It consisted of a body of nominated officials and non-officials and was presided over by the Lieutenant-Governor. The first council lasted for eleven years until 1909. The Morley-Minto Reforms led to an elected members complementing the nominated officials in subsequent councils. [59]

Punjab Legislative Council and Assembly

The Government of India Act 1919 introduced the system of dyarchy across British India and led to the implementation of the first Punjab Legislative Council in 1921. At the same time the office of lieutenant governor was replaced with that of governor. The initial Council had ninety three members, seventy per cent of which were elected and the rest nominated. [59] A president was elected by the Council to preside over the meetings. Between 1921 and 1936, there were four terms of the Council. [59]

CouncilInauguratedDissolvedPresident(s)
First Council8 Jan 192127 Oct 1923 Sir Montagu Butler and Herbert Casson
Second Council2 Jan 192427 Oct 1926Herbert Casson, Sir Abdul Qadir and Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk
Third Council3 Jan 192726 Jul 1930Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk
Fourth Council24 Oct 193010 Nov 1936Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk and Sir Chhotu Ram

In 1935, the Government of India Act 1935 replaced dyarchy with increased provincial autonomy. It introduced direct elections, and enabled elected Indian representatives to form governments in the provincial assemblies. The Punjab Legislative Council was replaced by a Punjab Legislative Assembly, and the role of President with that of a Speaker. Membership of the Assembly was fixed at 175 members, and it was intended to sit for five years. [59]

First Assembly Election

The first election was held in 1937 and was won outright by the Unionist Party. Its leader, Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan was asked by the Governor, Sir Herbert Emerson to form a Ministry and he chose a cabinet consisting of three Muslims, two Hindus and a Sikh. [60] Sir Sikandar died in 1942 and was succeeded as Premier by Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana.

PositionName
Premier Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan
Revenue Minister Sir Sundar Singh Majithia
Development Minister Sir Chhotu Ram
Finance Minister Manohar Lal
Public Works Minister Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana
Education Minister Mian Abdul Haye

Second Assembly Election

The next election was held in 1946. The Muslim League won the most seats, winning 73 out of a total of 175. However a coalition led by the Unionist Party and consisting of the Congress Party and Akali Party were able to secure an overall majority. A campaign of civil disobedience by the Muslim League followed, lasting six weeks, and led to the resignation of Sir Khizar Tiwana and the collapse of the coalition government on 2 March 1947. [61] The Muslim League however were unable to attract the support of other minorities to form a coalition government themselves. [62] Amid this stalemate the Governor Sir Evan Jenkins assumed control of the government and remained in charge until the independence of India and Pakistan. [62]

Coat of arms

Arms of British Punjab Arms of British Punjab.jpg
Arms of British Punjab

Crescat e Fluviis meaning, Let it grow from the rivers was the Latin motto used in the Coat of arms for Punjab Province. As per the book History of the Sikhs written by Khushwant Singh, it means Strength from the Rivers.

See also

Related Research Articles

Punjab Region in South Asia

Punjab is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

Punjab, Pakistan Province of Pakistan

Punjab is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, with a population of about 110,000,000 as of 2021. Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region of Pakistan and India, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Pakistan administered Azad Kashmir. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The capital is Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based. The largest cities of Punjab are Lahore and Faisalabad respectively. Faisalabad is the largest industrial city of Punjab. Punjab is also the world's fifth-most populous subnational entity, and the most populous outside China or India.

Punjabi language Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and Pakistan

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people and native to the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. Punjabi is the 9th most widely spoken language in the world. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan and the 11th most widely spoken language in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. Punjabi is the 3rd most spoken language in England and the fifth most spoken in Canada most-spoken native language. It also has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, the United States, France, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, and the Netherlands.

History of Punjab Regional history

The History of the Punjab refers to the history of the Punjab region, a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Ancient Punjab was the primary geographical extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which was notable for advanced technologies and amenities that the people of the region had used. During the Vedic period, Punjab was referred to as Sapta Sindhu, or the Land of Seven Rivers. Punjab was historically a Hindu region during this period. Intermittent wars between various kingdoms were characteristic of the time, except when they temporarily unified under centralised Indian Empires or invading powers.

The Punjabis or the Punjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent presently divided between Pakistani Punjab and Indian Punjab. They speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The term Punjab means the five waters from Persian: panj ("five") and āb ("waters"). The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent.

West Punjab Former province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955

West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2, including much of the current Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The capital was the city of Lahore and the province was composed of four divisions. The province was bordered by the Indian states of East Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir to the east, the princely state of Bahawalpur to the south, the provinces of Balochistan and Sind to the southwest, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to the northwest, and Azad Kashmir to the northeast.

Malerkotla Place in Punjab, India

Malerkotla is the district headquarters of Malerkotla district in the Indian state of Punjab. It was the seat of the eponymous princely state during the British Raj. The state acceded to the union of India in 1947 and was merged with other nearby princely states to create the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU).

Sikh Empire 1799–1849 empire in the Indian subcontinent

The Sikh Empire, also known as the Punjab Empire was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab. The empire existed from 1799, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849, when it was defeated and conquered in Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls. At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831, it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire.

Majha

Majha is a region located in the central parts of the historical Punjab region split between India and Pakistan. It extends north from the right banks of the river Beas, and reaches as far north as the river Jhelum. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhī", however some people who belong to the this region use Majhail too. Most inhabitants of the region speak the Majhi dialect, which is the basis of the standard register of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border.

Gujranwala District District in Punjab, Pakistan

Gujranwala District, is a district that is a part of the Majha region in Punjab, Pakistan. Gujranwala District is bordered with Districts of Gujrat, Sialkot ,Mandi Bahauddin, Hafizabad and Sheikhupura. Gujranwala district has 6 National Assembly and 14 Punjab Assembly constituencies.

Kasur District District in Punjab, Pakistan

Kasur District or Qasoor District, is a district located in Lahore Division of Punjab, Pakistan. It came into existence on 1 July 1976. Prior to its creation, it was a tehsil of the Lahore District.

Sikhism was coined by Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He was the tenth Guru of the 17 century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Faith practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on 13 April 1699. The latter baptised five Sikh people from different parts of India and had different social backgrounds to form Khalsa (ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ). The first five, Pure Ones, then baptised Gobind Singh ji into the Khalsa fold. This gives the order of Khalsa, a history of around 300 years.

The culture of Punjab encompasses the spoken languages , written literature, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, sacrifices, values and history of the Punjabi people native to the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term 'Punjabi' can mean both a person who lives in Punjab and also a speaker of the Punjabi language. This name originates from the Persian language 'panj', (five), and 'ab', (water). In Rigvedic times, this area was called Sapta Sindhu or 'Seven Rivers' illustrating the extent of Undivided Punjab. Indus River, and the five other rivers to the south eventually join Indus or merge into it later in the downstream of the Punjab valley. All the rivers start and flow out of the Himalayas. These other five rivers are Jhelum River, Chenab River, Ravi River, Beas River and Sutlej River.

Economy of Punjab, India

The economy of Punjab is the 16th largest state economy in India with 5.29 lakh crore (US$70 billion) (FY2020-21) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of US$2,090, ranking 19th amongst Indian states. Punjab ranked first in GDP per capita amongst Indian states in 1981 and fourth in 2001, but has experienced slower growth than the rest of India in recent years, having the second-slowest GDP per capita growth rate of all Indian states and UTs between 2000 and 2010, behind only Manipur. Between 1992 and 2014, Punjab's life expectancy also grew slower than most Indian states; while rising from 69.4 to 71.4 years, Punjab's rank amongst Indian states in life expectancy at birth fell from first to sixth.

Attari Village in Punjab, India

Attari, also spelled Atari, is a village of Amritsar district in the Punjab state of India, 3 km from the Indo-Pakistani border at Wagah. It is situated 25 km west of the Sikh holy city of Amritsar, and is the last Indian station on the rail route connecting Lahore, Pakistan with the Indian capital Delhi. Attari village was the native village of Sardar Sham Singh Attariwala, one of the generals in the Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Punjab, India State in northern India

Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest, by the Indian union territory of Chandigarh to the east, and by Jammu and Kashmir to the north. It is bordered by Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 23 districts. Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs and Hindus as the dominant religious groups. The state capital is Chandigarh, a union territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are the Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum rivers; the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow through the Indian Punjab.

When the All-India Muslim League was founded at Dacca, on 30 December 1906 at the occasion of the annual All India Muhammadan Educational Conference, It was participated by the Muslim leaders from Punjab, i.e., Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi, Mian Fazl-i-Hussain, Abdul Aziz, Khawaja Yusuf Shah and Sh. Ghulam Sadiq. Earlier Mian Muhammad Shafi organised a Muslim Association in early 1906, but when the All-India Muslim League was formed, he established its powerful branch in the Punjab of which he became the general secretary. Shah Din was elected as its first president. This branch, organised in November 1907, was known as the Punjab Provincial Muslim League.

Muhammad Hayat Khan

Nawab Muhammad Hayat Khan Khattar (1833–1901) was an Indian Muslim who served the Government of British India and rose to considerable distinction.

Punjabi Muslims Adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Punjabis

Punjabi Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Punjabis. Primarily geographically native to the Punjab province of Pakistan today, many have ancestry in the entire Punjab region, split between India and Pakistan in the contemporary era. Forming the majority of the Punjabi ethnicity in the greater Punjab region. Punjabi Muslims speak or identify the Punjabi language as a mother tongue. With a population of more than 90 million, they are the largest ethnic group in Pakistan and the world's third-largest Islam-adhering ethnicity after Arabs and Bengalis. The majority of Punjabi Muslims are adherents of Sunni Islam, while a minority adhere to Shia Islam and other sects, including the Ahmadiyya community which originated in Punjab during the British Raj.

Punjabi nationalism

Punjabi nationalism or Punjabiyat is a point of view that asserts that Punjabi speakers are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Punjabis and the diverse ethnic people who inhabit the ethno-linguistic region of the Punjab. Baba Sheikh Farid is considered as the Father of Punjabi nationalism. Baba Bulleh Shah, Waris Shah and Bhai Vir Singh have immense contribution to Punjabi Boli. Punjabiyat or Punjabi nationalism is the name of a cultural and language revitalization movement of the Punjabi language. It also focuses on the political, social and literary movement for preservation of Punjabi literature, Punjabi language and Punjabi culture by unity of Greater Punjab. In Pakistan, the goal of the movement is to stop the state-sponsored suppression of Punjabi in favor of Urdu, while in India the goal is to bring together the Sikh and Punjabi Hindu communities and promote the Punjabi language in regions of Northern India. Supporters in the Punjabi diaspora focus on the promotion of a shared cultural heritage.

References

  1. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Punjab"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 653.
  2. D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir William Meyers Lectures, 1938-39, Asia Educational Services, p. 2.
  3. A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river", Current Science, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891.
  4. Yule, Henry (31 December 2018). "Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu.
  5. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (31 December 2018). "A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary with Transliteration, Accentuation, and Etymological Analysis Throughout". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu.
  6. H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  7. Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1 ("Introduction"). ISBN   978-93-83064-41-0.
  8. Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN   978-0-521-52291-5.
  9. Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. ISBN   978-93-83064-41-0.
  10. Shimmel, Annemarie (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture . London, United Kingdom: Reaktion Books Ltd. ISBN   1-86189-1857.
  11. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., vol.20, Punjab, p.107
  12. J. S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, Volumes 2-3, Cambridge University Press, 8 Oct 1998, p.258
  13. 1 2 3 Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed, A&C Black, 8 Aug 2013, p.77
  14. 1 2 N. Arielli, B. Collins (28 November 2012). Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era. Springer. ISBN   1137296631.
  15. Dalrymple, William (17 August 2009). The Last Mughal: The Fall of Delhi, 1857. A&C Black. ISBN   1408806886.
  16. Hibbert 2000, p. 221
  17. Gupta, Narayani. 1981. Delhi Between Two Empires, 1803-1931. Oxford University Press, p.26
  18. "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 20, page 331 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". uchicago.edu.
  19. "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 20, page 333 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". uchicago.edu.
  20. Imran Ali, THE PUNJAB CANAL COLONIES, 1885-1940, 1979, The Australian National University, Canberra, p34
  21. Ian Talbot, Khizr Tiwana, the Punjab Unionist Party and the Partition of India, Routledge, 16 Dec 2013, p,55
  22. Saiyid, the Muslim Women of the British Punjab, p.4.
  23. 1 2 3 Barrier, N. Gerald. "The Punjab Disturbances of 1907: The Response of the British Government in India to Agrarian Unrest." Modern Asian Studies, vol. 1, no. 4, 1967, pp. 353–383
  24. Tan Tai Yong, "An Imperial Home Front: Punjab and the First World War", The Journal of Military History (2000), p.64
  25. "Influenza in India, 1918." Public Health Reports, vol. 34, no. 42, 1919, pp. 2300–2302
  26. Sarkar 1921 , p. 137
  27. "Punjab". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  28. http://www.pap.gov.pk/uploads/previous_members/S-1921-1923.htm Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
  29. The Working Of Dyarchy In India 1919 1928. D.B.Taraporevala Sons And Company.
  30. http://www.pap.gov.pk/uploads/previous_members/S-1924-1926.htm Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
  31. http://www.pap.gov.pk/uploads/previous_members/S-1937-1945.htm Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
  32. 1 2 Pritam Singh, Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy, Routledge, 19 Feb 2008, p.54
  33. http://www.pap.gov.pk/uploads/previous_members/S-1946-1947.htm Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
  34. "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB" . Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Krishan, Gopal (2004). "Demography of the Punjab (1849–1947)" (PDF). Journal of Punjab Studies. 11 (1): 77–89.
  36. 1 2 3 4 Talbot, Ian A. (2007). "Punjab Under Colonialism: Order and Transformation in British India" (PDF). Journal of Punjab Studies. 14 (1): 3–10.
  37. 1 2 Islam, M. Mufakharul. "The Punjab Land Alienation Act and the Professional Moneylenders." Modern Asian Studies 29, no. 2
  38. Robert W. Stern, Democracy and Dictatorship in South Asia, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, p.53
  39. 1 2 Septimus Smet Thorburn, The Punjab in Peace and War, William Blackwood and Sons (1904), p.293
  40. Harsh V. Pant, Handbook of Indian Defence Policy: Themes, Structures and Doctrines, Routledge, 6 Oct 2015, p.18
  41. 1 2 3 Rajit K. Mazumder, The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, Orient Blackswan, 2003, p.3
  42. 1 2 3 4 Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration - "Darshan Singh Tatla - Sikh free and military migration during the colonial period", Cambridge University Press, 2 Nov 1995, p.69
  43. Ian Talbot, British Rule in the Punjab, page 207
  44. 1 2 Ian Talbot, Punjab and the Raj, 1988, page 41
  45. Kalim Siddiqui, Conflict, Crisis and War in Pakistan, Springer, 18 Jun 1972, p.92
  46. Tan Tai Yong, The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947,, SAGE Publications India, 7 Apr 2005, p.291
  47. Tan Tai Yong, The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947, SAGE Publications India, 7 Apr 2005, p.291
  48. 1 2 3 Rajit K. Mazumder, The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, Orient Blackswan, 2003, p.23
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bhupinder Singh, Amandeep Kaur (2015). Railway Development in Colonial Punjab: Social and Cultural Assimilation, Vol. 3, Issue 1. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. pp. (80–84).
  50. 1 2 3 Robert Ivermee, Secularism, Islam and Education in India, 1830–1910, Routledge, 28 Jul 2015, p.96
  51. Gottlieb William Leitner, History of indigenous education in the Punjab since annexation and in 1882, Republican Books, 1882
  52. Robert Ivermee, Secularism, Islam and Education in India, 1830–1910, Routledge, 28 Jul 2015, p.97
  53. Robert Ivermee, Secularism, Islam and Education in India, 1830–1910, Routledge, 28 Jul 2015, p.91
  54. Robert Ivermee, Secularism, Islam and Education in India, 1830–1910, Routledge, 28 Jul 2015, p.105
  55. Goud and Mookherjee, R. Sidda and Manisha (20 April 2014). India and Iran in Contemporary Relations. Allied Publishers. p. 64. ISBN   8184249098.
  56. 1 2 3 Mir, Farina (2010). The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab. University of California Press. pp. 35–50. ISBN   0520262697.
  57. 1 2 3 Mir, Farina (2010). The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab. University of California Press. pp. 37–50. ISBN   0520262697.
  58. Panjab Administration Report, p.24
  59. 1 2 3 4 The Punjab Parliamentarians 1897-213, Provincial Assembly of the Punjab, Lahore - Pakistan, 2015
  60. Bakhshish Singh Nijjar, History of the United Panjab, Volume 3, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 1 Jan 1996, p.159
  61. David P Forsythe, Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 1, OUP USA, 27 Aug 2009, p.49
  62. 1 2 Lionel Knight, Britain in India, 1858–1947, Anthem Press, 1 Nov 2012, p.154
  1. Delhi district is made into a separate territory