Punjabi language

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Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پن٘جابی
Punjabi gurmukhi shahmukhi.png
'Punjabi' written in Shahmukhi used in Punjab, Pakistan (top) and Gurmukhi used in Punjab, India (bottom) scripts
Pronunciation
Native to India, Pakistan
Region Punjab
Ethnicity Punjabis
Native speakers
125 million (2011–2015) [1]
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Flag of India.svg  India
Regulated by Department of Languages, Punjab, India [7]
Punjab Institute of Language, Art, and Culture - Pakistan
Language codes
ISO 639-1 pa
ISO 639-2 pan
ISO 639-3 Either:
pan   Panjabi
pnb   Western Panjabi
Glottolog panj1256  Eastern Panjabi [8]
west2386  Western Panjabi [9]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-e
Punjabispeakers.png
Areas of the Indian Subcontinent where Punjabi is natively spoken
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, Shahmukhi: پن٘جابی /pʌnˈɑːbi/ ; [10] Punjabi pronunciation:  [pənˈdʒaːbːi] ; sometimes spelled Panjabi) is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 125 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region of Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Contents

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, [11] the 11th most widely spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third most spoken language in the United Kingdom after the native British languages and Polish. [12] It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese. It is the twenty-sixth most spoken language in the United States, and tenth in Australia. [13]

Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone; [14] [15] [16] see § Tone below for examples. Gurmukhi is the official script for the language in Punjab, India while Shahmukhi is used in Punjab, Pakistan; other national and local scripts have also been in use historically and currently, as discussed in § Writing systems.

History

Etymology

The word Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for 'Five Waters', referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors [17] of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means 'Land of the Five Rivers'. [18] [19]

Panj is cognate with Sanskrit pañca (पञ्च), Greek pénte (πέντε), and Lithuanian Penki, all of which meaning 'five'; āb is cognate with Sanskrit áp (अप्) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.

Origin

Tilla Jogian, district Jehlum, Punjab, Pakistan a hilltop associated with many Nath jogis (considered among compilers of earlier Punjabi works) Tilla Jogian.jpg
Tilla Jogian, district Jehlum, Punjab, Pakistan a hilltop associated with many Nath jogis (considered among compilers of earlier Punjabi works)

Punjabi developed from Prakrit languages and later Apabhraṃśa (Sanskrit : अपभ्रंश, 'corruption' or 'corrupted speech') [20] From 600 BC, Sanskrit was advocated as official language and Prakrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: प्राकृत, prākṛta) collectively. Paishachi Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Paishachi Prakrit gave rise to Paishachi Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. [21] Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century.

Arabic and Persian influence on Punjabi

The Arabic and modern-Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. [22] Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi. [23] [24] So Punjabi relies heavily on Persian and Arabic words which are used with a liberal approach to language. Most important words in Punjabi, like ਅਰਦਾਸ and ਰਹਿਰਾਸ, and common words, like ਨਹਿਰ, ਜ਼ਮੀਨ, ਗਜ਼ਲ, etc., have all come out of Persian.

In fact, the sounds of ਜ਼, ਖ਼, ਸ਼, and ਫ਼ have been borrowed from Persian. Later, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese (words like ਅਲਮਾਰੀ), Greek (words like ਦਾਮ), Chagatai (words like ਕੈਂਚੀ, ਸੁਗਾਤ), Japanese (words like ਰਿਕਸ਼ਾ), Chinese (words like ਚਾਹ, ਲੀਚੀ, ਲੁਕਾਠ) and English (words like ਜੱਜ, ਅਪੀਲ, ਮਾਸਟਰ), though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. [25]

English Gurmukhi-based (Punjab, India) Shahmukhi-based (Punjab, Pakistan)
Presidentਰਾਸ਼ਟਰਪਤੀ (rāshtarpatī)صدرمملکت (sadar-e mumlikat)
Articleਲੇਖ (lēkh)مضمون (mazmūn)
Prime Ministerਪਰਧਾਨ ਮੰਤਰੀ (pardhān mantarī)*وزیراعظم (wazīr-e aʿzam)
Familyਪਰਿਵਾਰ (parivār)*
ਟੱਬਰ (ṭabbar)
ਲਾਣਾ (lāṇā)
خاندان (kḥāndān)
ٹبّر (ṭabbar)
Philosophyਫ਼ਲਸਫ਼ਾ (falsafā)
ਦਰਸ਼ਨ (darshan)
فلسفہ (falsafā)
Capital (seat of government)ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ (rājdhānī)دارالحکومت (dārul hakūmat)
Viewerਦਰਸ਼ਕ (darshak)ناظرین (nāzarīn)
Listenerਸਰੋਤਾ (sarotā)سامع (sāma')

Note: In more formal contexts, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words (ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ pradhān for ਪਰਧਾਨ pardhān and ਪਰਿਵਾਰ parivār for ਪਰਵਾਰ parvār) may be used.

Modern times

Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Delhi to Islamabad. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in India and Pakistan for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists of several eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Tarn Taran districts. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar.

In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Latin scripts due to influence from English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.

In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu does.

Geographic distribution

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries.

Pakistan

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 44% of its population. It is the provincial language in the Punjab Province.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan [26]
YearPopulation of PakistanPercentagePunjabi speakers
195133,740,16757.08%22,632,905
196142,880,37856.39%28,468,282
197265,309,34056.11%43,176,004
198184,253,64448.17%40,584,980
1998132,352,27944.15%58,433,431
2017207,774,52038.78%80,574,958

Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which explains the apparent decrease.

India

"Jallianwala Bagh" written in Hindi, Punjabi, and English in Amritsar, India. Jalianwalabag.JPG
"Jallianwala Bagh" written in Hindi, Punjabi, and English in Amritsar, India.

Punjabi is spoken as a native language by about 33 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab. It is additional official in Haryana and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Ambala, Patiala, Bathinda, Hoshiarpur and Delhi.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in India [27]
YearPopulation of IndiaPunjabi speakers in IndiaPercentage
1971548,159,65214,108,4432.57%
1981665,287,84919,611,1992.95%
1991838,583,98823,378,7442.79%
20011,028,610,32829,102,4772.83%
20111,210,193,42233,124,7262.74%

Punjabi diaspora

Signs in Punjabi (along with English and Chinese) of New Democratic Party of British Columbia, Canada during 2009 elections BCNDP SIGNS.jpg
Signs in Punjabi (along with English and Chinese) of New Democratic Party of British Columbia, Canada during 2009 elections

Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language. [28] There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008, [29] 33 million in India in 2011, [30] 0.7 million in Canada in 2016, [31] 0.3 million in the United States [32] and smaller numbers in other countries.

Major dialects

Majhi (Standard Punjabi)

The Majhi dialect spoken around Amritsar and Lahore is Punjabi's prestige dialect. Majhi is spoken in the heart of Punjab in the region of Majha, which spans Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Kasur, Tarn Taran, Faisalabad, Nankana Sahib, Pathankot, Okara, Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Narowal, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Gujranwala,Gujrat and Mandi Bahauddin districts. Punjabi official language based on the Majhi.

Majhi retains the nasal consonants /ŋ/ and /ɲ/, which have been superseded elsewhere by non-nasals /ɡ/ and /d͡ʒ/ respectively. [33]

Shahpuri

Shahpuri dialect (also known as Sargodha dialect) is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District (now Shahpur Tehsil, being part of Sargodha District). It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Indus River to Chenab river crossing Jhelum river. [34]

Malwai

Malwai is spoken in the southern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Pakistan. Main areas are faridkot, Barnala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Ambala, Bathinda, Mansa, Sangrur, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga. Malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Panchkula etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name.

Doabi

Doabi is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to post-1947 migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken in include the Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki, as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad districts in Pakistan Punjab where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi.

Puadhi

Puadh is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Puadhi. The Puadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Puadh. The Puadhi dialect is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are areas where Puadhi is spoken and the dialect area also includes Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar area in Fatehabad district.

Jatki/Jangli/Rachnavi

Jatki or Jangli is a dialect of native tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with Bar derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar. Native people called their dialect as Jatki instead of Jangli.

Jatki dialect is mostly spoken by Indigenous peoples of Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, Chiniot, Nankana Sahib, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Okara, Pakpattan, Bahawalnagar, Vehari, and Khanewal districts of Pakistani Punjab. It is also spoken in few areas of Sheikhupura, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran' Bahawalpur, and Fazilka districts of Indian Punjab.

Jhangochi/Jhangvi

Jhangochi, spoken in Khanewal and Jhang districts, is a subdialect of Jatki/Jangli. The word Jhangochi has limitations as it doesn't represent whole bar region of Punjab.

Chenavari

West of Chenab River in Jhang District of Pakistani Punjab, the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari, which derives its name from the river.

Phonology

While a vowel length distinction between short and long vowels exists, reflected in modern Gurmukhi orthographical conventions, it is secondary to the vowel quality contrast between centralised vowels /ɪ ə ʊ/ and peripheral vowels /iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː/ in terms of phonetic significance. [35]

Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close اِیاُو
Near-close ɪاِʊاُ
Close-mid اےاو
Mid əاَ
Open-mid ɛːاَےɔːاَو
Open آ

The peripheral vowels have nasal analogues. [36]

Consonants
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m م n ن ɳ ݨ ɲ ن ŋ ن٘
Stop/
Affricate
tenuis p پ t ت ʈ ٹ t͡ʃ چ k ک
aspirated پھ تھ ʈʰ ٹھ t͡ʃʰ چھ کھ
voiced b ب d د ɖ ڈ d͡ʒ ج ɡ گ
Fricative voiceless( f ਫ਼ف) s س ʃ ਸ਼ش( x ਖ਼خ)
voiced( z ਜ਼ز)( ɣ ਗ਼غ) ɦ ہ
Rhotic ɾ ~ r ر ɽ ڑ
Approximant ʋ و l ل ɭ ਲ਼ لؕ [37] j ی

The three retroflex consonants /ɳ ɽ ɭ/ do not occur initially, and the nasals /ŋ ɲ/ occur only as allophones of /n/ in clusters with velars and palatals. The well-established phoneme /ʃ/ may be realised allophonically as the voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in learned clusters with retroflexes. The phonemic status of the fricatives /f z x ɣ/ varies with familiarity with Hindustani norms, with the pairs /f pʰ/, /z d͡ʒ/, /x kʰ/, and /ɣ g/ systematically distinguished in educated speech. [38] The retroflex lateral is most commonly analysed as an approximant as opposed to a flap. [39] [40] [41]

Tone

Punjabi is a tonal language and in many words there is a choice of up to three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level (neutral): [42] [43] [44]

GurmukhiShahmukhiTransliterationToneMeaning
ਘਰگھرkàrhigh-fallinghouse
ਕਰ੍ਹکرھkárlow-risingdandruff
ਕਰکرkarleveldo
ਘੋੜਾگھوڑاkòṛāhigh-fallinghorse
ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾکوڑھاkóṛālow-risingleper
ਕੋੜਾکوڑاkōṛālevelwhip

Level tone is found in about 75% of words and is described by some as absence of tone. [42] There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. (Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.) [42] However, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in the United States found no evidence of a separate falling tone following a medial consonant. [45]

Some Punjabi distinct tones for gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh

It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants (gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh) lost their aspiration. At the beginning of a word they became voiceless unaspirated consonants (k, c, ṭ, t, p) followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (g, j, ḍ, d, b), preceded by a low-rising tone. (The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.) [44]

The presence of an [h] (although the [h] is now silent or very weakly pronounced except word-initially) word-finally (and sometimes medially) also often causes a rising tone before it, for example cá(h) "tea". [46]

The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time. [44]

Some other languages in Pakistan have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski, Gujari, Hindko, Kalami, Shina, and Torwali. [47]

Grammar

The 35 traditional characters of the Gurmukhi script Punjabi Alphabet.jpg
The 35 traditional characters of the Gurmukhi script

Punjabi has a canonical word order of SOV (subject–object–verb). [48] It has postpositions rather than prepositions. [49]

Punjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and five cases of direct, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative/instrumental. The ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is usually confined to set adverbial expressions. [50]

Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. [51] There is also a T-V distinction. Upon the inflectional case is built a system of particles known as postpositions, which parallel English's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical base. [52]

The grammar of the Punjabi language concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language.

Writing systems

Gurmukhi writing system on a sample logo Wiki Loves Women South Asia Logo-pa.png
Gurmukhi writing system on a sample logo

The Punjabi language is written in multiple scripts (a phenomenon known as synchronic digraphia). Each of the major scripts currently in use is typically associated with a particular religious group, [53] [54] although the association is not absolute or exclusive. [55] In India, Punjabi Sikhs use Gurmukhi, a script of the Brahmic family, which has official status in the state of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi Muslims use Shahmukhi, a variant of the Perso-Arabic script and closely related to the Urdu alphabet. The Punjabi Hindus in India had a preference for Devanagari, another Brahmic script also used for Hindi, and in the first decades since independence raised objections to the uniform adoption of Gurmukhi in the state of Punjab, [56] but most have now switched to Gurmukhi [57] and so the use of Devanagari is rare. [58]

Historically, various local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā and its descendants were also in use. [58] [59]

The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired.

Sample text

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore.

Gurmukhi

ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ। ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਰਾਵੀ ਦਰਿਆ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ 'ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ|

 

Shahmukhi

لہور پاکستانی پن٘جاب دا دارالحکومت ہے۔ لوک گݨتی دے نالؕ کراچی توں بعد لہور دوجا سبھ توں وڈا شہر ہے۔ لہور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی اتے پڑھائی دا گڑھ ہے اتے، اسے لئی ایہ نوں پاکستان دا دل وی کیہا جاندا اے۔ لہور راوی دریا دے کنڈھے تے وسدا اے۔ اسدی لوک گݨتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے۔

 

Transliteration

lahaur pākistānī panjāb dī rājtā̀ni/dārul hakūmat ài. lok giṇtī de nāḷ karācī tõ bāad lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. lahaur pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī ate paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te ise laī ínū̃ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. lahaur rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài.

 

IPA

[ləɔːɾᵊ paːkɪstaːniː pənd͡ʒaːbᵊ diː ɾaːd͡ʒᵊtàːni: / daːɾəl hʊkuːmət ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lo:kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊtiː de naːlᵊ kəɾaːt͡ʃiː tõ: baːədᵊ ləɦɔːɾᵊ duːd͡ʒaː sə́bᵊ tõ: ʋəɖːaː ʃəɦɪɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ ləɔːɾᵊ paːkɪstaːnᵊ daː sɪaːsiː | ɾə́ɦtəliː əte: pəɽàːiː daː ɡə́ɽ ɦɛ̀ː əte: ɪse: ləiː ɪ́ɦnū̃ paːkɪstaːnᵊ daː dɪlᵊ ʋiː kɪɦaː d͡ʒa:ndaː ɛ̀ː ‖ ləɔːɾᵊ ɾaːʋiː dəɾɪa: de: kə́ɳɖe: te: ʋəsᵊdaː ɛ̀ː ‖ ɪsᵊdiː lo:kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊtiː ɪkːᵊ kəɾo:ɽᵊ de: ne:ɽe: ɛ̀ː ‖]

 

Translation

Lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.

Literature development

Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh period

Varan Gyan Ratnavali by 16th-century historian Bhai Gurdas. Varan Gyan Ratnavali.jpg
Varan Gyan Ratnavali by 16th-century historian Bhai Gurdas.

The Janamsakhis , stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.

British Raj era and post-independence period

Ghadar di Gunj 1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party. Ghadar di gunj.jpg
Ghadar di Gunj 1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party.

The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh (1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi Abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.

Status

Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognised as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Urdu in its administration of North-Central and Northwestern India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali language was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language.

In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan after Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The only two official national languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English, which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan.

In Pakistan

When Pakistan was created in 1947, although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. [63] However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh.

Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces). [64] Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department. [65] [66]

In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province (centred on the Lahore area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language. [67] [68]

The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language [69] [70] [71] In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer’s Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level. [72] [73] In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province. [74] [75] Additionally, several thousand Punjabis gather in Lahore every year on International Mother Language Day. Thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals also demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres. [76] [77] [78]

In India

At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution, [79] earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the 1950s. [80] At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana and Delhi. [81] In 2012, it was also made additional official language of West Bengal in areas where the population exceeds 10% of a particular block, sub-division or district. [6]

Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab. [82] Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana, [83] and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education.[ dubious ]

There are vibrant Punjabi language movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces. [84] Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, where the Punjabi language is officially admitted in all necessary social functions, while in Pakistan it is used only in a few radio and TV programs, attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighbouring Pakistan. [79] :37 There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana and Delhi. [85] [86] [87]

Advocacy

Governmental academies and institutes

The Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana, established in 1954 [93] [94] is supported by the Punjab state government and works exclusively for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in Delhi. [95] The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature [96] in Jammu and Kashmir UT, India works for Punjabi and other regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighbouring states [97] as well as in Lahore, Pakistan [98] also advocate for the language.

Software

See also

Related Research Articles

Gurmukhi Script used to write Punjabi language

Gurmukhī is an abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts, standardized and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552). Commonly regarded as a Sikh script, Gurmukhi is used in Punjab, India as the official script of the Punjabi language.

Punjab Region in South Asia

Punjab is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

Punjab, Pakistan Province of Pakistan

Punjab is Pakistan's most populous province, with a population of about 110,012,442 as of 2017. Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The capital is Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based. Punjab is also the world's fifth-most populous subnational entity, and the most populous outside China or India.

Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu. Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.

Saraiki language

Saraiki is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan. It was previously known as Multani, after its main dialect.

Shahmukhi alphabet Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write the Punjabi language

Shahmukhi is a modified Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Punjabi Muslims to write the Punjabi language. It is generally written in the Nastaʿlīq calligraphic hand, which is also used for Urdu. Perso-Arabic is one of two scripts used for Punjabi, the other being Gurmukhi, used by Sikhs in Punjab, India.

The Punjabis or the Punjabi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent presently divided between Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. They speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The name Punjab literally means the land of five waters in Persian: panj ("five") āb ("waters"). The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent. The Punjabis are the 7th largest ethnic group in the world by total population.

West Punjab

West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2, including much of the current Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The capital was the city of Lahore and the province was composed of four divisions. The province was bordered by the Indian states of East Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir to the east, the princely state of Bahawalpur to the south, the provinces of Balochistan and Sind to the southwest, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to the northwest, and Azad Kashmir to the northeast.

Hindi–Urdu controversy

The Hindi–Urdu controversy arose in 19th century colonial India out of the debate over whether the Hindi or Urdu languages should be chosen as a national language.

Sant Bhasha is a language composed of vocabulary common to northern Indian languages, which was extensively used by saints and poets to compose religious verses. It can be understood by readers with a background in either Punjabi, Hindi or Urdu.

The culture of Punjab encompasses the spoken language, written literature, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions,sacrifices, values and history of the Punjabi people native to the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term 'Punjabi' can mean both a person who lives in Punjab and also a speaker of the Punjabi language. This name originates from the Persian language 'panj', (five), and 'ab', (water). In Rigvedic times, this area was called Sapta Sindhu or 'Seven Rivers' illustrating the extent of Undivided Punjab. Indus River, and the five other rivers to the south eventually join Indus or merge into it later in the downstream of the Punjab valley. All the rivers start and flow out of the Himalayas. These other five rivers are Jhelum River, Chenab River, Ravi River, Beas River and Sutlej River.

Puadh

Puadh is a historic region in north India that comprises parts of present-day Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and the U.T. of Chandigarh, India. It has the Sutlej river in its north and covers the regions immediately south of the Ghaggar river. The people of the area are known as Puadhi and speak the Puadhi dialect of Punjabi.

Punjabi literature, specifically literary works written in the Punjabi language, is characteristic of the historical Punjab of India and Pakistan and the Punjabi diaspora. The Punjabi language is written in several scripts, of which the Shahmukhi and Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used in Pakistan and India, respectively.

The Punjabi dialects and languages are a series of dialects and languages spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India with varying degrees of official recognition. They have sometimes been referred to as Greater Punjabi.

<i>Khalsa Akhbar Lahore</i>

The Khalsa Akhbar, Lahore, was a weekly newspaper and the organ of the Lahore Khalsa Diwan, a Sikh society. Published from Lahore in the Punjabi language, the newspaper was established in 1886 and functioned sporadically till 1905. Founded by Bhai Gurmukh Singh, a professor of Punjabi at the Oriental College, Lahore, who also established the Khalsa Press in Lahore, the paper was taken over by Giani Ditt Singh, a scholar and a poet.

Gurpreet Singh Lehal Indian academic

Dr Gurpreet Singh Lehal is a professor in the Computer Science Department, Punjabi University, Patiala and Director of the Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language Literature and Culture. He is noted for his work in the application of computer technology in the use of the Punjabi language both in the Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi script.

Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, the national and official language of Pakistan. Both languages are standard registers of the Hindustani. As a result of linguistic and cultural similarities, Hindi has had notable influences in Pakistan and is taught as an academic subject in some institutions; before the partition of colonial India, Hindi was taught at major universities in the provinces that came to form Pakistan. Hindi uses more words closer to Sanskrit while Urdu incorporates more Arabic, Persian, and Turkish words. Most shairo shairy, ghazals, qawalis & lyrics use Urdu words.

Punjabi nationalism

This article refers to the ideology that asserts Punjabi cultural solidarity. For the militant separatist movement aimed at creating an independent Sikh country, see Khalistan.

The Lehran, also referred to as Monthly Lehran, is a Pakistan-based magazine published monthly from Lahore in Shahmukhi Punjabi, with Gurmukhi transliterations. It is a literary magazine—of particular interest to university students—started by Syed Akhtar Hussein Akhtar, a Punjabi Language Movement activist, in March 1965 and is associated with the Modern Punjabi College in Old Anarkali.

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Sources

Further reading