List of floods

Last updated

The following is a list of major floods.

Contents

List of floods by year

14th century

15th century

16th century

17th century

18th century

19th century

20th century

1910s

  • In 1910, large areas of Paris were flooded when the river burst its banks.
  • In 1920, The Great Flood of Tokyo, when 3700 houses, were swept away, 2200, partially destroyed and nearly 400,000 damaged.
  • The Great Flood of 1913, which included the Great Dayton Flood, killed 650 people and destroyed 20,000 homes in the United States. It also damaged historic photographic plates belonging to Wilbur and Orville Wright. It ended canal transportation in Ohio.
  • The 1916 Clermont, Queensland flood was the worst flood in Clermont history.
  • The Hatfield Flood of San Diego, United States, of 1916 destroyed the Lower Otay Dam, [5] damaged the Sweetwater Dam, [6] and caused 22 deaths and $4.5 million in damages.

1920s

1930s

  • The 1931 Yellow River flood caused between 800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths in China, one of a series of disastrous floods on the Yellow River. It was one of the worst floods in history.
  • The Ohio River flood of 1937 occurred in late January and February 1937, causing damage along the Ohio River and several smaller tributaries from Pittsburgh, Illinois, to Cairo, Illinois. This flood left close to one million people homeless, 385 dead, and $50,000,000 worth of damage.
  • The Los Angeles flood of 1938 occurred from late February to early March 1938, causing the Los Angeles River and the Santa Ana River to overflow, causing $40,000,000 worth of damage and causing 115 lives to be lost.
  • The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy seasonal raining caused landsides at Rokko mountains.

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

  • On the night of 9 June 1972 the people of Rapid City, South Dakota in the United States were struck by a deadly flood that lasted two days. It took 238 lives and caused millions of dollars in damage.
  • In 1974, the dying cyclone Wanda triggered major flooding in Brisbane, Australia killing 6 people and leaving hundreds homeless.
  • In 2 July 1975, many areas of Romanian Cuverture Charpatinas (e.g. Buzau, Prahova County), were struck by major flooding.
  • In August 1975, the Banqiao Dam in China breaks apart under excess rainfall and damage from Typhoon Nina, drowning about 26,000 and caused the lives of another 140,000 in resulting epidemics.

1980s

  • During the 1980s, the Great Salt Lake reached record high water levels due to a large amount of rain and its lack of an outlet. Places such as Saltair were inundated.
  • The South African town of Laingsburg was basically destroyed on 25 January 1981, when 104 of its 900 inhabitants died during a flood that swept through the town and left only about 25 houses standing
  • In 1982, the river Jucar in Spain breaks the Tous Reservoir, flooding the surrounding land in a deluge of 16,000 m3/s of water, and killing 30 people.
  • In the winter of 1983, the Pacific Northwest of the United States saw one of the worst floods on record for that region, and some states recorded their wettest winter ever. Damage estimates are as high as $1.1 billion.

1990–2000

1992–3
  • January 1992 saw severe floods in South America, most notably Brazil.
  • In Alaska, United States, from May to September 1992 it was unusually wet, causing the 100 year flood. Snow melt only made the floods worse.
  • The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most destructive floods in United States history.
  • March 1993 the "No Name" storm, silently brought major flooding to Citrus County, Florida.
  • The summer of 1993 was unusually wet for the United States, causing flooding in the southwest.
  • The 1993 India floods was one of the deadliest floods in the history of India.
1994–5
  • 1994 South Georgina floods
  • On 8 May 1995, severe floods caused extensive damage in Louisiana, United States.
1996–7
  • A dying typhoon hit Kyushu, Japan, in September 1996, causing severe floods in that region.
  • July 1996 saw severe floods in Central Honshū, Japan.
  • In August 1996, 86 people died due to a flood in Las Nieves camping, in Biescas, Spain. [9] [10]
  • 1997 Central European flood, the worst flood in Polish history hits the country in July 1997, killing 65 and causing extensive damage to Wroclaw and Opole.
  • The Red River Flood of 1997 (also called the Red River of the North Flood of 1997 in the United States) occurred in April and May 1997 along the Red River of the North in North Dakota, Minnesota (United States) and Manitoba. It was the most severe flooding of the river since 1826, causing so much water or camping down (?) water or not draining it all.
1998–2000
  • Bangladesh was flooded in 1998, with millions of people affected and hundreds killed.
  • The 1999 Pentecost flood (German : Pfingsthochwasser) was a 100-year flood around the Pentecost season in 1999 that mostly affected Bavaria, Vorarlberg and Tirol. It was caused by heavy rainfall coinciding with the regular Alpine meltwater. These were caused because of the low-lying area and they are replacing concrete with soil which affects the flow of water and can cause flash flooding.
  • The 2000 Mozambique flood, caused by heavy rains followed by a cyclone, covered much of the country for three weeks, killing thousands, leaving the country devastated for years afterwards.

21st century

2000s

2001

2002–3
2004–5
2006–7
  • Korea (both North Korea and South Korea) saw one of its worst floods ever in May 2006.
  • The Mid-Atlantic States flood of 2006 in the eastern United States is considered to be the worst in that region since the flooding caused by Hurricane David in 1979.
  • Ethiopia saw one of its worst floods ever in August 2006.
  • Surat a 5 million populated city of India witnessed huge flood in its history during 4 to 10 August 2006. 10 lac cusec water discharge for 30 hours from Ukai dam flooded city. 1 Lac evacuated on first day, many human and animal lost their lives.
  • Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Sabah suffered floods between December 2006 and January 2007. It killed hundreds and forced 100,000 people to be evacuated in Johor alone. Floods hit the country's capital Kuala Lumpur in January 2007, killing 80. It was the worst flood in Malaysia for over 100 years.
  • The 2007 Hunter Floods inundated large areas of the cities of Maitland and Newcastle in Australia in June 2007, claimed 11 lives and forced the evacuation of 4,000 people in Central Maitland.
  • Between late May 2007 and early August 2007, severe flash floods hit most of the United Kingdom, with the most affected area in the country being Yorkshire. The city of Sheffield (in Yorkshire) was the worst affected city in the country, a month's worth of rain fell on the city in just 18 hours on 25 June 2007, bursting the banks of the River Don in that city. There were also fears that the Ulley Reservoir in Sheffield would fail, if it did it would have killed hundreds. 6 people were killed across the country.
  • The 2007 Africa Floods was one of the worst and most destructive floods in recorded history on the continent of Africa with 14 countries affected.
  • In November 2007, Cyclone Guba, a slow moving storm caused deadly flooding in Papua New Guinea.
  • The 2008 Indian floods affected several states in India between July 2008 and September 2008 during an unusually wet monsoon season. The floods caused severe damage, and killed an estimated 2404 people.
2008–9
2010
2011
2012
  • In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing.
  • In 2012 Great Britain and Ireland floods caused many floods in the United Kingdom, in April floods and gales hit most of England causing flooding and power outages, on 28 June 2012 there were two severe supercell thunderstorms which traveled across the West Midlands causing flash flooding, on 6 July 2012 heavy rainfall brought floods to the South West of England with the Met Office issuing red rain warnings, flooding later returned to the UK on 23 November 2012, as heavy persistent rainfall fell in South West England which caused rivers to burst their banks, the rain later pushed into the Midlands overnight causing more flooding, on 26 November 2012 another band of rain pushed into South West England, The Environment Agency issued three severe flood warnings for the South West England and 90 flood warnings, the following day the Environment Agency issued 110 flood warning for the Midlands, most of which were for the River Avon and the River Severn
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020

Floods by region

Africa

Asia

East Asia

China
Fighting the 1954 Yangtze Flood, as depicted on a monument in Wuhan Wuhan-Flood-Memorial-0226.jpg
Fighting the 1954 Yangtze Flood, as depicted on a monument in Wuhan
Hong Kong
Japan
Picture show at heavy rain, following flood in Shira River, Kumamoto, Kyushu, July 2012 Sirakawa zosui.jpg
Picture show at heavy rain, following flood in Shira River, Kumamoto, Kyushu, July 2012
  • In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing. Later in August incessant rains and storm caused floods in Kinki region, causing one casualty.
  • In July 1996 a flood hit Central Honshū and 48 people died.
  • On 21 September 1996, a typhoon hit Kyushu causing flooding along the coasts as huge waves crashed onshore and flooding onshore when the typhoon dumped lots of rain on the area.
  • In 1953, the 1953 North Kyushu Flood killed 759 people and the killed and missing amounted to 1,001 in the northern area of Kyushu of Japan.
  • The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy torrential raining caused landsides at Rokko mountain.
  • 2018 Japan floods
North Korea
  • North Korea saw one of its worst floods ever in May 2006.
South Korea
  • South Korea was also flooded at the same time but its floods continued through to the end of June 2006.

South Asia

Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh has been victim of numerous floods throughout the years, the major ones being in 1954, 1955, 1970, 1985, 1988, 1998, 2004, 2007 and 2012.
India
  • Assam has been suffering floods regularly since 1998.
  • Flooding in Mumbai in July 2005 left over 700 dead. Some areas went under 5 m of water.
  • The 2008 Indian floods affected most of India throughout 2008.
  • In October 2009, flooding occurred across many parts of South India. It was one of the worst flood in the area in the last 100 years, killing at least 299 people and making 500,000 homeless.
  • The Leh floods occurred on 6 August 2010 in Leh, the largest town in Ladakh, a region of the northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. At least 193 people are reported to have died, five of whom were foreign tourists, after a cloudburst and heavy overnight rains triggered flash floods and mudslides. A further 200 people were reported missing and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
  • The 2013 North India floods in Uttarakhand which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall.
  • The 2014 South India floods in Visakhapatnam which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.[ clarification needed ]
  • The floods that occurred in Chennai due to the heavy rain fall of northeast monsoons in 2015 is considered one of the major disasters in the state of Tamil Nadu.It occurred from November end till the mid of second week of December.
  • 2017 Gujarat flood
  • August 2017 Nepal and Darshan India floods
  • The flood occurred in Kerala in 2018 late August causing tremendous damage of equipment. More than 448 deaths of people were recorded and a loss of more than 4 billion was recorded.
Pakistan
  • In 2003, Sindh province was badly affected due to monsoon rains causing damages in billions of places.
  • In 2007, Cyclone Yemyin submerged lower part of Balochistan Province in sea water killing 380 people. Before that it killed 213 people in Karachi on its way to Balochistan.
  • In 2009, Karachi was flooded. (see 2009 Karachi floods)
  • In 2010, from mid-July till mid-August – Pakistan's four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Southern Punjab and Sindh) were badly affected during the monsoon rains when dams, rivers and lakes overflowed, killing at least 1,750 people, injuring 2,500 and affecting 23 million people. The flood is considered the worst in Pakistan's history, affecting people of all four provinces and Asad Jamu and Kashmir Region of Pakistan. [49] (see 2010 Pakistan floods)
  • The 2013 Afghanistan–Pakistan floods.

Southeast Asia

Indonesia
  • Jakarta suffered floods that killed 80 people in January 2007. [50]
  • Floods in Greater Jakarta (Jabodetabek) on 1-3 January 2020 killed at least 30 people, and more than 31,000 people were evacuated. [51] Floods occur because of rain that occurred from 31 December 2019 to 1 January 2020. [52]
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
  • The 2010 Thailand floods.
  • 2011 Thailand floods started from July 2011 until January 2012 resulted in a total of 815 deaths, 13.6 million people affected, 65 provinces were declared flood disaster zones, over 20,000 square kilometers of farmland was damaged and 7 industrial estates was temporarily shut down causing over US$45.7 billion (1.4 trillion Baht) of over all damage. [53]

Europe

Czech Republic

France

  • One of France's worst floods of the 20th century occurred in 1910. The end of 1909 and early 1910 saw a period of heavy rain and snow fall over a period of 3 months. The level of the Seine began to rise rapidly from 18 to 20 January, rising to a maximum of 8.62 meters above normal on the 28th. Some 4 billion cubic meters of river water, contaminated with river sediment and municipal sewage, flooded over 5 square kilometers of Paris. There were over 150,000 casualties and over 20,000 buildings flooded. [56]

Germany

Italy

Poland

Portugal

  • In February 2010, severe floods and mudslides hit the Portuguese island of Madeira, killing at least 50. [58]

Spain

  • 13–14 October 1957, in Valencia, torrential rain results in a devastating flood, at least 81 people lose their lives. [59]
  • In 1982, the river Jucar (Valencia, Spain) broke the Tous Reservoir causing a flood that killed 30 people. [60]

United Kingdom

England
Scotland
  • 2002 Glasgow floods   200 people immediately evacuated, but the water supply of 140 thousand people was affected.
Wales
  • December 2015  Flooding of Conwy River.
Llanrwst from the air during December 2015 flooding.

North America

Canada

United States

Oceania

Australia

On the left is a photo taken during the 1998 floods in Swifts Creek in Australia. On the right is the same location 8 years later Flood comparison.jpg
On the left is a photo taken during the 1998 floods in Swifts Creek in Australia. On the right is the same location 8 years later

Fiji

New Zealand

  • The 1858 Hutt River flood kills 14 people
  • The 1878 of the Clutha River
  • The 1897 flooding at Clive in Hawke's Bay kills 12 people
  • The 1929 New Zealand cyclone caused severe flooding in the city of Dunedin
  • In 1938, a flash-flood at a railway workers' camp at Kopuawhara kills 21 people
  • The 1978 flood of the Clutha River, known as the "Hundred years flood" hit one day before the 100th anniversary of the great flood of 1878
  • The 1984 Southland flood
  • In 1988, extensive flooding is caused in several parts of the North Island due to Cyclone Bola
  • The 2004 Manawatu flood inundated the town of Feilding

Solomon Islands

Papua New Guinea

South America

Brazil

Chile

Peru

Uruguay

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Mitch Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 1998

Hurricane Mitch is the second-deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, causing over 11,000 fatalities in Central America in 1998, including approximately 7,000 in Honduras and 3,800 in Nicaragua due to catastrophic flooding from the slow motion of the storm. It was the deadliest hurricane in Central American history, surpassing Hurricane Fifi–Orlene, which killed slightly fewer people there in 1974.

Tropical Storm Allison Atlantic tropical storm in 2001

Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. An arguable example of the "brown ocean effect", Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 16 days, most of which when the storm was over land dumping torrential rainfall. The storm developed from a tropical wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4, 2001, and struck the upper Texas coast shortly thereafter. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline.

Hurricane Joan–Miriam Category 4 Atlantic and Pacific hurricane in 1988

Hurricane Joan was a long lived, powerful hurricane that caused death and destruction in over a dozen countries in the Caribbean and Central America. Moving on a due west course for nearly two weeks in October 1988, Hurricane Joan caused widespread flooding and over 200 deaths after moving into Central America. Widespread suffering and economic crises were exacerbated by Joan, primarily across Nicaragua, as heavy rains and high winds impacted those near the hurricane's path.

Hurricane Stan Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Stan was a relatively weak but deadly tropical cyclone that affected areas of Central America in early October 2005. The eighteenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, Stan formed from a tropical wave on October 1 after it had moved into the western Caribbean Sea. The depression slowly intensified, and reached tropical storm intensity the following day, before subsequently making its first landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula. Traversing the peninsula, the tropical storm weakened, but was able to re-intensify once it entered the Bay of Campeche. Under favorable conditions for tropical development, Stan attained hurricane strength on October 4, and later reached peak intensity with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 977 mbar. The hurricane maintained this intensity until landfall near Punta Roca Partida, Mexico later the same day. Once over the mountainous terrain of Mexico, however, Stan quickly weakened, and dissipated on October 5.

Severe storms in Australia Major weather events

Severe storms in Australia refers to the storms, including cyclones, which have caused severe damage in Australia.

Tropical Storm Frances (1998) Atlantic tropical storm in 1998

Tropical Storm Frances caused extensive flooding in Mexico and Texas in September 1998. The sixth tropical cyclone and sixth named storm of the annual hurricane season, Frances developed from a low pressure area in the Gulf of Mexico on September 8. The cyclone moved northward through the western Gulf of Mexico, making landfall across the central Texas coastline before recurving across the Midwest through southeast Canada and New England. A large tropical cyclone for the Atlantic Basin, yet an average sized system by western Pacific standards, the storm produced heavy rains across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Texas, western Louisiana and the Great Plains.

Floods in the United States: 2001–present

Floods in the United States: 2001–present is a list of flood events which were of significant impact to the country since 2001, inclusive. Floods are generally caused by excessive rainfall, excessive snowmelt, storm surge from hurricanes, and dam failure.

2007 Chittagong mudslides Mudslides in Chittagong

The 2007 Chittagong mudslides occurred in the port city of Chittagong in south-eastern Bangladesh. On 11 June 2007, heavy monsoon rainfall caused mudslides that engulfed slums around the hilly areas of the city. Experts had previously warned the increasing likelihood of landslides due to the Bangladesh government's failure in curbing the illegal hill cutting taking place in Chittagong.

Cyclone Inigo Category 5 Australian region cyclone in 2003

Cyclone Inigo was tied with Cyclone Gwenda for being the most intense recorded cyclone in the Australian region in terms of pressure, with the possible exception of Cyclone Mahina. Inigo developed from a tropical low that crossed eastern Indonesia in late March 2003. Becoming a named tropical cyclone on 1 April, Inigo rapidly intensified as it tracked southwestward, reaching a minimum central pressure of 900 hPa on 4 April. An approaching trough weakened the cyclone and turned it to the southeast, and on 8 April, Inigo dissipated after making landfall on Western Australia, as a minimal tropical storm.

2008 Yemen cyclone North Indian cyclone in 2008

In October 2008, the remnants of a tropical cyclone caused extensive damage in Yemen, a poor country on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The storm, officially known as Deep Depression ARB 02, was the sixth tropical cyclone of the 2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and the second tropical cyclone in the Arabian Sea that year. It formed on October 19 off the west coast of India from the same broader system that spawned a storm in the southern Indian Ocean. Moving generally westward, the depression failed to intensify much, reaching maximum sustained winds of only 55 km/h (35 mph). It was no longer classifiable as a tropical depression by October 23, and later that day, its remnants struck near Ash Shihr in eastern Yemen.

The 2011 China floods are a series of floods from June to September 2011 that occurred in central and southern parts of the People's Republic of China. They were caused by heavy rain that inundated portions of 12 provinces, leaving other provinces still suffering a prolonged drought, a total of over 36 million people have been affected, killing at least 355 and with direct economic losses of nearly US$6.5 billion.

1986 Jamaica floods

The 1986 Jamaica floods killed 50 people in the country, comparable to flooding that occurred in June 1979. The floods originated as a stationary front on May 24 that produced rainfall across much of the central Caribbean Sea for two weeks. Rainfall totals in Jamaica reached 635 mm (25.0 in) at Norman Manley International Airport. The flooding left heavy agriculture damage totaling $22.5 million, and 40,000 residents per day received meals after the event. Roads and bridges were damaged across the country, and one damaged bridge resulted in eight deaths after a bus crashed. The floods left 2,000 Jamaicans homeless.

Cyclone Ita Category 5 Australian region cyclone in 2014

Severe Tropical Cyclone Ita was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Australian region by central pressure, since George in 2007, and since Monica in 2006 by wind speed. The system was first identified over the Solomon Islands as a tropical low on 1 April 2014, and gradually moved westward, eventually reaching cyclone intensity on 5 April. On 10 April, Ita intensified rapidly into a powerful Category 5 system on the Australian Scale, but it weakened to a Category 4 system in the hours immediately preceding landfall the following day. At the time of landfall at Cape Flattery at 12 April 22:00 (UTC+10), the cyclone's Dvorak intensity was approximately T5.0, consistent with a weak Category 4 system, and considerably lower than the T6.5 observed when the system was at its peak intensity. Meteorologists noted the system had, at that time, begun an eyewall replacement cycle; as a result, the system was considerably less powerful than various intensity scales hadpredicted. Ita's impact on terrain was lessened, as a result.

The 2018 East Africa Floods were a natural disaster in Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Somalia, Djibouti, and Burundi affecting millions of people. They began when excessive rains began falling in March 2018 following a year of severe drought, leading to massive flooding, landslides, and the failure and overflow of several dams. Record rainfall was recorded in several areas, surpassing various records set during the 1950s and during the 1997–98 El Niño event. Nearly 500 people have lost their lives while hundreds of thousands of others have been displaced.

Severe storm events in Sydney Severe storms in Sydney, Australia from the 18th century to present day

Severe storm events in Sydney are not uncommon and would include hail storms, wind storms, and flash flooding from rain caused either by East coast lows or ex-tropical cyclone remnants. East coast lows are low pressure depressions that can bring significant damage by heavy rain, cyclonic winds and huge swells. Sydney is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city.

The 2020 East Africa floods were a natural disaster in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Tanzania, affecting at least 700,000 people. They began when excessive rains began falling in March, leading to massive flooding and landslides. They caused more than 430 deaths, notably in Kenya and Rwanda.

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