List of floods

Last updated

This is a list of major floods.


List of Floods By Year

14th century

St. Mary Magdalenes flood

St. Mary Magdalene's flood was the largest-recorded flood in central Europe with water levels exceeding those of the 2002 European floods. It occurred in July 1342 on and around the feast day of St. Mary Magdalene, 22 July.

Mary Magdalene Follower of Jesus

Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene or the Madeleine, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection. She is mentioned by name twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles. Mary's epithet Magdalene most likely means that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.

Genoa low

A Genoa low is a cyclone that forms or intensifies from a pre-existing cyclone to the south of the Alps over the Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea, Po Valley and northern Adriatic. Vb cyclones are rare events which occur on average only 2.3 times per year.

15th century

All Saints Day Christian feast day

All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, the Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown. In Western Christianity, it is celebrated on 1 November by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Methodist Church, the Church of the Nazarene, the Lutheran Church, the Reformed Church, and other Protestant churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church and associated Eastern Catholic Churches and Byzantine Lutheran Churches celebrate it on the first Sunday after Pentecost. Oriental Orthodox churches of Chaldea and associated Eastern Catholic churches celebrate All Saints' Day on the first Friday after Easter.

North Sea marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres (220,000 sq mi).

German Bight southeastern bight of the North Sea

The German Bight is the southeastern bight of the North Sea bounded by the Netherlands and Germany to the south, and Denmark and Germany to the east. To the north and west it is limited by the Dogger Bank. The Bight contains the Frisian and Danish Islands. The Wadden Sea is approximately ten to twelve kilometres wide at the location of the German Bight. The Frisian islands and the nearby coastal areas are collectively known as Frisia. The southern portion of the bight is also known as the Heligoland Bight. Between 1949 and 1956 the BBC Sea Area Forecast used "Heligoland" as the designation for the area now referred to as German Bight.

16th century

All Saints Flood (1570)

The All Saints' Flood (Allerheiligenvloed) of 1570 was a disaster which happened on November 1, on the Dutch coast. Affected cities include Egmond, Bergen op Zoom and Saeftinghe.

17th century

The California flood of 1605 was a massive flood that submerged large portions of present-day California, which was caused by an ARkStorm. The megaflood was a result of sustained major rain storms across the region, enhanced by an unusually powerful atmospheric river. The flooding affected the indigenous peoples of California, in pre-European colonization populations.

North Frisia region of Frisia, Germany

North Frisia or Northern Friesland is the northernmost portion of Frisia, located primarily in Germany between the rivers Eider and Wiedau/Vidå. It includes a number of islands, e.g., Sylt, Föhr, Amrum, Nordstrand, and Heligoland.

Dithmarschen is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Flensburg, Rendsburg-Eckernförde, and Steinburg, by the state of Lower Saxony, and by the North Sea. From the 13th century up to 1559 Dithmarschen was an independent peasants' republic within the Holy Roman Empire and a member of the Hanseatic League.

18th century floods

Christmas Flood of 1717 December 1717 North Sea storm

The Christmas Flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm, which hit the coast area of the Netherlands, Germany, and Scandinavia on Christmas night of 1717.

New Orleans Largest city in Louisiana

New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 391,006 in 2018, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States.

Merrimack River river in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, United States

The Merrimack River is a 117-mile-long (188 km) river in the northeastern United States. It rises at the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee rivers in Franklin, New Hampshire, flows southward into Massachusetts, and then flows northeast until it empties into the Gulf of Maine at Newburyport. From Pawtucket Falls in Lowell, Massachusetts, onward, the Massachusetts–New Hampshire border is roughly calculated as the line three miles north of the river.

19th century

The Great Flood of 1844 is the biggest flood ever recorded on the Missouri River and Upper Mississippi River, in North America, in terms of discharge.

Missouri River major river in the central United States, tributary of the Mississippi

The Missouri River is the longest river in North America. Rising in the Rocky Mountains of western Montana, the Missouri flows east and south for 2,341 miles (3,767 km) before entering the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri. The river drains a sparsely populated, semi-arid watershed of more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 km2), which includes parts of ten U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Although nominally considered a tributary of the Mississippi, the Missouri River above the confluence is much longer and carries a comparable volume of water. When combined with the lower Mississippi River, it forms the world's fourth longest river system.

Mississippi River largest river system in North America

The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows generally south for 2,320 miles (3,730 km) to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is entirely within the United States; the total drainage basin is 1,151,000 sq mi (2,980,000 km2), of which only about one percent is in Canada. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth-longest and fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

20th century


  • In 1910, large areas of Paris were flooded when the river burst its banks.
  • In 1920, The Great Flood of Tokyo, when 3700 houses, were swept away, 2200, partially destroyed and nearly 400,000 damaged.
  • The Great Flood of 1913, which included the Great Dayton Flood, killed 650 people and destroyed 20,000 homes in the United States. It also damaged historic photographic plates belonging to Wilbur and Orville Wright. It ended canal transportation in Ohio.
  • The 1916 Clermont, Queensland flood was the worst flood in Clermont history.
  • The Hatfield Flood of San Diego, United States, of 1916 destroyed the Lower Otay Dam, [5] damaged the Sweetwater Dam, [6] and caused 22 deaths and $4.5 million in damages.



  • The 1931 Yellow River flood caused between 800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths in China, one of a series of disastrous floods on the Yellow River. It was one of the worst floods in history.
  • The Ohio River flood of 1937 occurred in late January and February 1937, causing damage along the Ohio River and several smaller tributaries from Pittsburgh, Illinois, to Cairo, Illinois. This flood left close to one million people homeless, 385 dead, and $50,000,000 worth of damage.
  • The Los Angeles flood of 1938 occurred from late February to early March 1938, causing the Los Angeles River and the Santa Ana River to overflow, causing $40,000,000 worth of damage and causing 115 lives to be lost.
  • The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy seasonal raining caused landsides at Rokko mountains.





  • On the night of 9 June 1972 the people of Rapid City, South Dakota in the United States were struck by a deadly flood that lasted two days. It took 238 lives and caused millions of dollars in damage.
  • In 1974, the dying cyclone Wanda triggered major flooding in Brisbane, Australia killing 6 people and leaving hundreds homeless.
  • In 2 July 1975, many areas of Romanian Cuverture Charpatinas (e.g. Buzau, Prahova County), were struck by major flooding.
  • In August 1975, the Banqiao Dam in China breaks apart under excess rainfall and damage from Typhoon Nina, drowning about 26,000 and caused the lives of another 140,000 in resulting epidemics.


  • During the 1980s, the Great Salt Lake reached record high water levels due to a large amount of rain and its lack of an outlet. Places such as Saltair were inundated.
  • The South African town of Laingsburg was basically destroyed on 25 January 1981, when 104 of its 900 inhabitants died during a flood that swept through the town and left only about 25 houses standing
  • In 1982, the river Jucar in Spain breaks the Tous Reservoir, flooding the surrounding land in a deluge of 16,000 m3/s of water, and killing 30 people.
  • In the winter of 1983, the Pacific Northwest of the United States saw one of the worst floods on record for that region, and some states recorded their wettest winter ever. Damage estimates are as high as $1.1 billion.


  • January 1992 saw severe floods in South America, most notably Brazil.
  • In Alaska, United States, from May to September 1992 it was unusually wet, causing the 100 year flood. Snow melt only made the floods worse.
  • The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most destructive floods in United States history.
  • March 1993 the "No Name" storm, silently brought major flooding to Citrus County, Florida.
  • The summer of 1993 was unusually wet for the United States, causing flooding in the southwest.
  • 1994 South Georgina floods
  • On 8 May 1995, severe floods caused extensive damage in Louisiana, United States.
  • A dying typhoon hit Kyushu, Japan, in September 1996, causing severe floods in that region.
  • July 1996 saw severe floods in Central Honshū, Japan.
  • In August 1996, 86 people died due to a flood in Las Nieves camping, in Biescas, Spain. [9] [10]
  • 1997 Central European flood, the worst flood in Polish history hits the country in July 1997, killing 65 and causing extensive damage to Wroclaw and Opole.
  • The Red River Flood of 1997 (also called the Red River of the North Flood of 1997 in the United States) occurred in April and May 1997 along the Red River of the North in North Dakota, Minnesota (United States) and Manitoba. It was the most severe flooding of the river since 1826, causing so much water or camping down (?) water or not draining it all.
  • Bangladesh was flooded in 1998, with millions of people affected and hundreds killed.
  • The 1999 Pentecost flood (German : Pfingsthochwasser) was a 100-year flood around the Pentecost season in 1999 that mostly affected Bavaria, Vorarlberg and Tirol. It was caused by heavy rainfall coinciding with the regular Alpine meltwater. These were caused because of the low-lying area and they are replacing concrete with soil which affects the flow of water and can cause flash flooding.
  • The 2000 Mozambique flood, caused by heavy rains followed by a cyclone, covered much of the country for three weeks, killing thousands, leaving the country devastated for years afterwards.

21st century



  • Korea (both North Korea and South Korea) saw one of its worst floods ever in May 2006.
  • The Mid-Atlantic States flood of 2006 in the eastern United States is considered to be the worst in that region since the flooding caused by Hurricane David in 1979.
  • Ethiopia saw one of its worst floods ever in August 2006.
  • Surat a 5 million populated city of India witnessed huge flood in its history during 4 to 10 August 2006. 10 lac cusec water discharge for 30 hours from Ukai dam flooded city. 1 Lac evacuated on first day, many human and animal lost their lives.
  • Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Sabah suffered floods between December 2006 and January 2007. It killed hundreds and forced 100,000 people to be evacuated in Johor alone. Floods hit the country's capital Kuala Lumpur in January 2007, killing 80. It was the worst flood in Malaysia for over 100 years.
  • The 2007 Hunter Floods inundated large areas of the cities of Maitland and Newcastle in Australia in June 2007, claimed 11 lives and forced the evacuation of 4,000 people in Central Maitland.
  • Between late May 2007 and early August 2007, severe flash floods hit most of the United Kingdom, with the most affected area in the country being Yorkshire. The city of Sheffield (in Yorkshire) was the worst affected city in the country, a month's worth of rain fell on the city in just 18 hours on 25 June 2007, bursting the banks of the River Don in that city. There were also fears that the Ulley Reservoir in Sheffield would fail, if it did it would have killed hundreds. 6 people were killed across the country.
  • The 2007 Africa Floods was one of the worst and most destructive floods in recorded history on the continent of Africa with 14 countries affected.
  • In November 2007, Cyclone Guba, a slow moving storm caused deadly flooding in Papua New Guinea.
  • The 2008 Indian floods affected several states in India between July 2008 and September 2008 during an unusually wet monsoon season. The floods caused severe damage, and killed an estimated 2404 people.

  • In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing.
  • In 2012 Great Britain and Ireland floods caused many floods in the United Kingdom, in April floods and gales hit most of England causing flooding and power outages, on the 28 June 2012 there were two severe supercell thunderstorms which traveled across the West Midlands causing flash flooding, on 6 July 2012 heavy rainfall brought floods to the South West of England with the Met Office issuing red rain warnings, flooding later returned to the UK on 21 November 2012, as heavy persistent rainfall fell in South West England which caused rivers to burst their banks, the rain later pushed into the Midlands overnight causing more flooding, on 24 November 2012 another band of rain pushed into South West England, The Environment Agency issued three severe flood warnings for the South West England and 90 flood warnings, the following day the Environment Agency issued 110 flood warning for the Midlands, most of which were for the River Avon and the River Severn.

Floods by region



East Asia

Fighting the 1954 Yangtze Flood, as depicted on a monument in Wuhan Wuhan-Flood-Memorial-0226.jpg
Fighting the 1954 Yangtze Flood, as depicted on a monument in Wuhan
Hong Kong
Picture show at heavy rain, following flood in Shira River, Kumamoto, Kyushu, July 2012 Sirakawa zosui.jpg
Picture show at heavy rain, following flood in Shira River, Kumamoto, Kyushu, July 2012
  • In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing. Later in August incessant rains and storm caused floods in Kinki region, causing one casualty.
  • In July 1996 a flood hit Central Honshū and 48 people died.
  • On 21 September 1996, a typhoon hit Kyushu causing flooding along the coasts as huge waves crashed onshore and flooding onshore when the typhoon dumped lots of rain on the area.
  • In 1953, the 1953 North Kyushu Flood killed 759 people and the killed and missing amounted to 1,001 in the northern area of Kyushu of Japan.
  • The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy torrential raining caused landsides at Rokko mountain.
  • 2018 Japan floods
North Korea
  • North Korea saw one of its worst floods ever in May 2006.
South Korea
  • South Korea was also flooded at the same time but its floods continued through to the end of June 2006.

South Asia

  • Bangladesh has been victim of numerous floods throughout the years, the major ones being in 1954, 1955, 1970, 1985, 1988, 1998, 2004, 2007 and 2012.
  • Assam has been suffering floods regularly since 1998.
  • Flooding in Mumbai in July 2005 left over 700 dead. Some areas went under 5 m of water.
  • The 2008 Indian floods affected most of India throughout 2008.
  • In October 2009, flooding occurred across many parts of South India. It was one of the worst flood in the area in the last 100 years, killing at least 299 people and making 500,000 homeless.
  • The Leh floods occurred on 6 August 2010 in Leh, the largest town in Ladakh, a region of the northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. At least 193 people are reported to have died, five of whom were foreign tourists, after a cloudburst and heavy overnight rains triggered flash floods and mudslides. A further 200 people were reported missing and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
  • The 2013 North India floods in Uttarakhand which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall.
  • The 2014 South India floods in Visakhapatnam which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.[ clarification needed ]
  • The floods that occurred in Chennai due to the heavy rain fall of northeast monsoons in 2015 is considered one of the major disasters in the state of Tamil Nadu.It occurred from November end till the mid of second week of December.
  • 2017 Gujarat flood
  • August 2017 Nepal and Darshan India floods
  • The flood occurred in Kerala in 2018 late August causing tremendous damage of equipment. More than 448 deaths of people were recorded and a loss of more than 4 billion was recorded.
  • In 2003, Sindh province was badly affected due to monsoon rains causing damages in billions.
  • In 2007, Cyclone Yemyin submerged lower part of Balochistan Province in sea water killing 380 people. Before that it killed 213 people in Karachi on its way to Balochistan.
  • In 2009, Karachi was flooded. (see 2009 Karachi floods)
  • In 2010, from Mid-July till Mid-August – Pakistan's four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Southern Punjab and Sindh) were badly affected during the monsoon rains when dams, rivers and lakes overflowed, killing at least 1,750 people, injuring 2,500 and affecting 23 million people. The flood is considered the worst in Pakistan's history, affecting people of all four provinces and Asad Jamu and Kashmir Region of Pakistan. [48] (see 2010 Pakistan floods)
  • The 2013 Afghanistan–Pakistan floods.

Southeast Asia

  • Jakarta suffered floods that killed 80 people in January 2007. [49]
  • The 2010 Thailand floods.
  • 2011 Thailand floods started from July 2011 until January 2012 resulted in a total of 815 deaths, 13.6 million people affected, 65 provinces were declared flood disaster zones, over 20,000 square kilometers of farmland was damaged and 7 industrial estates was temporarily shut down causing over US$45.7 billion (1.4 trillion Baht) of over all damage. [50]


Czech Republic


  • One of France's worst floods of the 20th century occurred in 1910. The end of 1909 and early 1910 saw a period of heavy rain and snow fall over a period of 3 months. The level of the Seine began to rise rapidly from January 18 to 20, rising to a maximum of 8.62 meters above normal on the 28th. Some 4 billion cubic meters of river water, contaminated with river sediment and municipal sewage, flooded over 5 square kilometers of Paris. There were over 150,000 casualties and over 20,000 buildings flooded. [53]





  • In February 2010, severe floods and mudslides hit the Portuguese island of Madeira, killing at least 50. [55]


  • 13–14 October 1957, in Valencia, torrential rain results in a devastating flood, at least 81 people lose their lives. [56]
  • In 1982, the river Jucar (Valencia, Spain) broke the Tous Reservoir causing a flood that killed 30 people. [57]

United Kingdom

  • 2002 Glasgow floods   200 people immediately evacuated, but the water supply of 140 thousand people was affected.
  • December 2015  Flooding of Conwy River.
Llanrwst from the air during December 2015 flooding.

North America


United States



On the left is a photo taken during the 1998 floods in Swifts Creek in Australia. On the right is the same location 8 years later Flood comparison.jpg
On the left is a photo taken during the 1998 floods in Swifts Creek in Australia. On the right is the same location 8 years later


New Zealand

  • The 1858 Hutt River flood kills 14 people
  • The 1878 of the Clutha River
  • The 1897 flooding at Clive in Hawke's Bay kills 12 people
  • Severe flooding badly affected the city of Dunedin in 1929
  • In 1938, a flash-flood at a railway workers' camp at Kopuawhara kills 21 people
  • The 1978 flood of the Clutha River, known as the "Hundred years flood" hit one day before the 100th anniversary of the great flood of 1878
  • The 1984 Southland flood
  • In 1988, extensive flooding is caused in several parts of the North Island due to Cyclone Bola
  • The 2004 Manawatu flood inundated the town of Feilding

Solomon Islands

Papua New Guinea

South America





See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Mitch Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 1998

Hurricane Mitch was the second-deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, causing over 11,000 fatalities in Central America, with over 7,000 occurring in Honduras alone due to the catastrophic flooding it wrought, due to the slow motion of the storm. It was the deadliest hurricane in Central America, surpassing Hurricane Fifi–Orlene, which killed slightly fewer people there in 1974. The thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Mitch formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting through extremely favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 status, the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. Mitch drifted through Central America, regenerated in the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a strong tropical storm. It then became extratropical and accelerated northeastward across the North Atlantic, before dissipating on November 9. At the time, Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. In addition, Mitch is the eighth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record.

Hurricane Floyd Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1999

Hurricane Floyd was a very powerful Cape Verde hurricane which struck the east coast of the United States. It was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the fourth largest evacuation in US history when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached. The hurricane formed off the coast of Africa and lasted from September 7 to September 19, becoming extratropical after September 17, and peaked in strength as a very strong Category 4 hurricane—just 2 mph short of the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. It was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength ever recorded, in terms of gale-force diameter.

Tropical Storm Allison Atlantic tropical storm in 2001

Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. An arguable example of the "brown ocean effect", Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 15 days, most of which when the storm was over land dumping torrential rainfall. The storm developed from a tropical wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4, 2001, and struck the upper Texas coast shortly thereafter. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline.

The years before 1975 featured the pre-1975 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons. Each season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian tropical cyclone season has no bounds, but they tend to form between April and December, peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. Below are the most significant cyclones in the time period. Because much of the North Indian coastline is near sea level and prone to flooding, these cyclones can easily kill many with storm surge and flooding. These cyclones are among the deadliest on earth in terms of numbers killed.

Severe storms in Australia

Severe storms in Australia. refers to the storms, including cyclones, which have caused severe damage in Australia.

Tropical Storm Arlene (2005) Atlantic tropical storm in 2005

Tropical Storm Arlene was an unusually large and early-forming tropical storm, being the first of twenty-eight different storms during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which would become the most active season on record. Tropical Storm Arlene formed near Honduras on June 8 and moved northwards. It crossed western Cuba on June 10 and strengthened to just under hurricane strength before making its final landfall on the Florida Panhandle the next day. The storm weakened as it continued to move north over the United States, becoming extratropical on June 13. Arlene was responsible for only one death and minor damages.

Tropical Storm Bilis Pacific severe tropical storm in 2006

Severe Tropical Storm Bilis, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Florita, was a weak tropical cyclone in July 2006 that caused significant damage to areas of the Philippines, Taiwan, and southeastern China. The word Bilis, submitted by the Philippines, means 'speed' or 'swiftness' in Tagalog.

Floods in the United States: 2001–present

Floods in the United States: 2001–present is a list of flood events which were of significant impact to the country since 2001, inclusive. Floods are generally caused by excessive rainfall, excessive snowmelt, storm surge from hurricanes, and dam failure.

Cyclone Inigo Category 5 Australian region cyclone in 2003

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October 1999 Mexico floods

In October 1999, severe flooding affected portions of eastern Mexico and Central America. Rainfall in September preceded the primary event in Mexico, which moistened soils. On October 4, Tropical Depression Eleven developed in the Gulf of Mexico, which drew humidity from the gulf and the Pacific Ocean to produce torrential rainfall in mountainous regions of eastern Mexico, reaching 43.23 in (1,098 mm) in Jalacingo, Veracruz. This was the third-highest tropical cyclone-related rainfall total in Mexico from 1980–2006, and the event caused the highest rainfall related to tropical cyclones in Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Puebla. In some locations, the daily rainfall represented over 10% of the annual precipitation total. The heaviest rainfall occurred in mountainous regions that were the mouths of several rivers. A broad trough absorbed the depression on October 6, and rainfall continued for the next few days. Additional rainfall occurred in Tabasco state on October 18. The floods were estimated as a 1 in 67 year event in one location, although such floods are expected to affect eastern Mexico twice per century, the last time being 1944.

Effects of Hurricane Ivan in the Greater Antilles Effects of Category 5 Atlantic hurricane of 2004

From September 8 to 14, 2004, Hurricane Ivan moved through the Caribbean Sea, affecting all of the Greater Antilles. Reaching peak winds of 165 mph (270 km/h), Ivan attained Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, the strongest possible category, on three times in the Caribbean. It first lashed the southern coasts of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola with high waves, killing five people in the Dominican Republic and Haiti; in the latter country, two others drowned due to storm flooding. The effects in Jamaica were among the worst from a tropical cyclone in the island's recorded history. The storm caused severe damage which left 18,000 people homeless. An estimated 17 people on the island were killed by Ivan.

Cyclone Aila North Indian cyclone in 2009

Cyclone Aila(JTWC designation:02B, also known as Severe Cyclonic Storm Aila) was the second named tropical cyclone of the 2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Warned by both the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RMSC) and Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Aila formed over a disturbance over the Bay of Bengal on 23 May, 2009 and started to intensify ando organize reaching 3min sustained wind speeds of 110 kmh (70 mph). It was the worst natural disaster to affect Bangladesh since Cyclone Sidr in November 2007. A relatively strong tropical cyclone, it caused extensive damage in India and Bangladesh.

The 2011 China floods are a series of floods from June to September 2011 that occurred in central and southern parts of the People's Republic of China. They were caused by heavy rain that inundated portions of 12 provinces, leaving other provinces still suffering a prolonged drought, a total of over 36 million people have been affected, killing at least 355 and with direct economic losses of nearly US$6.5 billion.

Tropical Storm Linfa (2003) Pacific tropical storm in 2003

Severe Tropical Storm Linfa, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Chedeng, brought deadly flooding to areas of the Philippines and Japan in May and June 2003. The fifth named storm within the northwestern Pacific that year, Linfa developed as a tropical depression just off the western coast of Luzon on May 25. The disturbance quickly intensified to reach tropical storm intensity a few hours after cyclogenesis. However, intensification leveled off as Linfa executed a small clockwise loop before a subsequent landfall on Luzon on May 27. Due to land interaction the storm temporarily weakened and decoupled before reforming in the Philippine Sea. Afterwards Linfa began reintensifying and reached its peak intensity on May 29 with maximum sustained winds of 100 km/h (65 mph) and a barometric pressure of 980 mbar. Following its peak the tropical storm began to deteriorate and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on May 30; these extratropical remnants continued to track northward through Japan before dissipating in the Sea of Okhotsk on June 4.

1986 Jamaica floods

The 1986 Jamaica floods killed 50 people in the country, comparable to flooding that occurred in June 1979. The floods originated as a stationary front on May 24 that produced rainfall across much of the central Caribbean Sea for two weeks. Rainfall totals in Jamaica reached 635 mm (25.0 in) at Norman Manley International Airport. The flooding left heavy agriculture damage totaling $22.5 million, and 40,000 residents per day received meals after the event. Roads and bridges were damaged across the country, and one damaged bridge resulted in eight deaths after a bus crashed. The floods left 2,000 Jamaicans homeless.

The 2018 East Africa Floods are an ongoing natural disaster in Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Somalia, Djibouti, and Burundi affecting millions of people. They began when excessive rains began falling in March 2018 following a year of severe drought and are still ongoing as of June 2018, leading to massive flooding, landslides, and the failure and overflow of several dams. Record rainfall was recorded in several areas, surpassing various records set during the 1950's and during the 1997–98 El Niño event. Nearly 500 people have lost their lives while hundreds of thousands of others have been displaced.


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  4. Fetzer, Leland (2005). San Diego County Place Names A to Z. San Diego: Sunbelt Publications. p. 107. Lower Otay Dam washed out completely in the 1916 Hatfield flood.
  5. Fetzer, Leland (2005). San Diego County Place Names A to Z. San Diego: Sunbelt Publications. p. 144. Sweetwater Dam was damaged in the 1916 Hatfield Flood but did not fail.
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  7. Canada
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