Storm surge

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A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges. It is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides.

<i>Tsunami</i> Series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water

A tsunami or tidal wave,, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Extratropical cyclone type of cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

Contents

The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, and a low-pressure-induced dome of water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center.

Meteorology Interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere focusing on weather forecasting

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.

Fetch (geography) The length of water over which a given wind has blown

The fetch, also called the fetch length, is the length of water over which a given wind has blown. Fetch is used in geography and meteorology and its effects are usually associated with sea state and when it reaches shore it is the main factor that creates storm surge which leads to coastal erosion and flooding. It also plays a large part in longshore drift as well.

Historic storm surges

Elements of a storm tide at high tide Surge-en.svg
Elements of a storm tide at high tide
Total destruction of the Bolivar Peninsula (Texas) by Hurricane Ike's storm surge in 2008 Bolivar62(IMG 9193).JPG
Total destruction of the Bolivar Peninsula (Texas) by Hurricane Ike's storm surge in 2008

The deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the Bay of Bengal. The low-lying coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to surges caused by tropical cyclones. [1] The deadliest storm surge in the twenty-first century was caused by the Cyclone Nargis, which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May 2008. The next deadliest in this century was caused by the Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which killed more than 6,000 people in the central Philippines in 2013 [2] [3] [4] and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD). [5]

1970 Bhola cyclone North Indian cyclone in 1970

The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan and India's West Bengal on November 3, 1970. It remains the deadliest tropical cyclone ever recorded and one of the deadliest natural disasters. At least 500,000 people lost their lives in the storm, primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta. This cyclone was the sixth cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and also the season's strongest.

Bay of Bengal Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean between India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the northwesternmost point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The Bay of Bengal was also called the Chola Lake.

Cyclone Nargis North Indian cyclone in 2008

Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar during early May 2008. The cyclone made landfall in Myanmar on Friday, 2 May 2008, sending a storm surge 40 kilometres up the densely populated Irrawaddy delta, causing catastrophic destruction and at least 138,373 fatalities. The Labutta Township alone was reported to have 80,000 dead, with about 10,000 more deaths in Bogale. There were around 55,000 people missing and many other deaths were found in other towns and areas, although the Myanmar government's official death toll may have been under-reported, and there have been allegations that government officials stopped updating the death toll after 138,000 to minimize political fallout. The feared 'second wave' of fatalities from disease and lack of relief efforts never materialized. Damage was estimated at over K62,988,000,000 (US$10 billion), which made it the most damaging cyclone ever recorded in this basin.

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States. [6]

Galveston, Texas City in Texas

Galveston is a coastal resort city and port off the southeast coast on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the American State of Texas. The community of 209.3 square miles (542 km2), with an estimated population of 50,180 in 2015, is the county seat of surrounding Galveston County and second-largest municipality in the county. It is also within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area at its southern end on the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

Natural disaster Major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available.

The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at almost 44 ft (13 metres) at Bathurst Bay, Australia, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this likely was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography. [7] In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 28 ft (8 metres) in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft (8.5 m) in Pass Christian. [8] [9] Another record storm surge occurred in this same area from Hurricane Camille in 1969, with a storm tide of 24.6 ft (7.5 m), also at Pass Christian. [10] A storm surge of 14 ft (4.2 m) occurred in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.

Cyclone Mahina was the deadliest cyclone in recorded Australian history, and also likely the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere. Mahina struck Bathurst Bay, Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, on 4 March 1899, and its winds and enormous storm surge combined to kill more than 300 people.

Bathurst Bay Bay in Queensland, Australia

Bathurst Bay is a bay in the localities of Lakefield and Starcke in the Shire of Cook, Queensland, Australia. In the 19th century it was the base for the pearling fleet. It is now a tourist attraction on Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland, Australia, near the Great Barrier Reef.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Mechanics

At least five processes can be involved in altering tide levels during storms:

Tide The periodic change of sea levels caused by the gravitational and inertial effects of the Moon, the Sun and the rotation of the Earth

Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun, and the rotation of the Earth.

The pressure effects of a tropical cyclone will cause the water level in the open ocean to rise in regions of low atmospheric pressure and fall in regions of high atmospheric pressure. The rising water level will counteract the low atmospheric pressure such that the total pressure at some plane beneath the water surface remains constant. This effect is estimated at a 10 mm (0.39 in) increase in sea level for every millibar (hPa) drop in atmospheric pressure. [11]

Strong surface winds cause surface currents at a 45° angle to the wind direction, by an effect known as the Ekman Spiral. Wind stresses cause a phenomenon referred to as "wind set-up", which is the tendency for water levels to increase at the downwind shore and to decrease at the upwind shore. Intuitively, this is caused by the storm blowing the water toward one side of the basin in the direction of its winds. Because the Ekman Spiral effects spread vertically through the water, the effect is proportional to depth. The pressure effect and the wind set-up on an open coast will be driven into bays in the same way as the astronomical tide. [11]

The Earth's rotation causes the Coriolis effect, which bends currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. When this bend brings the currents into more perpendicular contact with the shore, it can amplify the surge, and when it bends the current away from the shore it has the effect of lessening the surge. [11]

The effect of waves, while directly powered by the wind, is distinct from a storm's wind-powered currents. Powerful wind whips up large, strong waves in the direction of its movement. [11] Although these surface waves are responsible for very little water transport in open water, they may be responsible for significant transport near the shore. When waves are breaking on a line more or less parallel to the beach, they carry considerable water shoreward. As they break, the water particles moving toward the shore have considerable momentum and may run up a sloping beach to an elevation above the mean water line, which may exceed twice the wave height before breaking. [12]

The rainfall effect is experienced predominantly in estuaries. Hurricanes may dump as much as 12 in (300 mm) of rainfall in 24 hours over large areas and higher rainfall densities in localized areas. As a result, surface runoff can quickly flood Streams and rivers. This can increase the water level near the head of tidal estuaries as storm-driven waters surging in from the ocean meet rainfall flowing downstream into the estuary. [11]

Other processes

In addition to the above processes, surge and wave heights on shore are also affected by the flow of water over the underlying topography, i.e. the configuration and bathymetry of the ocean bottom and affected coastal area. A narrow shelf, for example, or one that has a steep drop from the shoreline and subsequently produces deep water in proximity to the shoreline, tends to produce a lower surge but a higher and more powerful wave. This situation is well exemplified by the southeast coast of Florida. The edge of the Floridian Plateau, where the water depths reach 91 metres (299 ft), lies just 3,000 m (9,800 ft) offshore of Palm Beach; just 7,000 m (23,000 ft) offshore, the depth increases to over 180 m (590 ft). [13] The 180 m (590 ft) depth contour followed southward from Palm Beach County lies more than 30,000 m (98,000 ft) to the east of the Florida Keys.

Conversely, coastlines along North America such as those along the Gulf of Mexico coast from Texas to Florida, and Asia such as the Bay of Bengal, have long, gently sloping shelves and shallow water depths. On the Gulf side of Florida, the edge of the Floridian Plateau lies more than 160 kilometres (99 mi) offshore of Marco Island in Collier County. Florida Bay, lying between the Florida Keys and the mainland, is also very shallow; depths typically vary between 0.3 m (0.98 ft) and 2 m (6.6 ft). [14] These areas are subject to higher storm surges with smaller waves. This difference is because in deeper water, a surge can be dispersed down and away from the hurricane. However, upon entering a shallow, gently sloping shelf, the surge cannot be disperse, but is driven ashore by the wind stresses of the hurricane. Topography of the land surface is another important element in storm surge extent. Areas where the land lies less than a few meters above sea level are at particular risk from storm surge inundation. [11]

For a given topography and bathymetry the surge height is not solely affected by peak wind speed; the size of the storm also affects the peak surge. With any storm, the area of piled up water can flow out of the storm perimeter, and this escape mechanism is reduced in proportion to the surge force (for the same peak wind speed) when the storm covers more area (storm perimeter length per area is inversely proportional to a circular storm's diameter). [15]

Hurricane Ike storm surge damage in Gilchrist, Texas in 2008. Hurricane Ike Gilchrist damage.jpg
Hurricane Ike storm surge damage in Gilchrist, Texas in 2008.

Extratropical storms

Similar to tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones cause an offshore rise of water. However, unlike most tropical cyclone storm surges, extratropical cyclones can cause higher water levels across a large area for longer periods of time, depending on the system.

In North America, extratropical storm surges may occur on the Pacific and Alaska coasts, and north of 31°N on the Atlantic Coast. Coasts with sea ice may experience an "ice tsunami" causing significant damage inland. [16] Extratropical storm surges may be possible further south for the Gulf coast mostly during the wintertime, when extratropical cyclones affect the coast, such as in the 1993 Storm of the Century. [17]

November 9–13, 2009, marked a significant extratropical storm surge event on the United States east coast when the remnants of Hurricane Ida developed into a Nor'easter off the southeast U.S. coast. During the event, winds from the east were present along the northern periphery of the low pressure center for a number of days, forcing water into locations such as Chesapeake Bay. Water levels rose significantly and remained as high as 8 feet (2.4 m) above normal in numerous locations throughout the Chesapeake for a number of days as water was continually built-up inside the estuary from the onshore winds and freshwater rains flowing into the bay. In many locations, water levels were shy of records by only 0.1 feet (3 cm).[ citation needed ]

Measuring surge

Surge can be measured directly at coastal tidal stations as the difference between the forecast tide and the observed rise of water. [18] Another method of measuring surge is by the deployment of pressure transducers along the coastline just ahead of an approaching tropical cyclone. This was first tested for Hurricane Rita in 2005. [19] These types of sensors can be placed in locations that will be submerged and can accurately measure the height of water above them. [20]

After surge from a cyclone has receded, teams of surveyors map high-water marks (HWM) on land, in a rigorous and detailed process that includes photographs and written descriptions of the marks. HWMs denote the location and elevation of flood waters from a storm event. When HWMs are analyzed, if the various components of the water height can be broken out so that the portion attributable to surge can be identified, then that mark can be classified as storm surge. Otherwise, it is classified as storm tide. HWMs on land are referenced to a vertical datum (a reference coordinate system). During evaluation, HWMs are divided into four categories based on the confidence in the mark; only HWMs evaluated as "excellent" are used by National Hurricane Center in post-storm analysis of the surge. [21]

Two different measures are used for storm tide and storm surge measurements. Storm tide is measured using a geodetic vertical datum (NGVD 29 or NAVD 88). Since storm surge is defined as the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement caused by tides, storm surge is measured using tidal predictions, with the assumption that the tide prediction is well-known and only slowly varying in the region subject to the surge. Since tides are a localized phenomenon, storm surge can only be measured in relationship to a nearby tidal station. Tidal bench mark information at a station provides a translation from the geodetic vertical datum to mean sea level (MSL) at that location, then subtracting the tidal prediction yields a surge height above the normal water height. [18] [21]

SLOSH

Example of a SLOSH run Sloshrun.gif
Example of a SLOSH run

The National Hurricane Center forecasts storm surge using the SLOSH model, which is an abbreviation for Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes. The model is accurate to within 20 percent. [22] SLOSH inputs include the central pressure of a tropical cyclone, storm size, the cyclone's forward motion, its track, and maximum sustained winds. Local topography, bay and river orientation, depth of the sea bottom, astronomical tides, as well as other physical features, are taken into account in a predefined grid referred to as a SLOSH basin. Overlapping SLOSH basins are defined for the southern and eastern coastline of the continental U.S. [23] Some storm simulations use more than one SLOSH basin; for instance, Hurricane Katrina SLOSH model runs used both the Lake Ponchartrain / New Orleans basin, and the Mississippi Sound basin, for the northern Gulf of Mexico landfall. The final output from the model run will display the maximum envelope of water, or MEOW, that occurred at each location.

To allow for track or forecast uncertainties, usually several model runs with varying input parameters are generated to create a map of MOMs, or Maximum of Maximums. [24] For hurricane evacuation studies, a family of storms with representative tracks for the region, and varying intensity, eye diameter, and speed, are modeled to produce worst-case water heights for any tropical cyclone occurrence. The results of these studies are typically generated from several thousand SLOSH runs. These studies have been completed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, under contract to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, for several states and are available on their Hurricane Evacuation Studies (HES) website. [25] They include coastal county maps, shaded to identify the minimum category of hurricane that will result in flooding, in each area of the county. [26]

Mitigation

Although meteorological surveys alert about hurricanes or severe storms, in the areas where the risk of coastal flooding is particularly high, there are specific storm surge warnings. These have been implemented, for instance, in the Netherlands, [27] Spain, [28] [29] the United States, [30] [31] and the United Kingdom. [32]

A prophylactic method introduced after the North Sea Flood of 1953 is the construction of dams and storm-surge barriers (flood barriers). They are open and allow free passage, but close when the land is under threat of a storm surge. Major storm surge barriers are the Oosterscheldekering and Maeslantkering in the Netherlands, which are part of the Delta Works project; the Thames Barrier protecting London; and the Saint Petersburg Dam in Russia.

Another modern development (in use in the Netherlands) is the creation of housing communities at the edges of wetlands with floating structures, restrained in position by vertical pylons. [33] Such wetlands can then be used to accommodate runoff and surges without causing damage to the structures while also protecting conventional structures at somewhat higher low-lying elevations, provided that dikes prevent major surge intrusion.

For mainland areas, storm surge is more of a threat when the storm strikes land from seaward, rather than approaching from landward. [34]

Reverse storm surge

Water can also be sucked away from shore prior to a storm surge. This was the case on the western Florida coast in 2017, just before Hurricane Irma made landfall, uncovering land usually underwater. [35] This phenomenon is known as a reverse storm surge, [36] or a negative storm surge. [37]

First Scientific and Technical Symposium on Storm Surges

First JCOMM Technical & Scientific Symposium on Storm Surges, Seoul Korea, Oct-2007 StormSurge Jcomm 2007 Korea.jpg
First JCOMM Technical & Scientific Symposium on Storm Surges, Seoul Korea, Oct-2007

The First Scientific and Technical Symposium on Storm Surges was organized in October 2007 by the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission JCOMM i.e. "Joint Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology" in Seoul, Republic of Korea, hosted by the Korean Government. This symposium was the first such scientific event devoted solely to storm surges in at least the past 3 decades. It aimed to support the development of marine multi-hazard warning systems, by 1) providing a forum for the exchange of ideas and information related to storm surge modelling, forecasting and hindcasting; 2) coordinating ongoing and planning future R&D initiatives in these fields; and 3) providing guidance/technical support for National Meteorological Services and other national agencies providing storm surge forecasting and warning services. Results from the Symposium are to contribute to the JCOMM Guide to Storm Surge Forecasting which was under finalization. It will set the stage for advances in forecasting of these events and reduction of their impacts. Overall, the symposium was a great success, and all participants were appreciative of this initiative at the present time. The quality of the presentations was excellent, which would facilitate the selection of a subset of them for peer review and publication in the planned special edition of the journal “Natural Hazards – Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards” (Springer). This same subset would also form the “dynamic” part of the new Guide to Storm Surge Forecasting. A key component of the symposium was the panel discussion session on the last day, designed to draw conclusions and point the way forward in storm surge modelling and forecasting. The agreed set of recommendations and actions are addressed to researchers, WMO/IOC/JCOMM, and Member States. [38]

See also

Notes

  1. "Solar System Exploration: Science & Technology: Science Features: Remembering Katrina - Learning and Predicting the Future". Solarsystem.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
  2. Haiyan brought immense destruction, but hope is returning to the Philippines Unicef USA. Retrieved 2016-04-11
  3. CBS/AP (2013-11-14). "Philippines typhoon dead buried in mass grave in hard-hit Tacloban as aid begins to pour in" CBSNEWS.com. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  4. Brummitt, Chris (2013-11-13). "After Disasters Like Typhoon Haiyan, Calculating Death Toll Often Difficult". Associated Press, Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  5. Yap, Karl Lester M.; Heath, Michael (2013-11-12). "Yolanda's Economic Cost P600 billion" Archived 2014-08-12 at the Wayback Machine . Bloomberg News, BusinessMirror.com.ph. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  6. Hebert, 1983
  7. Jonathan Nott and Matthew Hayne (2000). "How high was the storm surge from Tropical Cyclone Mahina? North Queensland, 1899" (PDF). Emergency Management Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  8. FEMA (2006-05-30). "Hurricane Katrina Flood Recovery (Mississippi)". Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  9. Knabb, Richard D; Rhome, Jamie R.; Brown, Daniel P (2005-12-20). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005" (PDF). National Hurricane Center . Retrieved 2008-10-11.
  10. Simpson, 1969
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harris 1963, "Characteristics of the Hurricane Storm Surge" Archived 2013-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Granthem 1953
  13. Lane 1980
  14. Lane 1981
  15. Irish, Jennifer L., Donald T. Resio, and Jay J. Ratcliff. “The Influence of Storm Size on Hurricane Surge.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 38, no. 9 (September 1, 2008): 2003–13. doi : 10.1175/2008JPO3727.1.
  16. Meyer, Robinson (18 January 2018). "The 'Ice Tsunami' That Buried a Whole Herd of Weird Arctic Mammals". The Atlantic . Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1994). "Superstorm of March 1993" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  18. 1 2 John Boon (2007). "Ernesto: Anatomy of a Storm Tide" (PDF). Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  19. U.S. Geological Survey (2006-10-11). "Hurricane Rita Surge Data, Southwestern Louisiana and Southeastern Texas, September to November 2005". U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  20. Automated (2008). "U20-001-01-Ti: HOBO Water Level Logger Specification". Onset Corp. Archived from the original on 2008-08-08. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  21. 1 2 URS Group, Inc. (2006-04-03). "High Water Mark Collection for Hurricane Katrina in Alabama" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  22. National Hurricane Center (2008). "SLOSH Model". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  23. NOAA (1999-04-19). "SLOSH Model Coverage". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  24. George Sambataro (2008). "Slosh Data... what is it". PC Weather Products. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  25. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2008). "National Hurricane Study Home Page". Federal Emergency Management Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  26. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2008). "Jackson County, MS HES surge maps". Federal Emergency Management Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  27. Rijkswaterstaat (2008-07-21). "Storm Surge Warning Service". Archived from the original on 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  28. Ports of the State (1999-03-01). "Storm surge forecast system". Government of Spain. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-04-14.
  29. Puertos del Estado (1999-03-01). "Sistema de previsión del mar a corto plazo" (in Spanish). Gobierno de España. Archived from the original on 2008-05-08. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  30. Stevens Institute of Technology (2008-08-10). "Storm Surge Warning System". New Jersey Office of Emergency Management. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  31. Donna Franklin (2008-08-11). "NWS StormReady Program, Weather Safety, Disaster, Hurricane, Tornado, Tsunami, Flash Flood..." National Weather Service . Retrieved 2008-08-11.
  32. National Flood Risk Systems Team (2007-04-14). "Current Flooding Situation". Environment Agency. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
  33. Floating houses built to survive Netherlands floods SFGate.com (San Francisco Chronicle)
  34. Read, Matt (27 May 2010). "Prepare for storm evacuations". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1B.
  35. CNN, Ray Sanchez. "Shorelines drained in eerie effect of Hurricane Irma". CNN. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
  36. Robertson, Linda (11 September 2017). "Irma's powerful winds cause eerie retreat of ocean waters, stranding manatees and boats". Miami Herald. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  37. "Storm Surge". Met Office. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  38. https://www.jcomm.info/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewEventRecord&eventID=126

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The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.

2008 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was the most disastrous Atlantic hurricane season since 2005, causing over 1,000 deaths and nearly $50 billion in damages. It was an above-average season, featuring sixteen named storms, eight of which became hurricanes, and five which further became major hurricanes, the highest number since the record-breaking 2005 season. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of Tropical Storm Arthur caused the season to start one day early. This season is the fifth most costly on record, behind only the 2004, 2005, 2012 and 2017 seasons, with over $49.5 billion in damage. It was the only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November in the North Atlantic.Bertha became the longest-lived July tropical cyclone on record for the basin, the first of several long-lived systems during 2008.

1947 Fort Lauderdale hurricane Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 1947

The 1947 Fort Lauderdale hurricane was an intense tropical cyclone that affected the Bahamas, southernmost Florida, and the Gulf Coast of the United States in September 1947. The fourth Atlantic tropical cyclone of the year, it formed in the eastern Atlantic Ocean on September 4, becoming a hurricane, the third of the 1947 Atlantic hurricane season, less than a day later. After moving south by west for the next four days, it turned to the northwest and rapidly attained strength beginning on September 9. It reached a peak intensity of 145 mph (233 km/h) on September 15 while approaching the Bahamas. In spite of contemporaneous forecasts that predicted a strike farther north, the storm then turned to the west and poised to strike South Florida, crossing first the northern Bahamas at peak intensity. In the Bahamas, the storm produced a large storm surge and heavy damage, but with no reported fatalities.

1991 Perfect Storm Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1991

The 1991 Perfect Storm, also known as The No-Name Storm and the Halloween Gale/Storm, was a nor'easter that absorbed Hurricane Grace and ultimately evolved back into a small unnamed hurricane late in its life cycle. The initial area of low pressure developed off Atlantic Canada on October 29. Forced southward by a ridge to its north, it reached its peak intensity as a large and powerful cyclone. The storm lashed the east coast of the United States with high waves and coastal flooding before turning to the southwest and weakening. Moving over warmer waters, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone before becoming a tropical storm. It executed a loop off the Mid-Atlantic states and turned toward the northeast. On November 1, the system evolved into a full-fledged hurricane, with peak sustained winds of 75 miles per hour (120 km/h), although the National Hurricane Center left it unnamed to avoid confusion amid media interest in the precursor extratropical storm. It later received the name "the Perfect Storm" after a conversation between Boston National Weather Service forecaster Robert Case and author Sebastian Junger. The system was the twelfth and final tropical cyclone, the eighth tropical storm, and fourth hurricane in the 1991 Atlantic hurricane season. The tropical system weakened, striking Nova Scotia as a tropical storm before dissipating.

1926 Nassau hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1926

The 1926 Nassau hurricane also known as the San Liborio hurricane or The Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1926, in Puerto Rico, was a destructive Category 4 hurricane that affected the Bahamas at peak intensity. Although it weakened considerably before its Florida landfall, it was one of the most severe storms to affect the Bahamian capital Nassau and the island of New Providence in several years until the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, which occurred just two years later. The storm also delivered flooding rains and loss of crops to the southeastern United States and Florida.

Hurricane Gabrielle (2001) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2001

Hurricane Gabrielle was a North Atlantic hurricane that caused flooding in both Florida and Newfoundland in September of 2001. It developed in the Gulf of Mexico on the same day as the September 11 attacks; after the attacks, flights were canceled nationwide for two days, and when Gabrielle struck Florida on September 14, it caused a day of additional cancellations. The storm moved ashore with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) near Venice, a city located south of the Tampa Bay area. The combination of the winds and heavy rainfall, which peaked at 15.1 in (380 mm) in Parrish, left 570,000 customers without power along the west coast and 126,000 customers without power on the east coast. The storm caused about $230 million (2001 USD) in damage in Florida. In the Gulf of Mexico, high waves contributed to two deaths, one of which was indirect; there was also a death due to flooding in Winter Haven.

1915 Galveston hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1915

The 1915 Galveston hurricane was a deadly hurricane that struck Leeward Islands, Hispaniola, Cuba and Texas, in mid August of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. Striking Galveston, Texas, 15 years after the 1900 Galveston Hurricane, its 21-ft (6.4-m) waves were slowed by the new Galveston Seawall but changed the beach structure: on August 17, the entire 300-ft (91.5–m) beach was eroded to become an offshore sandbar, later returning partially, but never the same. The 1915 storm caused a great deal of destruction in its path, leaving 275-400 people dead and $50 million in damage.

Tropical Storm Alberto (2006) first tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Alberto was the first tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming on June 10 in the northwestern Caribbean, the storm moved generally to the north, reaching a maximum intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) before weakening and moving ashore in the Big Bend area of Florida on June 13. Alberto then moved through eastern Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia as a tropical depression before becoming extratropical on June 14.

Hurricane Flossy (1956) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1956

Hurricane Flossy originated from a tropical disturbance in the eastern Pacific Ocean and moved across Central America into the Gulf of Mexico as a tropical depression on September 21, 1956, which became a tropical storm on September 22 and a hurricane on September 23. The hurricane peaked with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) before it struck the central Gulf coast of the United States as a Category 1 hurricane on September 24, and evolved into an extratropical cyclone on September 25. It was the first hurricane to affect oil refining in the Gulf of Mexico. The tropical cyclone led to flooding in New Orleans, and broke a drought across the eastern United States. The death toll was 15, and total damages reached $24.8 million (1956 USD).

Tropical Storm Edouard (2008) Atlantic tropical storm in 2008

Tropical Storm Edouard brought coastal and minor inland flooding to Louisiana and Texas in August 2008. The fifth tropical cyclone and fifth named storm of the hurricane season, Edouard developed from a trough in the northern Gulf of Mexico on August 3. After developing into a tropical depression, it gradually strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Edouard on August 4. However, northerly wind shear initially halted any further significant intensification and also caused the storm to struggle to maintain deep convection over the center. Edouard eventually intensified further and peaked as a strong tropical storm with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) on August 5. Shortly thereafter, the storm made landfall near Gilchrist, Texas later that day. Edouard quickly weakened and was downgraded to tropical depression by early on August 6, six hours before degenerated into a remnant low pressure area.

2009 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2009 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average Atlantic hurricane season that produced eleven tropical cyclones, nine named storms, three hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's first tropical cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed on May 28, while the final storm, Hurricane Ida, dissipated on November 10. The most intense hurricane, Bill, was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that affected areas from the Leeward Islands to Newfoundland. The season featured the lowest number of tropical cyclones since the 1997 season, and only one system, Claudette, made landfall in the United States. Forming from the interaction of a tropical wave and an upper level low, Claudette made landfall on the Florida Panhandle with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) before quickly dissipating over Alabama. The storm killed two people and caused $228,000 in damage.

1898 Georgia hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1898

The 1898 Georgia hurricane was a major hurricane that hit the U.S. state of Georgia, as well as the strongest on record in the state. It was first observed on September 29, although modern researchers estimated that it developed four days earlier to the east of the Lesser Antilles. The hurricane maintained a general northwest track throughout its duration, and it reached peak winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) on October 2. That day, it made landfall on Cumberland Island in Camden County, Georgia, causing record storm surge flooding. The hurricane caused heavy damage throughout the region, and killed at least 179 people. Impact was most severe in Brunswick, where a 16 ft (4.9 m) storm surge was recorded. Overall damage was estimated at $1.5 million (1898 USD), most of which occurred in Georgia. In extreme northeastern Florida, strong winds nearly destroyed the city of Fernandina, while light crop damage was reported in southern South Carolina. After moving ashore, the hurricane quickly weakened and traversed much of North America; it continued northwestward until reaching the Ohio Valley and turning northeastward, and it was last observed on October 6 near Newfoundland.

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