Last updated

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences (which include atmospheric chemistry and physics) with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics, and more particularly in the latter half of the 20th century the development of the computer (allowing for the automated solution of a great many modelling equations) that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important branch of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.

Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth's atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapour, mass flow, and the variations and interactions of these variables, and how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels.

Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology. The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture, and construction.

The word meteorology is from the Ancient Greek μετέωρος metéōros (meteor) and -λογία -logia ( -(o)logy ), meaning "the study of things high in the air."


Ancient meteorology up to the time of Aristotle

Parhelion (sundog) in Savoie AlpineRainbow.jpg
Parhelion (sundog) in Savoie

Early attempts at predicting weather were often related to prophecy and divining, and were sometimes based on astrological ideas. Ancient religions believed meteorological phenomena to be under the control of the gods. [1] The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural settlement if not earlier. Early approaches to predicting weather were based on astrology and were practiced by priests. The Egyptians had rain-making rituals as early as 3500 BC. [1]

Ancient Indian Upanishads contain mentions of clouds and seasons. [2] The Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed when certain phenomena were noticed. [3] Varāhamihira's classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, [2] provides evidence of weather observation.

Cuneiform inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between thunder and rain. The Chaldeans differentiated the 22° and 46° halos. [3]

The ancient Greeks were the first to make theories about the weather. Many natural philosophers studied the weather. However, as meteorological instruments did not exist, the inquiry was largely qualitative, and could only be judged by more general theoretical speculations. [4] Herodotus states that Thales predicted the solar eclipse of 585 BC. He studied Babylonian equinox tables. [5] According to Seneca, he gave the explanation that the cause of the Nile's annual floods was due to northerly winds hindering its descent by the sea. [6] Anaximander and Anaximenes thought that thunder and lightning was caused by air smashing against the cloud, thus kindling the flame. Early meteorological theories generally considered that there was a fire-like substance in the atmosphere. Anaximander defined wind as a flowing of air, but this was not generally accepted for centuries. [7] A theory to explain summer hail was first proposed by Anaxagoras. He observed that air temperature decreased with increasing height and that clouds contain moisture. He also noted that heat caused objects to rise, and therefore the heat on a summer day would drive clouds to an altitude where the moisture would freeze. [8] Empledocles theorized on the change of the seasons. He believed that fire and water opposed each other in the atmosphere, and when fire gained the upper hand, the result was summer, and when water did, it was winter. Democritus also wrote about the flooding of the Nile. He said that during the summer solstice, snow in northern parts of the world melted. This would cause vapors to form clouds, which would cause storms when driven to the Nile by northerly winds, thus filling the lakes and the Nile. [9] Hippocrates inquired into the effect of weather on health. Eudoxus claimed that bad weather followed four-year periods, according to Pliny. [10]

These early observations would form the basis for Aristotle's Meteorology , written in 350 BC. [11] [12] Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. [13] One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle. His work would remain an authority on metereology for nearly 2,000 years. [14]

The book De Mundo (composed before 250 BC or between 350 and 200 BC) noted: [15]

If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt; if it is only half of fire, but violent also and massive, it is called a meteor; if it is entirely free from fire, it is called a smoking bolt. They are all called 'swooping bolts' because they swoop down upon the Earth. Lightning is sometimes smoky, and is then called 'smoldering lightning"; sometimes it darts quickly along, and is then said to be vivid. At other times, it travels in crooked lines, and is called forked lightning. When it swoops down upon some object it is called 'swooping lightning'

Meteorology after Aristotle

After Aristotle, progress in meteorology stalled for a long time. Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs, as well as On Winds. He gave hundreds of signs for weather phenomena for a period up to a year. [16] His system was based on dividing the year by the setting and the rising of the Pleiad, halves into solstices and equinoxes, and the continuity of the weather for those periods. He also divided months into the new moon, fourth day, eighth day and full moon, in likelihood of a change in the weather occuring. The day was divided into sunrise, mid-morning, noon, mid-afternoon and sunset, with corresponding divisions of the night, with change being likely at one of these divisions. [17] Applying the divisions and a principle of balance in the yearly weather, he came up with forecasts like that if a lot of rain falls in the winter, the spring is usually dry. Rules based on actions of animals are also present in his work, like that if a dog rolls on the ground, it is a sign of a storm. Shooting stars and the Moon were also considered significant. However, he made no attempt to explain these phenomena, referring only to the Aristotelian method. [18] The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. [19]

Speculation on the cause of the flooding of the Nile ended when Erastothenes, according to Proclus, stated that it was known that man had gone to the sources of the Nile and observed the rains, although interest in its implications continued. [20]

During the era of Roman Greece and Europe, scientific interest in meteorology waned. In the 1st century BC, most natural philosophers claimed that the clouds and winds extended up to 111 miles, but Posidonius thought that they reached up to five miles, after which the air is clear, liquid and luminous. He closely followed Aristotle's theories. By the end of the second century BC, the center of science shifted from Athens to Alexandria, home to the ancient Library of Alexandria. In the 2nd century AD, Ptolemy's Almagest dealt with meteorology, because it was considered a subset of astronomy. He gave several astrological weather predictions. [21] He constructed a map of the world divided into climactic zones by their illumination, in which the length of the Summer solstice increased by half an hour per zone between the equator and the Arctic. [22] Ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. [23]

In 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a Roman geographer, formalized the climatic zone system. [24] In 63-64 AD, Seneca wrote Naturales quaestiones . It was a compilation and synthesis of ancient Greek theories. However, theology was of foremost importance to Seneca, and he believed that phenomena such as lightning were tied to fate. [25] The second book(chapter) of Pliny's Natural History covers meteorology. He states that more than twenty ancient Greek authors studied meteorology. He didn't make any personal contributions, and the value of his work is in preserving earlier speculation, much like Seneca's work. [26]

Twilight at Baker Beach Golden Gate Bridge as seen at twilight from Baker Beach.jpg
Twilight at Baker Beach

From 400 to 1100, scientific learning in Europe was preserved by the clergy. Isidore of Seville devoted a considerable attention to meteorology in Etymologiae , De ordine creaturum and De natura rerum. Bede the Venerable was the first Englishman to write about the weather in De Natura Rerum in 703. The work was a summary of then extant classical sources. However, Aristotle's works were largely lost until the twelfth century, including Meteorologica. Isidore and Bede were scientifically minded, but they adhered to the letter of Scripture. [27]

Islamic civilization translated many ancient works into Arabic which were transmitted and translated in western Europe to Latin. [28]

In the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat (Book of Plants), in which he deals with the application of meteorology to agriculture during the Arab Agricultural Revolution. He describes the meteorological character of the sky, the planets and constellations, the sun and moon, the lunar phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa (heavenly bodies of rain), and atmospheric phenomena such as winds, thunder, lightning, snow, floods, valleys, rivers, lakes. [29] [30]

In 1021, Alhazen showed that atmospheric refraction is also responsible for twilight in Opticae thesaurus ; he estimated that twilight begins when the sun is 19 degrees below the horizon, and also used a geometric determination based on this to estimate the maximum possible height of the Earth's atmosphere as 52,000 passim (about 49 miles, or 79 km). [31]

Adelard of Bath was one of the early translators of the classics. He also discussed meteorological topics in his Quaestiones naturales. He thought dense air produced propulsion in the form of wind. He explained thunder by saying that it was due to ice colliding in clouds, and in Summer it melted. In the thirteenth century, Aristotelian theories reestablished dominance in meteorology. For the next four centuries, meteorological work by and large was mostly commentary. It has been estimated over 156 commentaries on the Meteorologica were written before 1650. [32]

Experimental evidence was less important than appeal to the classics and authority in medieval thought. In the thirteenth century, Roger Bacon advocated experimentation and the mathematical approach. In his Opus majus , he followed Aristotle's theory on the atmosphere being composed of water, air, and fire, supplemented by optics and geometric proofs. He noted that Ptolemy's climactic zones had to be adjusted for topography. [33]

St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, and that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop. [34] Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow. He stated that a rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42 degrees above the horizon. [35]

In the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and also explained the secondary rainbow. [36]

By the middle of the sixteenth century, meteorology had developed along two lines: theoretical science based on Meteorologica, and astrological weather forecasting. The pseudoscientific prediction by natural signs became popular and enjoyed protection of the church and princes. This was supported by scientists like Johannes Muller, Leonard Digges, and Johannes Kepler. However, there were skeptics. In the 14th century, Nicole Oresme believed that weather forecasting was possible, but that the rules for it were unknown at the time. Astrological influence in meteorology persisted until the eighteenth century. [37]

Gerolamo Cardano's De Subilitate (1550) was the first work to challenge fundamental aspects of Aristotelian theory. Cardano maintained that there were only three basic elements- earth, air, and water. He discounted fire because it needed material to spread and produced nothing. Cardano thought there were two kinds of air: free air and inclosed air. The former destroyed inanimate things and preserved animate things, while the latter had the opposite effect. [38]

The modern era and scientific meteorology

Rene Descartes's Discourse on the Method (1637) typifies the beginning of the scientific revolution in meteorology. His scientific method had four principles: to never accept anything unless one clearly knew it to be true; to divide every difficult problem into small problems to tackle; to proceed from the simple to the complex, always seeking relationships; to be as complete and thorough as possible with no prejudice. [39]

In the appendix Les Meteores, he applied these principles to meteorology. He discussed terrestrial bodies and vapors which arise from them, proceeding to explain the formation of clouds from drops of water, and winds, clouds then dissolving into rain, hail and snow. He also discussed the effects of light on the rainbow. Descartes hypothesized that all bodies were composed of small particles of different shapes and interwovenness. All of his theories was based on this hypothesis. He explained the rain as caused by clouds becoming too large for the air to hold, and that clouds became snow if the air was not warm enough to melt them, or hail if they met colder wind. Like his predecessors, Descartes's method was deductive, as meteorological instruments were not developed and extensively used yet. He introduced the Cartesian coordinate system to meteorology and stressed the importance of mathematics in natural science. His work established meteorology as a legitimate branch of physics. [40]

Instruments and classification scales

A hemispherical cup anemometer Wea00920.jpg
A hemispherical cup anemometer

In 1441, King Sejong's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge. [41] These were sent throughout the Joseon dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based upon a farmer's potential harvest. In 1450, Leone Battista Alberti developed a swinging-plate anemometer, and was known as the first anemometer. [42] In 1607, Galileo Galilei constructed a thermoscope. In 1611, Johannes Kepler wrote the first scientific treatise on snow crystals: "Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula (A New Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow)." [43] In 1643, Evangelista Torricelli invented the mercury barometer. [42] In 1662, Sir Christopher Wren invented the mechanical, self-emptying, tipping bucket rain gauge. In 1714, Gabriel Fahrenheit created a reliable scale for measuring temperature with a mercury-type thermometer. [44] In 1742, Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, proposed the "centigrade" temperature scale, the predecessor of the current Celsius scale. [45] In 1783, the first hair hygrometer was demonstrated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure. In 1802–1803, Luke Howard wrote On the Modification of Clouds, in which he assigns cloud types Latin names. [46] In 1806, Francis Beaufort introduced his system for classifying wind speeds. [47] Near the end of the 19th century the first cloud atlases were published, including the International Cloud Atlas , which has remained in print ever since. The April 1960 launch of the first successful weather satellite, TIROS-1, marked the beginning of the age where weather information became available globally.

Atmospheric composition research

In 1648, Blaise Pascal rediscovered that atmospheric pressure decreases with height, and deduced that there is a vacuum above the atmosphere. [48] In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamics, initiating the Kinetic theory of gases and established the basic laws for the theory of gases. [49] In 1761, Joseph Black discovered that ice absorbs heat without changing its temperature when melting. In 1772, Black's student Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen, which he called phlogisticated air, and together they developed the phlogiston theory. [50] In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier discovered oxygen and developed an explanation for combustion. [51] In 1783, in Lavoisier's essay "Reflexions sur le phlogistique," [52] he deprecates the phlogiston theory and proposes a caloric theory. [53] [54] In 1804, John Leslie observed that a matte black surface radiates heat more effectively than a polished surface, suggesting the importance of black-body radiation. In 1808, John Dalton defended caloric theory in A New System of Chemistry and described how it combines with matter, especially gases; he proposed that the heat capacity of gases varies inversely with atomic weight. In 1824, Sadi Carnot analyzed the efficiency of steam engines using caloric theory; he developed the notion of a reversible process and, in postulating that no such thing exists in nature, laid the foundation for the second law of thermodynamics. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by "magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth's magnetic field lines.

Research into cyclones and air flow

General circulation of the Earth's atmosphere: The westerlies and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric circulation. Earth Global Circulation - en.svg
General circulation of the Earth's atmosphere: The westerlies and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric circulation.

In 1494, Christopher Columbus experienced a tropical cyclone, which led to the first written European account of a hurricane. [55] In 1686, Edmund Halley presented a systematic study of the trade winds and monsoons and identified solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions. [56] In 1735, an ideal explanation of global circulation through study of the trade winds was written by George Hadley. [57] In 1743, when Benjamin Franklin was prevented from seeing a lunar eclipse by a hurricane, he decided that cyclones move in a contrary manner to the winds at their periphery. [58] Understanding the kinematics of how exactly the rotation of the Earth affects airflow was partial at first. Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis published a paper in 1835 on the energy yield of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels. [59] In 1856, William Ferrel proposed the existence of a circulation cell in the mid-latitudes, and the air within deflected by the Coriolis force resulting in the prevailing westerly winds. [60] Late in the 19th century, the motion of air masses along isobars was understood to be the result of the large-scale interaction of the pressure gradient force and the deflecting force. By 1912, this deflecting force was named the Coriolis effect. [61] Just after World War I, a group of meteorologists in Norway led by Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the Norwegian cyclone model that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the life cycle) of mid-latitude cyclones, and introduced the idea of fronts, that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses. [62] The group included Carl-Gustaf Rossby (who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics), Tor Bergeron (who first determined how rain forms) and Jacob Bjerknes.

Observation networks and weather forecasting

Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence Wolkenstockwerke.png
Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence
This "Hyetographic or Rain Map of the World " was first published 1848 by Alexander Keith Johnston. Hyetographic or Rain Map of the World 1848 Alexander Keith Johnston.png
This "Hyetographic or Rain Map of the World " was first published 1848 by Alexander Keith Johnston.
This "Hyetographic or Rain Map of Europe" was also published in 1848 as part of "The Physical Atlas". Hyetographic or Rain Map of Europe 1848 Alexander Keith Johnston.png
This "Hyetographic or Rain Map of Europe" was also published in 1848 as part of "The Physical Atlas".

In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century a range of meteorological instruments were invented – the thermometer, barometer, hydrometer, as well as wind and rain gauges. In the 1650s natural philosophers started using these instruments to systematically record weather observations. Scientific academies established weather diaries and organised observational networks. [63] In 1654, Ferdinando II de Medici established the first weather observing network, that consisted of meteorological stations in Florence, Cutigliano, Vallombrosa, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Innsbruck, Osnabrück, Paris and Warsaw. The collected data were sent to Florence at regular time intervals. [64] In the 1660s Robert Hooke of the Royal Society of London sponsored networks of weather observers. Hippocrates' treatise Airs, Waters, and Places had linked weather to disease. Thus early meteorologists attempted to correlate weather patterns with epidemic outbreaks, and the climate with public health. [63]

During the Age of Enlightenment meteorology tried to rationalise traditional weather lore, including astrological meteorology. But there were also attempts to establish a theoretical understanding of weather phenomena. Edmond Halley and George Hadley tried to explain trade winds. They reasoned that the rising mass of heated equator air is replaced by an inflow of cooler air from high latitudes. A flow of warm air at high altitude from equator to poles in turn established an early picture of circulation. Frustration with the lack of discipline among weather observers, and the poor quality of the instruments, led the early modern nation states to organise large observation networks. Thus by the end of the 18th century, meteorologists had access to large quantities of reliable weather data. [63] In 1832, an electromagnetic telegraph was created by Baron Schilling. [65] The arrival of the electrical telegraph in 1837 afforded, for the first time, a practical method for quickly gathering surface weather observations from a wide area. [66]

This data could be used to produce maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the Earth's surface and to study how these states evolved through time. To make frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the Smithsonian Institution began to establish an observation network across the United States under the leadership of Joseph Henry. [67] Similar observation networks were established in Europe at this time. The Reverend William Clement Ley was key in understanding of cirrus clouds and early understandings of Jet Streams. [68] Charles Kenneth Mackinnon Douglas, known as 'CKM' Douglas read Ley's papers after his death and carried on the early study of weather systems. [69] Nineteenth century researchers in meteorology were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. [70] In 1854, the United Kingdom government appointed Robert FitzRoy to the new office of Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade with the task of gathering weather observations at sea. FitzRoy's office became the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1854, the second oldest national meteorological service in the world (the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Austria was founded in 1851 and is the oldest weather service in the world). The first daily weather forecasts made by FitzRoy's Office were published in The Times newspaper in 1860. The following year a system was introduced of hoisting storm warning cones at principal ports when a gale was expected.

FitzRoy coined the term "weather forecast", and tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones. [71]

Over the next 50 years, many countries established national meteorological services. The India Meteorological Department (1875) was established to follow tropical cyclone and monsoon. [72] The Finnish Meteorological Central Office (1881) was formed from part of Magnetic Observatory of Helsinki University. [73] Japan's Tokyo Meteorological Observatory, the forerunner of the Japan Meteorological Agency, began constructing surface weather maps in 1883. [74] The United States Weather Bureau (1890) was established under the United States Department of Agriculture. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (1906) was established by a Meteorology Act to unify existing state meteorological services. [75] [76]

Numerical weather prediction

A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. c. 1965 IBM 7090 console used by a meteorologist, 1965.jpg
A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. c. 1965

In 1904, Norwegian scientist Vilhelm Bjerknes first argued in his paper Weather Forecasting as a Problem in Mechanics and Physics that it should be possible to forecast weather from calculations based upon natural laws. [77] [78]

It was not until later in the 20th century that advances in the understanding of atmospheric physics led to the foundation of modern numerical weather prediction. In 1922, Lewis Fry Richardson published "Weather Prediction By Numerical Process," [79] after finding notes and derivations he worked on as an ambulance driver in World War I. He described how small terms in the prognostic fluid dynamics equations that govern atmospheric flow could be neglected, and a numerical calculation scheme that could be devised to allow predictions. Richardson envisioned a large auditorium of thousands of people performing the calculations. However, the sheer number of calculations required was too large to complete without electronic computers, and the size of the grid and time steps used in the calculations led to unrealistic results. Though numerical analysis later found that this was due to numerical instability.

Starting in the 1950s, numerical forecasts with computers became feasible. [80] The first weather forecasts derived this way used barotropic (single-vertical-level) models, and could successfully predict the large-scale movement of midlatitude Rossby waves, that is, the pattern of atmospheric lows and highs. [81] In 1959, the UK Meteorological Office received its first computer, a Ferranti Mercury. [82]

In the 1960s, the chaotic nature of the atmosphere was first observed and mathematically described by Edward Lorenz, founding the field of chaos theory. [83] These advances have led to the current use of ensemble forecasting in most major forecasting centers, to take into account uncertainty arising from the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. [84] Mathematical models used to predict the long term weather of the Earth (climate models), have been developed that have a resolution today that are as coarse as the older weather prediction models. These climate models are used to investigate long-term climate shifts, such as what effects might be caused by human emission of greenhouse gases.


Meteorologists are scientists who study and work in the field of meteorology. [85] The American Meteorological Society publishes and continually updates an authoritative electronic Meteorology Glossary. [86] Meteorologists work in government agencies, private consulting and research services, industrial enterprises, utilities, radio and television stations, and in education. In the United States, meteorologists held about 10,000 jobs in 2018. [87]

Although weather forecasts and warnings are the best known products of meteorologists for the public, weather presenters on radio and television are not necessarily professional meteorologists. They are most often reporters with little formal meteorological training, using unregulated titles such as weather specialist or weatherman. The American Meteorological Society and National Weather Association issue "Seals of Approval" to weather broadcasters who meet certain requirements but this is not mandatory to be hired by the media.


Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image Huracan Hugo.jpg
Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image

Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. In the atmosphere, there are many things or qualities of the atmosphere that can be measured. Rain, which can be observed, or seen anywhere and anytime was one of the first atmospheric qualities measured historically. Also, two other accurately measured qualities are wind and humidity. Neither of these can be seen but can be felt. The devices to measure these three sprang up in the mid-15th century and were respectively the rain gauge, the anemometer, and the hygrometer. Many attempts had been made prior to the 15th century to construct adequate equipment to measure the many atmospheric variables. Many were faulty in some way or were simply not reliable. Even Aristotle noted this in some of his work as the difficulty to measure the air.

Sets of surface measurements are important data to meteorologists. They give a snapshot of a variety of weather conditions at one single location and are usually at a weather station, a ship or a weather buoy. The measurements taken at a weather station can include any number of atmospheric observables. Usually, temperature, pressure, wind measurements, and humidity are the variables that are measured by a thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and hygrometer, respectively. [88] Professional stations may also include air quality sensors (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, dust, and smoke), ceilometer (cloud ceiling), falling precipitation sensor, flood sensor, lightning sensor, microphone (explosions, sonic booms, thunder), pyranometer/pyrheliometer/spectroradiometer (IR/Vis/UV photodiodes), rain gauge/snow gauge, scintillation counter (background radiation, fallout, radon), seismometer (earthquakes and tremors), transmissometer (visibility), and a GPS clock for data logging. Upper air data are of crucial importance for weather forecasting. The most widely used technique is launches of radiosondes. Supplementing the radiosondes a network of aircraft collection is organized by the World Meteorological Organization.

Remote sensing, as used in meteorology, is the concept of collecting data from remote weather events and subsequently producing weather information. The common types of remote sensing are Radar, Lidar, and satellites (or photogrammetry). Each collects data about the atmosphere from a remote location and, usually, stores the data where the instrument is located. Radar and Lidar are not passive because both use EM radiation to illuminate a specific portion of the atmosphere. [89] Weather satellites along with more general-purpose Earth-observing satellites circling the earth at various altitudes have become an indispensable tool for studying a wide range of phenomena from forest fires to El Niño.

Spatial scales

The study of the atmosphere can be divided into distinct areas that depend on both time and spatial scales. At one extreme of this scale is climatology. In the timescales of hours to days, meteorology separates into micro-, meso-, and synoptic scale meteorology. Respectively, the geospatial size of each of these three scales relates directly with the appropriate timescale.

Other subclassifications are used to describe the unique, local, or broad effects within those subclasses.

Typical Scales of Atmospheric Motion Systems [90]
Type of motionHorizontal scale (meter)
Molecular mean free path10−7
Minute turbulent eddies10−2 – 10−1
Small eddies10−1 – 1
Dust devils1–10
Gusts10 – 102
Fronts, squall lines104 – 105
Synoptic Cyclones106
Planetary waves107
Atmospheric tides107
Mean zonal wind107


Microscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena on a scale of about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) or less. Individual thunderstorms, clouds, and local turbulence caused by buildings and other obstacles (such as individual hills) are modeled on this scale. [91]


Mesoscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena that has horizontal scales ranging from 1 km to 1000 km and a vertical scale that starts at the Earth's surface and includes the atmospheric boundary layer, troposphere, tropopause, and the lower section of the stratosphere. Mesoscale timescales last from less than a day to multiple weeks. The events typically of interest are thunderstorms, squall lines, fronts, precipitation bands in tropical and extratropical cyclones, and topographically generated weather systems such as mountain waves and sea and land breezes. [92]

Synoptic scale

NOAA: Synoptic scale weather analysis. Surface analysis.gif
NOAA: Synoptic scale weather analysis.

Synoptic scale meteorology predicts atmospheric changes at scales up to 1000 km and 105 sec (28 days), in time and space. At the synoptic scale, the Coriolis acceleration acting on moving air masses (outside of the tropics) plays a dominant role in predictions. The phenomena typically described by synoptic meteorology include events such as extratropical cyclones, baroclinic troughs and ridges, frontal zones, and to some extent jet streams. All of these are typically given on weather maps for a specific time. The minimum horizontal scale of synoptic phenomena is limited to the spacing between surface observation stations. [93]

Global scale

Annual mean sea surface temperatures. WOA09 sea-surf TMP AYool.png
Annual mean sea surface temperatures.

Global scale meteorology is the study of weather patterns related to the transport of heat from the tropics to the poles. Very large scale oscillations are of importance at this scale. These oscillations have time periods typically on the order of months, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation, or years, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Pacific decadal oscillation. Global scale meteorology pushes into the range of climatology. The traditional definition of climate is pushed into larger timescales and with the understanding of the longer time scale global oscillations, their effect on climate and weather disturbances can be included in the synoptic and mesoscale timescales predictions.

Numerical Weather Prediction is a main focus in understanding air–sea interaction, tropical meteorology, atmospheric predictability, and tropospheric/stratospheric processes. [94] The Naval Research Laboratory in Monterey, California, developed a global atmospheric model called Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). NOGAPS is run operationally at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center for the United States Military. Many other global atmospheric models are run by national meteorological agencies.

Some meteorological principles

Boundary layer meteorology

Boundary layer meteorology is the study of processes in the air layer directly above Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The effects of the surface – heating, cooling, and friction  – cause turbulent mixing within the air layer. Significant movement of heat, matter, or momentum on time scales of less than a day are caused by turbulent motions. [95] Boundary layer meteorology includes the study of all types of surface–atmosphere boundary, including ocean, lake, urban land and non-urban land for the study of meteorology.

Dynamic meteorology

Dynamic meteorology generally focuses on the fluid dynamics of the atmosphere. The idea of air parcel is used to define the smallest element of the atmosphere, while ignoring the discrete molecular and chemical nature of the atmosphere. An air parcel is defined as a point in the fluid continuum of the atmosphere. The fundamental laws of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and motion are used to study the atmosphere. The physical quantities that characterize the state of the atmosphere are temperature, density, pressure, etc. These variables have unique values in the continuum. [96]


Weather forecasting

Forecast of surface pressures five days into the future for the north Pacific, North America, and north Atlantic Ocean Day5pressureforecast.png
Forecast of surface pressures five days into the future for the north Pacific, North America, and north Atlantic Ocean

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere at a future time and given location. Humans have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since at least the 19th century. [97] [98] Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve. [99]

Once an all-human endeavor based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition, [100] [101] forecast models are now used to determine future conditions. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes mean that forecasts become less accurate as the difference in current time and the time for which the forecast is being made (the range of the forecast) increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most likely outcome. [102] [103] [104]

There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect life and property. [105] Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, [106] [107] [108] [109] and therefore to commodity traders within stock markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. [110] [111] [112] On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine what to wear. Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow, and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead and survive them.

Aviation meteorology

Aviation meteorology deals with the impact of weather on air traffic management. It is important for air crews to understand the implications of weather on their flight plan as well as their aircraft, as noted by the Aeronautical Information Manual : [113]

The effects of ice on aircraft are cumulative—thrust is reduced, drag increases, lift lessens, and weight increases. The results are an increase in stall speed and a deterioration of aircraft performance. In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on the leading edge of the airfoil in less than 5 minutes. It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to reduce the lifting power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases the frictional drag by an equal percentage. [114]

Agricultural meteorology

Meteorologists, soil scientists, agricultural hydrologists, and agronomists are people concerned with studying the effects of weather and climate on plant distribution, crop yield, water-use efficiency, phenology of plant and animal development, and the energy balance of managed and natural ecosystems. Conversely, they are interested in the role of vegetation on climate and weather. [115]


Hydrometeorology is the branch of meteorology that deals with the hydrologic cycle, the water budget, and the rainfall statistics of storms. [116] A hydrometeorologist prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating (quantitative) precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and highlights areas with the potential for flash flooding. Typically the range of knowledge that is required overlaps with climatology, mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, and other geosciences. [117]

The multidisciplinary nature of the branch can result in technical challenges, since tools and solutions from each of the individual disciplines involved may behave slightly differently, be optimized for different hard- and software platforms and use different data formats. There are some initiatives – such as the DRIHM project [118] – that are trying to address this issue. [119]

Nuclear meteorology

Nuclear meteorology investigates the distribution of radioactive aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. [120]

Maritime meteorology

Maritime meteorology deals with air and wave forecasts for ships operating at sea. Organizations such as the Ocean Prediction Center, Honolulu National Weather Service forecast office, United Kingdom Met Office, and JMA prepare high seas forecasts for the world's oceans.

Military meteorology

Military meteorology is the research and application of meteorology for military purposes. In the United States, the United States Navy's Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command oversees meteorological efforts for the Navy and Marine Corps while the United States Air Force's Air Force Weather Agency is responsible for the Air Force and Army.

Environmental meteorology

Environmental meteorology mainly analyzes industrial pollution dispersion physically and chemically based on meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind, and various weather conditions.

Renewable energy

Meteorology applications in renewable energy includes basic research, "exploration," and potential mapping of wind power and solar radiation for wind and solar energy.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Weather</span> Short-term state of the atmosphere

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. On Earth, most weather phenomena occur in the lowest layer of the planet's atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature, precipitation, and other atmospheric conditions, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tornado</span> Violently rotating column of air in contact with both the Earths surface and a cumulonimbus cloud

A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. It is often referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which, from an observer looking down toward the surface of the Earth, winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, and they are often visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 180 km/h (110 mph), are about 80 m across, and travel several kilometers before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 480 km/h (300 mph), are more than 3 km in diameter, and stay on the ground for more than 100 km.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thunderstorm</span> Type of weather with lightning and thunder

A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Relatively weak thunderstorms are sometimes called thundershowers. Thunderstorms occur in a type of cloud known as a cumulonimbus. They are usually accompanied by strong winds and often produce heavy rain and sometimes snow, sleet, or hail, but some thunderstorms produce little precipitation or no precipitation at all. Thunderstorms may line up in a series or become a rainband, known as a squall line. Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather phenomena, including large hail, strong winds, and tornadoes. Some of the most persistent severe thunderstorms, known as supercells, rotate as do cyclones. While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear sometimes causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Weather forecasting</span> Science and technology application

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere, land, and ocean and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change at a given place.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Meteorologist</span> Scientist specialising in meteorology

A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology aiming to understand or predict Earth's atmospheric phenomena including the weather. Those who study meteorological phenomena are meteorologists in research, while those using mathematical models and knowledge to prepare daily weather forecasts are called weather forecasters or operational meteorologists.

The timeline of meteorology contains events of scientific and technological advancements in the area of atmospheric sciences. The most notable advancements in observational meteorology, weather forecasting, climatology, atmospheric chemistry, and atmospheric physics are listed chronologically. Some historical weather events are included that mark time periods where advancements were made, or even that sparked policy change.

The Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal is the highest award for atmospheric science of the American Meteorological Society. It is presented to individual scientists, who receive a medal. Named in honor of meteorology and oceanography pioneer Carl-Gustaf Rossby, who was also its second (1953) recipient.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Weather map</span> Table of weather elements

A weather map, also known as synoptic weather chart, displays various meteorological features across a particular area at a particular point in time and has various symbols which all have specific meanings. Such maps have been in use since the mid-19th century and are used for research and weather forecasting purposes. Maps using isotherms show temperature gradients, which can help locate weather fronts. Isotach maps, analyzing lines of equal wind speed, on a constant pressure surface of 300 or 250 hPa show where the jet stream is located. Use of constant pressure charts at the 700 and 500 hPa level can indicate tropical cyclone motion. Two-dimensional streamlines based on wind speeds at various levels show areas of convergence and divergence in the wind field, which are helpful in determining the location of features within the wind pattern. A popular type of surface weather map is the surface weather analysis, which plots isobars to depict areas of high pressure and low pressure. Cloud codes are translated into symbols and plotted on these maps along with other meteorological data that are included in synoptic reports sent by professionally trained observers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Astrometeorology</span> Using astrology for weather forecasting

Astrometeorology or meteorological astrology is a pseudoscience that attempts to forecast the weather using astrology. It is the belief that the position and motion of celestial objects can be used to predict both seasonal climate and weather. Throughout most of its history astrometeorology was considered a scholarly tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, medicine, and other types of astrology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Numerical weather prediction</span> Weather prediction using mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions. Though first attempted in the 1920s, it was not until the advent of computer simulation in the 1950s that numerical weather predictions produced realistic results. A number of global and regional forecast models are run in different countries worldwide, using current weather observations relayed from radiosondes, weather satellites and other observing systems as inputs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Norton Lorenz</span> American mathematician

Edward Norton Lorenz was an American mathematician and meteorologist who established the theoretical basis of weather and climate predictability, as well as the basis for computer-aided atmospheric physics and meteorology. He is best known as the founder of modern chaos theory, a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Index of meteorology articles</span>

This is a list of meteorology topics. The terms relate to meteorology, the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute</span> Research institute

The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, central Netherlands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Atmospheric model</span>

An atmospheric model is a mathematical model constructed around the full set of primitive dynamical equations which govern atmospheric motions. It can supplement these equations with parameterizations for turbulent diffusion, radiation, moist processes, heat exchange, soil, vegetation, surface water, the kinematic effects of terrain, and convection. Most atmospheric models are numerical, i.e. they discretize equations of motion. They can predict microscale phenomena such as tornadoes and boundary layer eddies, sub-microscale turbulent flow over buildings, as well as synoptic and global flows. The horizontal domain of a model is either global, covering the entire Earth, or regional (limited-area), covering only part of the Earth. The different types of models run are thermotropic, barotropic, hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic. Some of the model types make assumptions about the atmosphere which lengthens the time steps used and increases computational speed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Meteorological instrumentation</span>

Meteorological instruments, including meteorological sensors, are the equipment used to find the state of the atmosphere at a given time. Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. Meteorology, however, is a science which does not use much laboratory equipment but relies more on on-site observation and remote sensing equipment. In science, an observation, or observable, is an abstract idea that can be measured and for which data can be taken. Rain was one of the first quantities to be measured historically. Two other accurately measured weather-related variables are wind and humidity. Many attempts had been made prior to the 15th century to construct adequate equipment to measure atmospheric variables.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Severe weather</span> Any dangerous meteorological phenomenon

Severe weather is any dangerous meteorological phenomenon with the potential to cause damage, serious social disruption, or loss of human life. Types of severe weather phenomena vary, depending on the latitude, altitude, topography, and atmospheric conditions. High winds, hail, excessive precipitation, and wildfires are forms and effects of severe weather, as are thunderstorms, downbursts, tornadoes, waterspouts, tropical cyclones, and extratropical cyclones. Regional and seasonal severe weather phenomena include blizzards (snowstorms), ice storms, and duststorms. Extreme weather phenomena which cause extreme heat, cold, wetness or drought often will bring severe weather events. One of the principal effects of anthropogenic climate change is changes in severe and extreme weather patterns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of meteorology</span> Overview of and topical guide to meteorology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the field of Meteorology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of numerical weather prediction</span> Aspect of meteorological history

The history of numerical weather prediction considers how current weather conditions as input into mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather and future sea state has changed over the years. Though first attempted manually in the 1920s, it was not until the advent of the computer and computer simulation that computation time was reduced to less than the forecast period itself. ENIAC was used to create the first forecasts via computer in 1950, and over the years more powerful computers have been used to increase the size of initial datasets as well as include more complicated versions of the equations of motion. The development of global forecasting models led to the first climate models. The development of limited area (regional) models facilitated advances in forecasting the tracks of tropical cyclone as well as air quality in the 1970s and 1980s.

The Jule G. Charney Award is the American Meteorological Society's award granted to "individuals in recognition of highly significant research or development achievement in the atmospheric or hydrologic sciences". The prize was originally known as the Second Half Century Award, and first awarded to mark to fiftieth anniversary of the society.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Glossary of meteorology</span> List of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in meteorology

This glossary of meteorology is a list of terms and concepts relevant to meteorology and atmospheric science, their sub-disciplines, and related fields.


  1. 1 2 Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 1. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  2. 1 2 NS, "History of Meteorology in India". Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  3. 1 2 Hellmann, G. (1 October 1908). "The dawn of meteorology". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 34 (148): 221–232. Bibcode:1908QJRMS..34..221H. doi:10.1002/qj.49703414802. ISSN   1477-870X.
  4. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 8. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  5. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 11. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  6. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 4. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  7. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  8. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 6. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  9. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 8. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  10. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 9–10. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  11. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 11. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  12. "Meteorology: Introduction". Infoplease.
  13. "94.05.01: Meteorology". Archived from the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  14. Aristotle (2004) [350 BCE]. Meteorology. The University of Adelaide Library, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005: eBooks@Adelaide. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Translated by E.W. Webster{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  15. Aristotle; Forster, E. S. (Edward Seymour), 1879–1950; Dobson, J. F. (John Frederic), 1875–1947 (1914). De Mundo. Oxford : The Clarendon Press. p. Chapter 4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 25. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  17. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 25–26. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  18. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 26. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  19. "Weather: Forecasting from the Beginning". Infoplease.
  20. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 26. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  21. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 27. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  22. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 28. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  23. Smith AM, 1996. "Ptolemy's Theory of Visual Perception: An English Translation of the Optics", pp. 46. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. 86, part 2.
  24. "Timeline of geography, paleontology". Archived from the original on 6 September 2012. Following the path of Discovery
  25. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 29–30. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  26. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 30. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  27. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 30–31. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  28. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 31. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  29. Fahd, Toufic. "Botany and agriculture": 815.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  30. Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Vol. 3. Routledge. pp. 815–816. ISBN   978-0-415-12410-2.
  31. Frisinger, H. Howard (1973). "Aristotle's Legacy in Meteorology". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 54 (3): 198. Bibcode:1973BAMS...54..198F. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1973)054<0198:ALIM>2.0.CO;2 . ISSN   1520-0477.
  32. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 32. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  33. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 33. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  34. "Ancient and pre-Renaissance Contributors to Meteorology" . Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  35. Raymond L. Lee; Alistair B. Fraser (2001). The Rainbow Bridge: Rainbows in Art, Myth, and Science. Penn State Press. p. 155. ISBN   978-0-271-01977-2.
  36. "Theodoric of Freiberg and Kamal al-Din al-Farisi Independently Formulate the Correct Qualitative Description of the Rainbow |". Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  37. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 33, 36. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  38. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 36–37. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  39. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. p. 37. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  40. Frisinge, H. Howard (1983). The History of Meteorology: to 1800. American Meteorological Society. pp. 37–40. ISBN   978-1-940033-91-4.
  41. Earth Science' 2005 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 151. ISBN   978-971-23-3938-7.
  42. 1 2 Jacobson, Mark Z. (June 2005). Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling (paperback) (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 828. ISBN   978-0-521-54865-6.
  43. "Early Snow Crystal Observations" . Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  44. Grigull, U., Fahrenheit, a Pioneer of Exact Thermometry. Heat Transfer, 1966, The Proceedings of the 8th International Heat Transfer Conference, San Francisco, 1966, Vol. 1.
  45. Beckman, Olof (2001). "History of the Celsius temperature scale". Uppsala Astronomical Observatory . Archived from the original on 22 July 2009.
  46. Thornes, John. E. (1999). John Constable's Skies. The University of Birmingham Press, pp. 189. ISBN   1-902459-02-4.
  47. Giles, Bill. "Beaufort Scale". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  48. Florin to Pascal, September 1647, Œuves completes de Pascal, 2:682.
  49. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Meteorology", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive , University of St Andrews
  50. Biographical note at "Lectures and Papers of Professor Daniel Rutherford (1749–1819), and Diary of Mrs Harriet Rutherford" Archived 7 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine .
  51. "Sur la combustion en général" ("On Combustion in general", 1777) and "Considérations Générales sur la Nature des Acides" ("General Considerations on the Nature of Acids", 1778).
  52. Nicholas W. Best, "Lavoisier's 'Reflections on Phlogiston' I: Against Phlogiston Theory", Foundations of Chemistry , 2015, 17, 137–151.
  53. Nicholas W. Best, Lavoisier's 'Reflections on Phlogiston' II: On the Nature of Heat, Foundations of Chemistry , 2015, 17. In this early work, Lavoisier calls it "igneous fluid".
  54. The 1880 edition of A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, a 19th-century educational science book, explained heat transfer in terms of the flow of caloric.
  55. Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Cristopher Columbus, Boston, 1942, page 617.
  56. Cook, Alan H., Edmond Halley: Charting the Heavens and the Seas (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998)
  57. George Hadley, "Concerning the cause of the general trade winds", Philosophical Transactions, vol. 39 (1735).
  58. Dorst, Neal (1 June 2017). "FAQ: Hurricane Timeline". AOML. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019.
  59. G-G Coriolis (1835). "Sur les équations du mouvement relatif des systèmes de corps". Journal de l'École Royale Polytechnique. 15: 144–154.
  60. Ferrel, William (4 October 1856). "An Essay on the Winds and the Currents of the Ocean" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  61. Arthur Gordon Webster (1912). The Dynamics of Particles and of Rigid, Elastic, and Fluid Bodies. B.G. Teubner. p.  320. coriolis centrifugal force 0-1920.
  62. Johnson, Shaye (2003). "The Norwegian Cyclone Model" (PDF). The University of Oklahoma. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
  63. 1 2 3 John L. Heilbron (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Oxford University Press. p. 518. ISBN   9780199743766.
  64. Raymond S. Bradley, Philip D. Jones, Climate Since A.D. 1500, Routledge, 1992, ISBN   0-415-07593-9, p.144
  65. Martin, Rebecca (2009). "News on the wire". ABC Online . Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  66. Bruno, Leonard C. "The Invention of the Telegraph". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  67. "Smithsonian Institution Archives". Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  68. "Prophet without Honour: The Reverend William Clement Ley and the hunt for the jet stream". Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  69. Field, M. (1 October 1999). "Meteorologist's profile — Charles Kenneth Mackinnon Douglas, OBE, AFC, MA". Weather. 54 (10): 321–327. Bibcode:1999Wthr...54..321F. doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.1999.tb03992.x. S2CID   120325369.
  70. Williamson, Fiona (1 September 2015). "Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British straits settlements". The British Journal for the History of Science. 48 (3): 475–492. doi:10.1017/S000708741500028X. ISSN   1474-001X. PMID   26234178.
  71. Anderson, Katharine (1999). "The weather prophets: science and reputation in Victorian meteorology". History of Science. 37 (2): 179–215. Bibcode:1999HisSc..37..179A. doi:10.1177/007327539903700203. S2CID   142652078.
  72. "Establishment of IMD". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  73. "History of Finnish Meteorological Institute". Finnish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  74. "History". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  75. "BOM celebrates 100 years". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 31 December 2007.
  76. "Collections in Perth: 20. Meteorology". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
  77. Berknes, V. (1904) "Das Problem der Wettervorhersage, betrachtet vom Standpunkte der Mechanik und der Physik" (The problem of weather prediction, considered from the viewpoints of mechanics and physics), Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 21 : 1–7. Available in English on-line at: Schweizerbart science publishers.
  78. "Pioneers in Modern Meteorology and Climatology: Vilhelm and Jacob Bjerknes" (PDF). Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  79. Richardson, Lewis Fry, Weather Prediction by Numerical Process (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1922). Available on-line at: Internet
  80. Edwards, Paul N. "Atmospheric General Circulation Modeling". American Institute of Physics. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  81. Cox, John D. (2002). Storm Watchers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p.  208. ISBN   978-0-471-38108-2.
  82. "The history of Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office". Met Office. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  83. Edward N. Lorenz, "Deterministic non-periodic flow", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 20, pages 130–141 (1963).
  84. Manousos, Peter (19 July 2006). "Ensemble Prediction Systems". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center . Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  85. Glickman, Todd S. (June 2009). Meteorology Glossary (electronic) (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society . Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  86. Glickman, Todd S. (June 2000). Meteorology Glossary (electronic) (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society . Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  87. "Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  88. "Surface Weather Observations and Reports, Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 1". Office of the Federal Coordinator of Meteorology. September 2005. Archived from the original on 20 April 1999. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
  89. Peebles, Peyton, [1998], Radar Principles, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, ISBN   0-471-25205-0.
  90. Holton, James. "An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology" (PDF). Elsevier Academic Press. p. 5. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  91. "AMS Glossary of Meteorology". American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
  92. Online Glossary of Meteorology , American Meteorological Society , 2nd Ed., 2000, Allen Press.
  93. Bluestein, H., Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes: Principles of Kinematics and Dynamics, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 1992; ISBN   0-19-506267-1
  94. Global Modelling Archived 21 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine , US Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, Ca.
  95. Garratt, J.R., The atmospheric boundary layer, Cambridge University Press, 1992; ISBN   0-521-38052-9.
  96. Holton, J.R. [2004]. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 4th Ed., Burlington, Md: Elsevier Inc.. ISBN   0-12-354015-1.
  97. "Astrology Lessons". Mistic House. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
  98. Craft, Eric D. (7 October 2001). "An Economic History of Weather Forecasting". Economic History Association. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  99. "Weather Forecasting Through the Ages". NASA. Archived from the original on 10 September 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  100. "Applying The Barometer To Weather Watching". The Weather Doctor. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  101. Moore, Mark (2003). "Field Forecasting—a short summary" (PDF). NWAC . Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  102. Weickmann, Klaus; Whitaker, Jeff; Roubicek, Andres; Smith, Catherine. "The Use of Ensemble Forecasts to Produce Improved Medium Range (3–15 days) Weather Forecasts". Earth System Research Laboratory. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  103. Kimberlain, Todd (June 2007). "TC Genesis, Track, and Intensity Forecating [sic]". Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  104. Richard J. Pasch, Mike Fiorino, and Chris Landsea. TPC/NHC’S REVIEW OF THE NCEP PRODUCTION SUITE FOR 2006. [ permanent dead link ] Retrieved on 5 May 2008.
  105. "National Weather Service Mission Statement". NOAA. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  106. Fannin, Blair (14 June 2006). "Dry weather conditions continue for Texas". Southwest Farm Press. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  107. Mader, Terry (3 April 2000). "Drought Corn Silage". University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  108. Taylor, Kathryn C. (March 2005). "Peach Orchard Establishment and Young Tree Care". University of Georgia. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  109. "After Freeze, Counting Losses to Orange Crop". The New York Times. Associated Press. 14 January 1991. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  110. "FUTURES/OPTIONS; Cold Weather Brings Surge In Prices of Heating Fuels". The New York Times. Reuters. 26 February 1993. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  111. "Heatwave causes electricity surge". BBC News. 25 July 2006. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  112. "The seven key messages of the Energy Drill program" (PDF). Toronto Catholic District School Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  113. An international version called the Aeronautical Information Publication contains parallel information, as well as specific information on the international airports for use by the international community.
  114. "Aeronautical Information Manual, Section 1. Meteorology: 7-1-21. PIREPs Relating to Airframe Icing". AIM Online. Federal Aviation Administration, Dept. of Transportation. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  115. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Elsevier, ISSN   0168-1923.
  116. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  117. About the HPC, NOAA/ National Weather Service, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland, 2007.
  118. "Home" . Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  119. DRIHM News, number 1, March 2012, p2 "An ideal environment for hydro-meteorology research at the European level"
  120. Tsitskishvili, M. S.; Trusov, A. G. (February 1974). "Modern research in nuclear meteorology". Atomic Energy. 36 (2): 197–198. doi:10.1007/BF01117823. S2CID   96128061.

Further reading

Dictionaries and encyclopedias


Please see weather forecasting for weather forecast sites.