United States Department of Agriculture

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United States Department of Agriculture
Seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDA logo.svg
Logo of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Flag of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agency overview
FormedMay 15, 1862;159 years ago (1862-05-15)
Cabinet status: February 15, 1889
Preceding agency
  • Agricultural Division
Jurisdiction U.S. federal government
Headquarters Jamie L. Whitten Building
1301 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C.
38°53′17″N77°1′48″W / 38.88806°N 77.03000°W / 38.88806; -77.03000 Coordinates: 38°53′17″N77°1′48″W / 38.88806°N 77.03000°W / 38.88806; -77.03000
Employees105,778 (June 2007)
Annual budget US$151 billion (2017) [1]
Agency executives
Website USDA.gov

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, and food. It aims to meet the needs of commercial farming and livestock food production, promotes agricultural trade and production, works to assure food safety, protects natural resources, fosters rural communities and works to end hunger in the United States and internationally.

Contents

Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly known as the Food Stamp program), which is the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance. [2] The United States Forest Service is the largest agency within the department, which administers national forests and national grasslands that together comprise about 25% of federal lands.

The Secretary of Agriculture is Tom Vilsack since February 24, 2021. [3]

Overview

The USDA is divided into different agencies:

-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

-Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

-Economic Research Service (ERS)

-Farm Service Agency (FSA)

-Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)

-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

-Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)

-Forest Service (FS)

-FPAC Business Center

-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)

-National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)

-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)

-Risk Management Agency (RMA)

-Rural Development (RD)

-Rural Utilities Service (RUS)

-Rural Housing Service (RHS)

-Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) [4]

Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of the United States and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run by the Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month. [5] USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, [6] where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits have been accessed by those experiencing homelessness.

The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets. It plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits. The Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 (b) and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, also known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation.

History

Harvey Washington Wiley, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Chemistry (third from the right) with his staff in 1883 Harvey Wiley, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Chemistry (cropped).jpg
Harvey Washington Wiley, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Chemistry (third from the right) with his staff in 1883

The standard history is Gladys L. Baker, ed., Century of Service: The first 100 years of the United States Department of Agriculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1963). [7]

Origins in the Patent Office

Early in its history, the American economy was largely agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants and animals for import into the United States. In 1829, by request of James Smithson out of a desire to further promulgate and diffuse scientific knowledge amongst the American people, the Smithsonian Institution was established, though it did not incorporate agriculture. [8] In 1837, Henry Leavitt Ellsworth became Commissioner of Patents in the Department of State. He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and local agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." [9] Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the various new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, the preparation of statewide reports about crops in different regions, and the application of chemistry to agriculture.[ citation needed ] Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture." [10]

In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. [11]

History

The first Department of Agriculture Building on the National Mall around 1895 Main Building of the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (no original caption) - NARA - 512817.jpg
The first Department of Agriculture Building on the National Mall around 1895
The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C. is the current USDA headquarters. USDA Bldg., Washington, D.C. IMG 4787.JPG
The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C. is the current USDA headquarters.

On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture through the Morrill Act to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status. Staffed by only eight employees, the Department was charged with conducting research and development related to "agriculture, rural development, aquaculture and human nutrition in the most general and comprehensive sense of those terms". [12] Agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first commissioner. [13] Lincoln called it the "people's department", owing to the fact that over half of the nation at the time was directly or indirectly involved in agriculture or agribusiness. [14]

In 1868, the department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, designed by famed D.C. architect Adolf Cluss. Located on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. [15]

In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed separate bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. Finally, in 1889 the Department of Agriculture was given cabinet-level status. [16]

In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 then funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, and other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. [17]

New Deal era

By 1933 the department was well established in Washington and very well known in rural America. In the agricultural field the picture was different. Statisticians created a comprehensive data-gathering arm in the Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates. Secretary Henry Wallace, a statistician, further strengthened the expertise by introducing sampling techniques. Professional economists ran a strong Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Most important was the agricultural experiment station system, a network of state partners in the land-grant colleges, which in turn operated a large field service in direct contact with farmers in practically every rural county. The department worked smoothly with a nationwide, well-organized pressure group, the American Farm Bureau Federation. It represented the largest commercial growers before Congress. [18]

As late as the Great Depression, farm work occupied a fourth of Americans. Indeed, many young people who moved to the cities in the prosperous 1920s returned to the family farm after the depression caused unemployment after 1929. The USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, and provided technical advice. Its Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. [19]

Modern times

It was revealed on August 27, 2018, that the U.S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U.S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs. [20]

Organization and Component Staff Level

USDA's offices and agencies are listed below, with full-time equivalent staff levels according to the estimated FY2019 appropriation, as reported in USDA's FY2020 Congressional Budget Justification. [1]

ComponentFTE
Staff Offices

Secretary of Agriculture

Deputy Secretary of Agriculture
Agriculture Buildings and Facilities82
Departmental Administration385
Hazardous Materials Management4
Office of Budget and Program Analysis45
Office of Civil Rights130
Office of Communications73
Office of Ethics20
Office of Hearings and Appeals 77
Office of Homeland Security58
Office of Inspector General482
Office of Partnerships and Public Engagement44
Office of the Chief Economist64
Office of the Chief Financial Officer1,511
Office of the Chief Information Officer1,157
Office of the General Counsel252
Office of the Secretary113
Farm Production and Conservation

Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation

Farm Service Agency 11,278
Risk Management Agency 450
Natural Resources Conservation Service 10,798
Farm Production and Conservation Business Center1,879 (FY20 est.)
Rural Development

Under Secretary for Rural Development

Rural Housing Service, Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Rural Utilities Service 4,389
Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services

Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services

Food and Nutrition Service 1,558
Food Safety

Under Secretary for Food Safety

Food Safety and Inspection Service 9,332
Natural Resources and Environment

Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment

United States Forest Service 30,539
Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7,901
Agricultural Marketing Service 3,694
Research, Education, and Economics

Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics

Agricultural Research Service 6,166
National Institute of Food and Agriculture 358
Economic Research Service 330
National Agricultural Statistics Service 937
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs [21] Foreign Agricultural Service1,019
Total93,253
A nutrition researcher considers canned peas Consumer Reports - product testing - brine test for canned peas (cropped).jpg
A nutrition researcher considers canned peas

Inactive Departmental Services

Discrimination

Allegations have been made that throughout the agency's history its personnel have discriminated against farmers of various backgrounds, denying them loans and access to other programs well into the 1990s. [23] The effect of this discrimination has been the reduction in the number of African American farmers in the United States. [24] Though African American farmers have been the most hit by discriminatory actions by the USDA, women, Native Americans, Hispanics, and other minorities have experienced discrimination in a variety of forms at the hands of the USDA. The majority of these discriminatory actions have occurred through the Farm Service Agency, which oversees loan and assistance programs to farmers. [25]

In response to the Supreme Court's ruling of unconstitutionality of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, Congress enacted the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936, which established the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) which provided service to private landowners and encouraged subsidies that would relieve soil from excessive farming. The SCS in its early days were hesitant, especially in Southern jurisdictions, to hire Black conservationists. Rather than reaching out to Black students in universities for interviews and job opportunities, students had to reach out for the few opportunities granted to Black conservationists. [26]

As part of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the USDA formally ended racial segregation among its staff. [27] In the 1999 Pigford v. Glickman class-action lawsuit brought by African American farmers, the USDA agreed to a billion-dollar settlement due to its patterns of discrimination in the granting of loans and subsidies to black farmers. [27] In 2011, a second round of payouts, Pigford II, was appropriated by Congress for $1.25 billion, although this payout, far too late to support the many who desperately needed financial assistance during 1999 lawsuit, only comes out to around $250,000 per farmer. [28]

A March 17, 2006 letter from the GAO about the Pigford Settlement indicated that "the court noted that USDA disbanded its Office of Civil Rights in 1983, and stopped responding to claims of discrimination." [29]

Pigford v. Glickman

Following long-standing concerns, black farmers joined a class action discrimination suit against the USDA filed in federal court in 1997. [30] An attorney called it "the most organized, largest civil rights case in the history of the country." [31] Also in 1997, black farmers from at least five states held protests in front of the USDA headquarters in Washington, D.C. [32] Protests in front of the USDA were a strategy employed in later years as the black farmers sought to keep national attention focused on the plight of the black farmers. Representatives of the National Black Farmers Association met with President Bill Clinton and other administration officials at the White House. And NBFA's president testified before the United States House Committee on Agriculture. [33]

In Pigford v. Glickman , U.S. Federal District Court Judge Paul L. Friedman approved the settlement and consent decree on April 14, 1999. [30] The settlement recognized discrimination against 22,363 black farmers, but the NBFA would later call the agreement incomplete because more than 70,000 were excluded. [34] Nevertheless, the settlement was deemed to be the largest-ever civil rights class action settlement in American history. Lawyers estimated the value of the settlement to be more than $2 billion. [35] Some farmers would have their debts forgiven. [36] Judge Friedman appointed a monitor to oversee the settlement. [35] Farmers in Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Georgia were among those affected by the settlement. [37]

The NBFA's president was invited to testify before congress on this matter numerous times following the settlement, including before the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture on September 12, 2000, when he testified that many farmers had not yet received payments and others were left out of the settlement. It was later revealed that one DoJ staff "general attorney" was unlicensed while she was handling black farmers' cases. [38] NBFA called for all those cases to be reheard. [39] The Chicago Tribune reported in 2004 that the result of such longstanding USDA discrimination was that black farmers had been forced out of business at a rate three times faster than white farmers. In 1920, 1 in 7 U.S. farmers was African-American, and by 2004 the number was 1 in 100. USDA spokesman Ed Loyd, when acknowledging that the USDA loan process was unfair to minority farmers, had claimed it was hard to determine the effect on such farmers. [40]

In 2006 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report highly critical of the USDA in its handling of the black farmers cases. [41] NBFA continued to lobby Congress to provide relief. NBFA's Boyd secured congressional support for legislation that would provide $100 million in funds to settle late-filer cases. In 2006 a bill was introduced into the House of Representatives and later the Senate by Senator George Felix Allen. [42] In 2007 Boyd testified before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary about this legislation.[ citation needed ] As the organization was making headway by gathering Congressional supporters in 2007 it was revealed that some USDA Farm Services Agency employees were engaged in activities aimed at blocking Congressional legislation that would aid the black farmers. [43] President Barack Obama, then a U.S. Senator, lent his support to the black farmers' issues in 2007. [44] A bill co-sponsored by Obama passed the Senate in 2007. [45]

In early June 2008 hundreds of black farmers, denied a chance to have their cases heard in the Pigford settlement, filed a new lawsuit against USDA. [46] The Senate and House versions of the black farmers bill, reopening black farmers discrimination cases, became law in June 2008. [47] Some news reports said that the new law could affect up to 74,000 black farmers. [48] In October 2008, the GAO issued a report criticizing the USDA's handling of discrimination complaints. [49] The GAO recommended an oversight review board to examine civil rights complaints. [50]

After numerous public rallies and an intensive NBFA member lobbying effort, Congress approved and Obama signed into law in December 2010 legislation that set aside $1.15 billion to resolve the outstanding black farmers' cases. [51] NBFA's John W. Boyd, Jr., attended the bill-signing ceremony at the White House.[ citation needed ] As of 2013, 90,000 African-American, Hispanic, female and Native American farmers had filed claims. It was reported that some had been found fraudulent, or transparently bogus. In Maple Hill, North Carolina by 2013, the number of successful claimants was four times the number of farms with 1 out of 9 African-Americans being paid, while "claimants were not required [by the USDA] to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm." Lack of documentation is an issue complicated by the USDA practice of discarding denied applications after three years. [52]

Keepseagle v. Vilsack

In 1999, Native American farmers, discriminated in a similar fashion to black farmers, filed a class-action lawsuit against the USDA alleging loan discrimination under the ECOA and the APA. This case relied heavily on its predecessor, Pigford v. Glickman, in terms of the reasoning it set forth in the lawsuit. [25] Eventually, a settlement was reached between the plaintiffs and the USDA to the amount of up to $760 million, awardable through individual damages claims. [53] These claims could be used for monetary relief, debt relief, and/or tax relief. The filing period began June 29, 2011 and lasted 180 days. [54] Track A claimants would be eligible for up to $50,000, whereas Track B claimants would be eligible for up to $250,000 with a higher standard of proof. [55]

Garcia v. Vilsack

In 2000, similar to Pigford v. Glickman, a class-action lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia on behalf of Hispanic farmers alleging that the USDA discriminated against them in terms of credit transactions and disaster benefits, in direct violation of ECOA. As per the settlement, $1.33 billion is available for compensation in awards of up to $50,000 or $250,000, while an additional $160 million is available in debt relief. [56]

Love v. Vilsack

In 2001, similar to Garcia v. Vilsack, a class-action lawsuit was filed in the same court alleging discrimination on the basis of gender. A Congressional response to the lawsuit resulted in the passing of the Equality for Women Farmers Act, which created a system that would allow for allegations of gender discrimination to be heard against the USDA and enable claims for damages. [57]

Environmental justice initiatives

In their 2012 environmental justice strategy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) stated an ongoing desire to integrate environmental justice into its core mission and operations. In 2011, Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack emphasized the USDA's focus on EJ in rural communities around the United States, as well as connecting with Indigenous Tribes and ensuring they understand and receive their environmental rights. USDA does fund programs with social and environmental equity goals; however, it has no staff dedicated solely to EJ.

Background

On February 16, 1994, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12898, "Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations." Executive Order 12898 requires that achieving EJ must be part of each federal agency's mission. Under Executive Order 12898 federal agencies must:

  1. enforce all health and environmental statutes in areas with minority and low-income populations;
  2. ensure public participation;
  3. improve research and data collection relating to the health and environment of minority and low-income populations; and
  4. identify differential patterns of consumption of natural resources among minority and low-income populations.

The Executive Order also created an Interagency Working Group (IWG) consisting of 11 heads of departments and agencies. [58]

2012 Environmental Justice Strategy

On February 7, 2012, the USDA released a final Environmental Justice Strategic Plan identifying new and updated goals and performance measures beyond what USDA identified in a 1995 EJ strategy that was adopted in response to E.O. 12898. [59] Generally, USDA believes its existing technical and financial assistance programs provide solutions to environmental inequity, such as its initiatives on education, food deserts, and economic development in impacted communities.

Natural Resources and Environment Under Secretary Harris Sherman is the political appointee generally responsible for USDA's EJ strategy, with Patrick Holmes, a senior staffer to the Under Secretary, playing a coordinating role. USDA has no staff dedicated solely to EJ. [60]

EJ Initiatives in Tribal Communities

Tribal development

USDA has had a role in implementing Michelle Obama's Let's Move campaign in tribal areas by increasing Bureau of Indian Education schools' participation in federal nutrition programs, by developing community gardens on tribal lands, and developing tribal food policy councils. [61]

More than $6.2 billion in Rural Development funding has been allocated for community infrastructure in Indian country and is distributed via 47 state offices that altogether cover the entire continental United States, Hawaii, and Alaska. [60] Such funding has been used for a variety of reasons:

Rural housing:

-single-family housing direct loans

-loan guarantees loans for very-low-income homeowners

-financing for affordable rental housing

-financing for farm laborers and their families

Community facilities:

-child and senior care centers

-emergency services

-healthcare institutions

-educational institutions

-tribal administration buildings

Business and cooperative programs:

-increased access to broadband connections

-tribal workplace development and employment opportunities

-sustainable renewable energy development

-regional food systems

-financing and technical assistance for entrepreneurs, including loans and lending

-increased access to capital through Tribal CDFIs

Utilities:

-increased access to 21st century telecommunications services

-reliable and affordable water and wastewater systems

-financing electric systems

-integrating electric smart-grid technologies [62]

Tribal relations

In 1997, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) published a resource guide aimed at helping USFS officials with developing and maintaining relations with different tribal governments. To that end, and in coordination with the Forest Service's 4-point American Indian/Alaska Native policy, the resource guide discusses how to:

  1. Maintain a governmental relationship with Federally Recognized tribal governments.
  2. Implement Forest Service programs and activities honoring Indian treaty rights, and fulfill legally mandated trust responsibilities to the extent that they are determine applicable to National Forest System lands.
  3. Administer programs and activities to address and be sensitive to traditional Native religious beliefs and practices.
  4. Provide research, transfer of technology, and technical assistance to Indian governments. [63]

The USFS works to maintain good governmental relationships through regular intergovernmental meetings, acknowledgement of pre-existing tribal sovereignty, and a better general understanding of tribal government, which varies from tribe to tribe. Indian treaty rights and trust responsibilities are honored through visits to tribal neighbors, discussions of mutual interest, and attempts to honor and accommodate the legal positions of Indians and the federal government. Addressing and demonstrating sensitivity to Native religious beliefs and practices includes walking through Native lands and acknowledging cultural needs when implementing USFS activities. Providing research, technology, and assistance to Indian governments is shown through collaboration of ecological studies and sharing of various environmental technologies, as well as the inclusion of traditional Native practices in contemporary operations of the USFS. [63]

The Intertribal Technical Assistance Network works to improve access of tribal governments, communities and individuals to USDA technical assistance programs. [64]

Tribal Services/Cooperatives

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service provides APHIS Veterinary Services, which serve the tribal community by promoting and fostering safe animal trade and care. This includes prevention of pests and disease from herd and fisheries as well as surveys for diseases on or near Native American lands that can affected traditionally hunted wildlife. [65] The APHIS also provides Wildlife Services, which help with wildlife damage on Native lands. This includes emergency trainings, outreach, consultation, internship opportunities for students, and general education on damage reduction, livestock protection, and disease monitoring. [66]

Meanwhile, the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is exploring a program to use meat from bisons raised on tribal land to supply AMS food distribution programs to tribes. [60]

Other EJ Initiatives

Technical and financial assistance

The NRCS Strike Force Initiative has identified impoverished counties in Mississippi, Georgia and Arkansas to receive increased outreach and training regarding USDA assistance programs. USDA credits this increased outreach with generating a 196 percent increase in contracts, representing more than 250,000 acres of farmland, in its Environmental Quality Incentives Program. [64] In 2001, NRCS funded and published a study, "Environmental Justice: Perceptions of Issues, Awareness and Assistance," focused on rural, Southern "Black Belt" counties and analyzing how the NRCS workforce could more effectively integrate environmental justice into impacted communities. [67]

The Farm Services Agency in 2011 devoted $100,000 of its Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers program budget to improving its outreach to counties with persistent poverty. [68] USDA's Risk Management Agency has initiated education and outreach to low-income farmers regarding use of biological controls, rather than pesticides, for pest control. [60] The Rural Utilities Service administers water and wastewater loans, including SEARCH Grants that are targeted to financially distressed, small rural communities and other opportunities specifically for Alaskan Native villages. [69] [70]

Mapping

USFS has established several Urban Field Stations, to research urban natural resources' structure, function, stewardship, and benefits. [71] By mapping urban tree coverage, the agency hopes to identify and prioritize EJ communities for urban forest projects. [71]

Another initiative highlighted by the agency is the Food and Nutrition Service and Economic Research Service's Food Desert Locator. [72] The Locator provides a spatial view of food deserts, defined as a low-income census tract where a substantial number or share of residents has low access to a supermarket or large grocery store. The mapped deserts can be used to direct agency resources to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables and other food assistance programs. [73]

Other

COVID-19 relief

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Congress allocated funding to the USDA to address the disturbances rippling through the agricultural sector. On April 17, 2020, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue announced the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program: [74]

The American food supply chain had to adapt, and it remains safe, secure, and strong, and we all know that starts with America's farmers and ranchers. This program will not only provide immediate relief for our farmers and ranchers, but it will also allow for the purchase and distribution of our agricultural abundance to help our fellow Americans in need.

This provided $16 billion for farmers and ranchers, and $3 billion to purchase surplus produce, dairy, and meat from farmers for distribution to charitable organizations. [75] As part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES) and the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA), USDA has up to an additional $873.3 million available in Section 32 funding to purchase a variety of agricultural products for distribution to food banks, $850 million for food bank administrative costs and USDA food purchases. [75]

Important legislation setting policy of the USDA includes the:[ citation needed ]

Images

See also

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 "United States Department of Agriculture FY 2020 Budget Summary" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  2. "History of FNS" (PDF). usda.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  3. Good, Keith (February 24, 2021). "Senate Confirms Tom Vilsack as Secretary of Agriculture • Farm Policy News". Farm Policy News. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  4. "USDA Agencies".
  5. "FNS Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)". June 21, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  6. "United States Interagency Council on Homelessness". USICH. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012.
  7. It is not copyright and is online here for free download..
  8. (PDF) https://permanent.fdlp.gov/gpo90633/HistoryofHumanNutritionResearch.pdf.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. History of Human Nutrition Research in the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Government Printing Office. ISBN   9780160943843.
  10. "Ellsworth, Henry Leavitt, 1791-1858 - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  11. (PDF) https://permanent.fdlp.gov/gpo90633/HistoryofHumanNutritionResearch.pdf.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A297138453/OVIC?u=asuniv&sid=bookmark-OVIC&xid=28d1b0f8.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. 12 Stat. 387, now codified at 7 U.S.C. § 2201.
  14. Salvador, Ricardo; Bittman, Mark (December 4, 2020). "Opinion: Goodbye, U.S.D.A., Hello, Department of Food and Well-Being". The New York Times . Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  15. Evening Star - June 18, 1868 - page 4 - column 4
  16. 25 Stat 659 (February 9, 1889)
  17. Danbom, David B. (1986). "The Agricultural Experiment Station and Professionalization: Scientists' Goals for Agriculture". Agricultural History. 60 (2): 246–255. JSTOR   3743443.
  18. David M. Kennedy, Freedom from fear: The American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (1999). p 203.
  19. Ziegelman, Jane; Coe, Andrew (2016). A Square Meal: A Culinary History of the Great Depression . HarperCollins. ISBN   978-0-06-221641-0.
  20. Reuters Editorial. "U.S. government to pay $4.7 billion in tariff-related aid to farmers". U.S. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  21. "Secretary Perdue Announces Creation of Undersecretary for Trade" . Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  22. 1 2 "Records of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering [BPISAE]: Administrative History". Archives.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  23. "USDA - Problems Continue to Hinder the Timely Processing of Discrimination Complaints" (PDF). General Accounting Office. January 1999.
  24. Brooks, Roy L. (2004). Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. University of California Press. pp.  7–8. ISBN   0-520-24813-9.
  25. 1 2 Garcia v. Vilsack: A Policy and Legal Analysis of a USDA Discrimination Case. , . HeinOnline, https://heinonline-org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/HOL/P?h=hein.crs/crsmthmatal0001&i=11.
  26. Helms, Douglas. “Eroding the Color Line: The Soil Conservation Service and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.” Agricultural History, vol. 65, no. 2, Agricultural History Society, 1991, pp. 35–53, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3743706.
  27. 1 2 Johnson, Kimberley S. (October 2011). "Racial Orders, Congress, and the Agricultural Welfare State, 1865–1940". Studies in American Political Development. 25 (2): 143–161. doi: 10.1017/S0898588X11000095 .
  28. "United States: Black US Farmers Awaiting Billions in Promised Debt Relief". Asia News Monitor. Bangkok. September 3, 2021. ProQuest   2568289864.
  29. https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-06-469r.pdf
  30. 1 2 Tadlock Cowan and Jody Feder (June 14, 2011). "The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits by Black Farmers" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 1, 2011.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  31. "PBS The News Hour (1999)". PBS. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  32. Charlene Gilbert, Quinn Eli (2002). Homecoming: The Story of African-American Farmers. Beacon Press. ISBN   9780807009635 . Retrieved December 29, 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  33. Treatment of minority and limited resource producers by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: ... U.S. G.P.O. January 1, 1997. ISBN   9780160554100 . Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  34. M. Susan Orr Klopfer, Fred Klopfer, Barry Klopfer (2005). Where Rebels Roost... Mississippi Civil Rights Revisited. Lulu Press. ISBN   9781411641020 . Retrieved December 29, 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  35. 1 2 "Judge Approves Settlement for Black Farmers". New York Times. ASSOCIATED PRESS. April 15, 1999. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  36. "Black Farmers Lawsuit". NPR. March 2, 1999. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  37. "Southern farmers among those affected by court case". Archived from the original on July 11, 2012.
  38. Daniel Pulliam (February 11, 2005). "Unlicensed Hire". GOVEXEC.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2005.
  39. "ABOUT US". nbfa. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  40. Martin, Andrew (August 8, 2004). "USDA discrimination accused of withering black farmers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
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  63. 1 2 Mitchell, Joe (1997). Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations. USFS.
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Further reading

Historiography

Primary sources

Related Research Articles

United States Secretary of Agriculture Head of the US Department of Agriculture

The United States secretary of agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture. The position carries similar responsibilities to those of agriculture ministers in other governments.

Farm Service Agency Agency of the US Dept of Agriculture

The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is the United States Department of Agriculture agency that was formed by merging the farm loan portfolio and staff of the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) and the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The Farm Service Agency implements agricultural policy, administers credit and loan programs, and manages conservation, commodity, disaster and farm marketing programs through a national network of offices. The Administrator of FSA reports to the Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm Production and Conservation. The current Administrator is Richard Fordyce. The FSA of each state is led by a politically appointed State Executive Director (SED).

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program United States government food assistance program

In the United States, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, is a federal program that provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people. It is a federal aid program, administered by the United States Department of Agriculture under the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), though benefits are distributed by specific departments of U.S. states.

Food and Nutrition Service U.S. federal anti-hunger agency

The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The FNS is the federal agency responsible for administering the nation’s domestic nutrition assistance programs. The service helps to address the issue of hunger in the United States.

The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is the foreign affairs agency with primary responsibility for the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) overseas programs — market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information. It also administers the USDA's export credit guarantee and food aid programs and helps increase income and food availability in developing nations by mobilizing expertise for agriculturally led economic growth. The FAS mission statement reads, "Linking U.S. agriculture to the world to enhance export opportunities and global food security," and its motto is "Linking U.S. Agriculture to the World."

The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is a wholly owned United States government corporation that was created in 1933 to "stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices". The CCC is authorized to buy, sell, lend, make payments, and engage in other activities for the purpose of increasing production, stabilizing prices, assuring adequate supplies, and facilitating the efficient marketing of agricultural commodities.

Food policy Area of public policy

Food policy is the area of public policy concerning how food is produced, processed, distributed, purchased, or provided. Food policies are designed to influence the operation of the food and agriculture system balanced with ensuring human health needs. This often includes decision-making around production and processing techniques, marketing, availability, utilization, and consumption of food, in the interest of meeting or furthering social objectives. Food policy can be promulgated on any level, from local to global, and by a government agency, business, or organization. Food policymakers engage in activities such as regulation of food-related industries, establishing eligibility standards for food assistance programs for the poor, ensuring safety of the food supply, food labeling, and even the qualifications of a product to be considered organic.

In different administrative and organizational forms, the Food for Peace program of the United States has provided food assistance around the world for more than 60 years. Approximately 3 billion people in 150 countries have benefited directly from U.S. food assistance. The Office of Food for Peace within the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the U.S. Government's largest provider of overseas food assistance. The food assistance programming is funded primarily through the Food for Peace Act. The Office of Food for Peace also receives International Disaster Assistance Funds through the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) that can be used in emergency settings.

Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 United States federal law

The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 was a $288 billion, five-year agricultural policy bill that was passed into law by the United States Congress on June 18, 2008. The bill was a continuation of the 2002 Farm Bill. It continues the United States' long history of agricultural subsidies as well as pursuing areas such as energy, conservation, nutrition, and rural development. Some specific initiatives in the bill include increases in Food Stamp benefits, increased support for the production of cellulosic ethanol, and money for the research of pests, diseases and other agricultural problems.

The agricultural policy of the United States is composed primarily of the periodically renewed federal U.S. farm bills. The Farm Bills have a rich history which initially sought to provide income and price support to US farmers and prevent them from adverse global as well as local supply and demand shocks. This implied an elaborate subsidy program which supports domestic production by either direct payments or through price support measures. The former incentivizes farmers to grow certain crops which are eligible for such payments through environmentally conscientious practices of farming. The latter protects farmers from vagaries of price fluctuations by ensuring a minimum price and fulfilling their shortfalls in revenue upon a fall in price. Lately, there are other measures through which the government encourages crop insurance and pays part of the premium for such insurance against various unanticipated outcomes in agriculture.

The National Black Farmers Association (NBFA) is a non-profit organization representing African American farmers and their families in the United States. As an association, it serves tens of thousands of members nationwide. NBFA's education and advocacy efforts have been focused on civil rights, land retention, access to public and private loans, education and agricultural training, and rural economic development for black and other small farmers.

Pigford v. Glickman (1999) was a class action lawsuit against the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), alleging racial discrimination against African-American farmers in its allocation of farm loans and assistance between 1981 and 1996. The lawsuit was settled on April 14, 1999, by Judge Paul L. Friedman of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. To date, almost US$1 billion has been paid or credited to less than 20,000 farmers to date under the settlement's consent decree, under what is reportedly the largest civil rights settlement to date. Due to delay tactics by the U.S. government, more than 70,000 farmers were treated as filing late and thus did not have their claims heard. The 2008 Farm Bill provided for additional claims to be heard. In December 2010, Congress appropriated $1.2 billion for what is called Pigford II, settlement for the second part of the case. However, all repayments have come well under what any individual farmer is estimated to need in order to reenter this livelihood: $250,000.

TheEmergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) is a program that evolved out of surplus commodity donation efforts begun by the USDA in late 1981 to dispose of surplus foods held by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). This program was explicitly authorized by the Congress in 1983 when funding was provided to assist states with the costs involved in storing and distributing the commodities. The program originally was entitled the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Program when authorized under the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983. The program is now known as The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP).

Shirley Sherrod

Shirley Sherrod is a former Georgia State Director of Rural Development for the United States Department of Agriculture. On July 19, 2010, she became a subject of controversy when parts of a speech she gave were publicized by Breitbart News, and she was forced to resign. However, upon review of the complete unedited video in context, the NAACP, White House officials, and Tom Vilsack, the United States Secretary of Agriculture, apologized for the firing and Sherrod was offered a new position.

Farmers Market Nutrition Program / Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program

The Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) is a federal assistance program in the United States associated with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children that provides fresh, unprepared, locally grown fruits and vegetables and nutrition education to WIC participants. Women, infants and children that have been certified to receive WIC program benefits or who are on a waiting list for WIC certification are eligible to participate in the FMNP.

Summer Food Service Program Federal program reimbursing organizations for childrens meals

The Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) began in 1968. It was an amendment to the National School Lunch Act. Today, the SFSP is the largest federal resource available for local sponsors who want to combine a child nutrition program with a summer activity program. Sponsors can be public or private groups, such as non-profit organizations, government entities, churches, universities, and camps. The government reimburses sponsors for the food at a set rate. There are still communities that have not created a Summer Food Service Program in their community. For those individuals that want to help ensure children have meals during the summer, they can get more information from the USDA or their state government agencies.

The USDA Coalition of Minority Employees is a civil rights organization formed by employees of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1994 specifically focused on ending discrimination within the Department and more generally on eradicating racism in agriculture in the United States.

Janie Simms Hipp Lawyer and Policy Expert

Janie Simms Hipp is the founder of the Indigenous Food and Agriculture Initiative at the University of Arkansas, founder of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Office of Tribal Relations in the Office of the Secretary, founding Executive Director of the Native American Agriculture Fund, agriculture and food lawyer, and policy expert. Hipp's work focuses on the intersection of Indian law and agriculture and food law. On June 10, 2021, she was confirmed as USDA General Counsel, the first Native American to serve in that role.

Love v. Vilsack refers to the 2001 lawsuit filed by a group of women farmers against the USDA. The lawsuit alleged that the USDA discriminated against female farmers through the agricultural loan process, and specifically named the Farm Service Agency(FSA). This lawsuit is often discussed in conjunction with Garcia v. Vilsack because of its similar timeline and like the Garcia v. Vilsack, the claims process for female farmers was voluntary, which meant that female farmers had to file claims individually.

Garcia v. Vilsack refers to a 2000 lawsuit brought by a hundred Hispanic farmers against the USDA, with the farmers claiming the organization had discriminated against Latino/Hispanic farmers. This lawsuit was filed at the US District Court for the District of Columbia.