United States Geological Survey

Last updated

United States Geological Survey (USGS)
US-GeologicalSurvey-Seal.svg
Seal of the United States Geological Survey
USGS logo green.svg
Official identifier of the U.S. Geological Survey
Flag of the United States Geological Survey.png
Flag of the United States Geological Survey
Agency overview
FormedMarch 3, 1879;140 years ago (1879-03-03) (as Geological Survey)
JurisdictionUnited States
Headquarters John W. Powell National Center
Reston, Virginia, U.S.
38°56′49″N77°22′03″W / 38.9470°N 77.3675°W / 38.9470; -77.3675 Coordinates: 38°56′49″N77°22′03″W / 38.9470°N 77.3675°W / 38.9470; -77.3675
Employees8,670 (2009)
Annual budget $1.16 billion (FY2019) [1]
Agency executive
Parent agency United States Department of the Interior
Website USGS.gov

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency. There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry, and other types of public body established by government. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character, since different types of organizations are most often constituted in an advisory role—this distinction is often blurred in practice however.

Federal government of the United States National government of the United States

The federal government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.

Scientist Person that conducts scientific research

A scientist is someone who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest.

Contents

The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people [2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, and Menlo Park, California.

United States Department of the Interior Cabinet level department of the United States federal government

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the U.S. government. It is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service.

Reston, Virginia Place in Virginia, United States

Reston is a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia. Founded in 1964, Reston was influenced by the Garden City movement that emphasized planned, self-contained communities that intermingled green space, residential neighborhoods, and commercial development. The intent of Reston's founder, Robert E. Simon, was to build a town that would revolutionize post–World War II concepts of land use and residential/corporate development in suburban America. In 2018, Reston was ranked as the Best Place to Live in Virginia by Money magazine for its expanses of parks, lakes, golf courses, and bridle paths as well as the numerous shopping and dining opportunities in Reston Town Center.

Lakewood, Colorado Home Rule Municipality in Colorado, United States

Lakewood is a Home Rule Municipality which is the most populous municipality in Jefferson County, Colorado, United States. Lakewood is the fifth most populous city in the State of Colorado and the 172nd most populous city in the United States. The city population was 142,980 at the 2010 United States Census. Lakewood is west of Denver and is part of the Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world". [3] [4] The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service". [5]

Programs

The USGS headquarters in Reston, Virginia Usgs-headquarters.jpeg
The USGS headquarters in Reston, Virginia
USGS gauging station 03221000 on the Scioto River below O'Shaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio USGS Station.JPG
USGS gauging station 03221000 on the Scioto River below O'Shaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio
Earthquake animations from 16 May 2010 to 22 May 2010 Anim7 us.gif
Earthquake animations from 16 May 2010 to 22 May 2010
Recent earthquakes around the world, from 23 April 2010 to 23 May 2010 Recent Earthquakes Last 8-30 Days.gif
Recent earthquakes around the world, from 23 April 2010 to 23 May 2010

Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", [6] namely (1) Climate and Land Use Change, (2) Core Science Systems, (3) Ecosystems, (4) Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health, (5) Natural Hazards, and (6) Water. In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units. [7] Other specific programs include:

Earthquake Shaking of the surface of the earth caused by a sudden release of energy in the crust

An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency, type, and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling.

The National Earthquake Information Center is part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) located on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. The NEIC has three main missions:

Golden, Colorado Home Rule Municipality in Colorado, United States

Golden is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States. Golden lies along Clear Creek at the base of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Founded during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush on June 16, 1859, the mining camp was originally named "Golden City" in honor of Thomas L. Golden. Golden City served as the capital of the provisional Territory of Jefferson from 1860 to 1861, and capital of the official Territory of Colorado from 1862 to 1867. In 1867, the territorial capital was moved about 12 miles (19 km) east to Denver City. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,867.

Topographic mapping

1892 15-minute map (or topographic sheet) of the Mount Marcy area of the Adirondacks in New York State from the first decades of the USGS Mount Marcy New York USGS topo map 1892.jpg
1892 15-minute map (or topographic sheet) of the Mount Marcy area of the Adirondacks in New York State from the first decades of the USGS

The USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest (both in terms of scale and quantity) and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale virtually unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U.S. territories, and areas of Alaska near Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles (166 km2). At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles (127 km2) are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale naturally requires a separate and specialized romer scale for plotting map positions. [23] [24] In recent years, budget constraints have forced the USGS to rely on donations of time by civilian volunteers in an attempt to update its 7.5-minute topographic map series, and USGS stated outright in 2000 that the program was to be phased out in favor of The National Map [25] (not to be confused with the National Atlas of the United States produced by the Department of the Interior, one of whose bureaus is USGS).

The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. This simple concept is complicated by the curvature of the Earth's surface, which forces scale to vary across a map. Because of this variation, the concept of scale becomes meaningful in two distinct ways.

Quadrangle (geography) Large area in geology or geography

A "quadrangle" is a United States Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5-minute map, which are usually named after a local physiographic feature. The shorthand "quad" is also used, especially with the name of the map; for example, "the Ranger Creek, Texas quad map". These maps are one-quarter of the older 15-minute series. On a quadrangle map, the north and south limits are not straight lines, but are actually curved to match Earth's lines of latitude on the standard projection. The east and west limits are usually not parallel as they match Earth's lines of longitude. In the United States, a 7.5 minute quadrangle map covers an area of 49 to 70 square miles.

Latitude The angle between zenith at a point and the plane of the equator

In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. On its own, the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined below. Briefly, geodetic latitude at a point is the angle formed by the vector perpendicular to the ellipsoidal surface from that point, and the equatorial plane. Also defined are six auxiliary latitudes which are used in special applications.

An older series of maps, the 15-minute series, was once used to map the contiguous 48 states at a scale of 1:62,500, but was discontinued some time ago for maps covering the continental United States. Each map was bounded by two parallels and two meridians spaced 15 minutes apart—the same area covered by four maps in the 7.5-minute series. The 15-minute series, at a scale of 1:63,360 (one inch representing one mile), remains the primary topographic quadrangle for the state of Alaska (and only for that particular state). Nearly 3,000 maps cover 97% of the state. [23] The United States remains virtually the only developed country in the world without a standardized civilian topographic map series in the standard 1:25,000 or 1:50,000 metric scales, making coordination difficult in border regions (the U.S. military does issue 1:50,000 scale topo maps of the continental United States, though only for use by members of its defense forces).

The next-smallest topographic series, in terms of scale, is the 1:100,000 series. These maps are bounded by two lines of longitude and two lines of latitude. However, in this series, the lines of latitude are spaced 30 minutes apart and the lines of longitude are spaced 60 minutes, which is the source of another name for these maps; the 30 x 60-minute quadrangle series. Each of these quadrangles covers the area contained within 32 maps in the 7.5-minute series. The 1:100,000 scale series is unusual in that it employs the Metric system primarily. One centimeter on the map represents one kilometer of distance on the ground. Contour intervals, spot elevations, and horizontal distances are also specified in meters.

The final regular quadrangle series produced by the USGS is the 1:250,000 scale topographic series. Each of these quadrangles in the conterminous United States measures 1 degree of latitude by 2 degrees of longitude. This series was produced by the U.S.  Army Map Service in the 1950s, prior to the maps in the larger-scale series, and consists of 489 sheets, each covering an area ranging from 8,218 square miles (21,285 km2) at 30° north to 6,222 square miles (16,115 km2) at 49° north. [23] Hawaii is mapped at this scale in quadrangles measuring 1° by 1°.

USGS topographic quadrangle maps are marked with grid lines and tics around the map collar which make it possible to identify locations on the map by several methods, including the graticule measurements of longitude and latitude, the township and section method within the Public Land Survey System, and cartesian coordinates in both the State Plane Coordinate System and the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system.

Other specialty maps have been produced by the USGS at a variety of scales. These include county maps, maps of special interest areas, such as the national parks, and areas of scientific interest.

A number of Internet sites have made these maps available on the web for affordable commercial and professional use. Because works of the U.S. government are in the public domain, it is also possible to find many of these maps for free at various locations on the Internet. Georeferenced map images are available from the USGS as digital raster graphics (DRGs) in addition to digital data sets based on USGS maps, notably digital line graphs (DLGs) and digital elevation models (DEMs).

In 2015, the USGS unveiled the topoView website, a new way to view their entire digitized collection of over 178,000 maps from 1884–2006. The site is an interactive map of the United States that allows users to search or move around the map to find the USGS collection of maps for a specific area. Users may then view the maps in great detail and download them if desired. [26]

The National Map and U.S. Topo

In 2008 the USGS abandoned traditional methods of surveying, revising, and updating topographic maps based on aerial photography and field checks. [27] Today's U.S. Topo quadrangle (1:24,000) maps are mass-produced, using automated and semiautomated processes, with cartographic content supplied from the National GIS Database. [27] In the two years from June 2009 to May 2011, the USGS produced nearly 40,000 maps, more than 80 maps per work day. [27] Only about two hours of interactive work are spent on each map, mostly on text placement and final inspection; there are essentially no field checks or field inspections to confirm map details. [27]

While much less expensive to compile and produce, the revised digital U.S. topo maps have been criticized for a lack of accuracy and detail in comparison to older generation maps based on aerial photo survey and field checks. [27] As the digital databases were not designed for producing general purpose maps, data integration can be a problem when retrieved from sources with different resolutions and collection dates. [27] Man-made features once recorded by direct field observation are not in any public domain national database, and are frequently omitted from the newest generation digital topo maps, including windmills, mines and mineshafts, water tanks, fence lines, survey marks, parks, recreational trails, buildings, boundaries, pipelines, telephone lines, power transmission lines, and even railroads. [27] Additionally, the digital map's use of existing software may not properly integrate different feature classes or prioritize and organize text in areas of crowded features, obscuring important geographic details. [27] As a result, some have noted that the U.S. Topo maps currently fall short of traditional topographic map presentation standards achieved in maps drawn from 1945 to 1992. [27]

The USGS Regions, which are aligned with the Department of the Interior Unified Regions. 2019 USGS Regions.jpg
The USGS Regions, which are aligned with the Department of the Interior Unified Regions.

Regions

The USGS has split the nation into seven regions each with unique research goals [28] . The regions are:

USGS Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility

The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) has four sections within its organizational structure; [29] the Field Services Section which includes the warehouse, repair shop, and Engineering Unit; the Testing Section which includes the Hydraulic Laboratory, testing chambers, and Water Quality Laboratory; the Information Technology Section which includes computer support and the Drafting Unit; and the Administrative Section.

The HIF was given national responsibility for the design, testing, evaluation, repair, calibration, warehousing, and distribution of hydrologic instrumentation. Distribution is accomplished by direct sales and through a rental program. The HIF supports data collection activities through centralized warehouse and laboratory facilities. The HIF warehouse provides hydrologic instruments, equipment, and supplies for USGS as well as Other Federal Agencies (OFA) and USGS Cooperators. The HIF also tests, evaluates, repairs, calibrates, and develops hydrologic equipment and instruments. The HIF Hydraulic Laboratory facilities include a towing tank, jet tank, pipe flow facility, and tilting flume. In addition, the HIF provides training and technical support for the equipment it stocks.

The Engineering Group seeks out new technology and designs for instrumentation that can work more efficiently, be more accurate, and or be produced at a lower cost than existing instrumentation. HIF works directly with vendors to help them produce products that will meet the mission needs of the USGS. For instrument needs not currently met by a vendor, the Engineering Group designs, tests, and issues contracts to have HIF designed equipment made. Sometimes HIF will patent a new design in the hope that instrument vendors will buy the rights and mass-produce the instrument at a lower cost to everyone.

USGS publications

USGS researchers publish the results of their science in a variety of ways. Many researchers publish their science in peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as in one of a variety of series that includes series for preliminary results, maps data, and final results. These series include:

  • Biological Science Report (BSR): Record significant scientific interpretations and findings, usually of lasting scientific interest, addressing a wide variety of topics relevant to Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) investigations and research. May include extensive data or theoretical analyses. Reports published by the U.S. Biological Survey and later by the U.S. Geological Survey. The report series began in 1995 and continued through 2003.
  • Bulletin (B): Significant data and interpretations of lasting scientific interest but generally narrower in scope than professional papers. Results of resource studies, geologic or topographic studies, and collections of short papers on related topics.
  • Circular (CIR/C): A wide variety of topics covered concisely and clearly to provide a synthesis of understanding about processes, geographic areas, issues, or USGS programs. The Circular should be aimed at enhancing knowledge and understanding among general audiences, decision makers, university students, and scientists in related fields.
  • Circum-Pacific Map (CP): Multicolor equal-area maps at scales of 1:10,000,000 for the Northwest, Northeast, Southwest, Southeast quadrants of the Pacific and the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and of 1:17,000,000 for the whole Pacific Basin. The series consists of base, geographic, geodynamic, plate-tectonic, geologic, tectonic, mineral-resources, and energy-resources maps, as well as other miscellaneous maps.
  • Coal Investigations (COAL/C-) Map: Origin, character, and resource potential of coal deposits shown by geologic maps, structure contours, cross sections, columnar sections, and measured coal sections, where appropriate. Text on same sheet or in an accompanying pamphlet.
  • Data Series (DS): The Data Series is intended for release of basic data sets, databases, and multimedia or motion graphics. This series can be used for videos, computer programs, and collections of digital photographs.
  • General Interest Publication (GIP): A wide variety of topics covered concisely and clearly in a variety of formats. Focus is on USGS programs, projects, and services and general scientific information of public interest. The series covers a broad range of topics in a variety of media, including pamphlets, postcards, posters, videos, teacher kits, CD/DVDs, bookmarks, and interactive and motion graphics. Previously called "General Interest Publications".
  • Geologic Quadrangle (GQ) Map: Detailed geologic maps depicting areas of special importance to the solution of geologic problems. May portray bedrock or surficial units, or both. May include brief texts, structure sections, and columnar sections. 71/2- or 15-minute quadrangles printed in multicolor on topographic bases that meet National Map Accuracy standards.
  • Geophysical Investigations (GP) Map: Chiefly the results of aeromagnetic and (or) gravity surveys shown by contours. Area depicted may range in size from a few square miles to an entire country. Single or multiple sheets.
  • Land Use and Land Cover (L) Map: Various categories of land use and cover, both artificial and natural, for use by geographers, land-use planners, and others. Planimetric maps at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:100,000 on a single sheet.
  • Mineral Investigations Resource (MR) Map: Information on mineral occurrences, mineral resources, mines and prospects, commodities, and target areas of possible resources other than coal, petroleum, or natural gas. Small scale (1:250,000 or smaller).
  • Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) Map: Rapidly prepared, low-budget maps in a broad range of presentations in terms of portrayal, completeness, interpretations, draftsmanship, scale, and area coverage. Single or multiple sheets.
  • Miscellaneous Investigations/ Geologic Investigations (I) Series: High-quality maps and charts of varied subject matter such as bathymetry, geology, hydrogeology, landforms, land-use classification, vegetation, and others including maps of planets, the Moon, and other satellites. Various scales. Topographic or planimetric bases; regular or irregular areas. May include a text printed as an accompanying pamphlet.
  • Oil and Gas Investigations (OC) Chart: Information about known or possible petroleum resources, presented as logs, correlation diagrams, graphs, and tables, but ordinarily not as maps. Single or multiple sheets. Text printed on same sheet or in an accompanying pamphlet.
  • Oil and Gas Investigations (OM) Map: Apply particularly to areas of known or possible petroleum resources. Typically include cross sections, columnar sections, structure contours, correlation diagrams, and information on wells drilled for oil and gas. Single or multiple sheets. Text usually on map sheet but sometimes printed as an accompanying pamphlet.
  • Open-File Report (OFR/OF): Interpretive information that needs to be released immediately; maps and reports (and their supporting data) that need to be released as supporting documentation because they are referenced, discussed, or interpreted in another information product; preliminary findings (pending a final map or report); interim computer programs and user guides; bibliographies.
  • Professional Paper (PP): Premier series of the USGS. Comprehensive reports of wide and lasting interest and scientific importance, characterized by thoroughness of study and breadth of scientific or geographic coverage. The series may include collections of related papers addressing different aspects of a single scientific topic, either issued together under one cover or separately as chapters.
  • Water-Resources Investigations Report (WRIR/WRI): Hydrologic information, mainly of local interest, intended for quick release. Book or map format. Varied scales.
  • Water-Supply Paper (WSP): Reports on all aspects of hydrology, including quality, recoverability, and use of water resources; statistical reports on streamflow, floods, groundwater levels, and water quality; and collections of short papers on related topics.

A complete listing of descriptions of USGS Series is available at the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) website. [30]

Locating USGS publications

The United States Geological Survey Library holds copies of current and historical USGS publications, and is the largest earth sciences library in the world. Most publications are available for inter-library loan within the United States. Under the Organic Act, which provided for the formation of the USGS, the library was given extra copies of all USGS publications when published to be used in exchange with other domestic and foreign geological agencies, making the acquisition of the USGS Library collection one of the most cost efficient libraries in the U.S. government.

USGS publications are available for purchase at USGS Store. [31] Many USGS published reports are available to view and access on-line from the USGS Publications Warehouse, [32] while many USGS publications are now available online (see Publications below).

Many older USGS publications have been scanned and digitized by such services as Google Books and the Hathi Trust and Internet Archive. An online search will quickly reveal if a digital version is available. All USGS publications are public domain.

History

Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment, to an act of Congress on March 3, 1879. It was charged with the "classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain". This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Mexican–American War in 1848.

The legislation also provided that the Hayden, Powell, and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30, 1879. [33]

Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies. After a short tenure, King was succeeded in the director's chair by John Wesley Powell.

List of USGS directors

Clarence King, first director of the USGS Clarence King.jpg
Clarence King, first director of the USGS

See also

Related Research Articles

Topographic map medium to large scale map that shows a precise map of the terrain, obviously.

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic survey is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation.

Topography The study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects

Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description.

Kern River river in California, USA

The Kern River, originally Rio de San Felipe, later La Porciuncula, is a river in the U.S. state of California, approximately 165 miles (270 km) long. It drains an area of the southern Sierra Nevada mountains northeast of Bakersfield. Fed by snowmelt near Mount Whitney, the river passes through scenic canyons in the mountains and is a popular destination for whitewater rafting and kayaking. It is the southernmost major river system in the Sierra Nevada, and is the only major river in the Sierra that drains in a southerly direction.

The National Map digital map database operated by the United States Geological Survey

The National Map is a collaborative effort of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and other federal, state, and local agencies to improve and deliver topographic information for the United States. The purpose of the effort is to provide "...a seamless, continuously maintained set of public domain geographic base information that will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently".

Marshyhope Creek river in the United States of America


Marshyhope Creek is a 37.0-mile-long (59.5 km) tributary of the Nanticoke River on the Delmarva Peninsula. It rises in Kent County, Delaware, and runs through Caroline County, Maryland, and Dorchester County, Maryland.

Kaweah River river in the United States of America

The Kaweah River is a river draining the southern Sierra Nevada in Tulare County, California in the United States. Fed primarily by high elevation snowmelt along the Great Western Divide, the Kaweah begins as four forks in Sequoia National Park, where the watershed is noted for its alpine scenery and its dense concentrations of giant sequoias, the largest trees on Earth. It then flows in a southwest direction to Lake Kaweah – the only major reservoir on the river – and into the San Joaquin Valley, where it diverges into multiple channels across an alluvial plain around Visalia. With its Middle Fork headwaters starting at almost 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level, the river has a vertical drop of nearly two and a half miles (4.0 km) on its short run to the San Joaquin Valley, making it one of the steepest river drainages in the United States. Although the main stem of the Kaweah is only 33.6 miles (54.1 km) long, its total length including headwaters and lower branches is nearly 100 miles (160 km).

Digital orthophoto quadrangle digital image format with the properties of an orthographic projection

A digital orthophoto quadrangle (DOQ) is aerial photography or satellite imagery that has been corrected so that its pixels are aligned with longitude and latitude lines, and have a narrowly defined region of coverage. This is a widely used format introduced by United States Geological Survey (USGS). The correction technique is called image rectification and is a large part of photogrammetry.

Succor Creek

Succor Creek is a 69.4-mile-long (111.7 km) tributary of the Snake River in the U.S. states of Idaho and Oregon. The creek begins in the Owyhee Mountains in Owyhee County, Idaho. After flowing for about 23 miles (37 km) in Idaho, Succor Creek enters Malheur County, Oregon, where it flows for 39 miles (63 km) before re-entering Idaho for its final 5 miles (8.0 km). It joins the Snake near Homedale, about 413 river miles (665 km) from the larger river's confluence with the Columbia River.

Bryan Mountains

The Bryan Mountains are a small mountain range in the northwestern Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. The range is located in southeastern Yuma County, about 75 mi southeast of Yuma and about 35 mi west of Ajo. The range is approximately ten miles long and about three miles wide at its widest point. The highpoint of the range is 1,794 feet above sea level and is located at 32°18'27"N, 113°22'46"W. The range is located entirely within the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge.

The geology of Alabama is marked by abundant geologic resources and a variety of geologic structures from folded mountains in the north to sandy beaches along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Alabama spans three continental geologic provinces as defined by the United States Geological Survey, the Atlantic Plain, Appalachian Highlands, and Interior Plains. The Geological Survey of Alabama breaks these provinces down into more specific physiographic provinces.

Dallas Lynn Peck American geologist

Dallas Lynn Peck was an American geologist and vulcanologist. Peck was a native of Cheney, Washington. He received his bachelor's (1951) and master's (1953) degrees in geology from the California Institute of Technology. He received a doctorate in geology from Harvard University in 1960.

The geologic map of Georgia is a special-purpose map made to show geological features. Rock units or geologic strata are shown by colors or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. Structural features such as faults and shear zones are also shown. Since the first national geological map, in 1809, there have been numerous maps which included the geology of Georgia. The first Georgia specific geologic map was created in 1825. The most recent state-produced geologic map of Georgia, by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources is 1:500,000 scale, and was created in 1976 by the department's Georgia Geological Survey. It was generated from a base map produced by the United States Geological Survey. The state geologist and Director of the Geological Survey of Georgia was Sam M. Pickering, Jr. Since 1976, several geological maps of Georgia, featuring the state's five distinct geologic regions, have been produced by the federal government.

Old Port Formation

The Devonian Old Port Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, USA. Details of the type section and of stratigraphic nomenclature for this unit as used by the U.S. Geological Survey are available on-line at the National Geologic Map Database. Current nomenclature usage by U.S. Geological Survey restricts the name Old Port Formation to Pennsylvania, but correlative units are present in adjacent states.

Little Kern River river in Tulare County, United States of America - Geonames ID = 5366995

The Little Kern River is a major tributary of the upper Kern River in the Sequoia National Forest, in the southern Sierra Nevada, California. The Little Kern is 24.4 miles (39.3 km) long and drains approximately 133 square miles (340 km2) of wilderness, all of it in Tulare County.

Delaware Geological Survey

The Delaware Geological Survey (DGS) is a scientific agency for the State of Delaware, located at the University of Delaware (UD), that conducts geologic and hydrologic research, service, and exploration. The mission of the DGS is to provide objective earth science information, advice, and service to citizens, policy makers, industries, and educational institutions of Delaware. The DGS became formally affiliated with the university's College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment (CEOE) in July 2008. Most DGS scientists have secondary faculty appointments in the College's Department of Geological Sciences.

United States Geological Survey Library library

The United States Geological Survey Library is a program within the United States Geological Survey, a scientific bureau within the Department of Interior of the United States government. The USGS operates as a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

Ponce Limestone

The Ponce Limestone is a geologic formation in Puerto Rico. It preserves fossils dating back to the Neogene period (20.45 million years ago.

Coldwater Lake (Washington) lake of the United States of America

Coldwater Lake is a barrier lake on the border of Cowlitz County and Skamania County, Washington in the United States. The lake was created during the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, which blocked its natural outlet, Coldwater Creek, with volcanic debris. It is one of several lakes in the area that were created or otherwise enlarged by the eruption.

Arroyo Grande Creek natural watercourse in San Luis Obispo County, California, United States of America

Arroyo Grande Creek is a major stream in San Luis Obispo County on the Central Coast of California. The creek flows 22 miles (35 km) in a southwesterly direction, from the Santa Lucia Range to the Pacific Ocean. It is a major source of water supply for southern San Luis Obispo County.

References

Footnotes

  1. H.J.Res. 31
  2. "Monterey Aquarium's McNutt new USGS Director". The Seattle Times . Associated Press. October 23, 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
  3. FY 1997 Annual Financial Report, U.S. Geological Survey.
  4. "USGS Visual Identity System". United States Geological Survey. July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
  5. Suggestions to Authors of the Reports of the United States Geological Survey , U.S. Geological Survey (7th ed. 1991), pp. 247–248.
  6. "Start with science". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
  7. "Map of Geographic Areas". Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  8. "USGS Earthquake Hazards Program". Usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  9. "ANSS – Advanced National Seismic System". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  10. "USGS WaterWatch – Streamflow conditions". Waterwatch.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  11. "The United States Geological Survey Water Resources Research Act Program". water.usgs.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  12. "NIWR & USGS: A Model Partnership" (PDF). Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  13. "Welcome to the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center – National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center". Nccwsc.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  14. "NCCWSC Web site". Nccwsc.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
  15. "Home – SHRIMP-RG Lab". Shrimprg.stanford.edu. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  16. Archived July 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  17. Streamgages, USGS – U.S. Geological Survey Federal Priority. "USGS Federal Priority Streamgages (FPS)". Water.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  18. "USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program". Water.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  19. "Water Resources: USGS Water Data Discovery". Water.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  20. "National Wildlife Health Center". Nwhc.usgs.gov. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
  21. Mahalia Miller, Lynne Burks, and Reza Bosagh Zadeh Rapid Estimate of Ground Shaking Intensity by Combining Simple Earthquake Characteristics with Tweets, Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering
  22. Reza Bosagh Zadeh Using Twitter to measure earthquake impact in almost real time, Twitter Engineering
  23. 1 2 3 Missouri, USGS Rolla. "USGS – Topographic Maps". Topomaps.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  24. "USGS Maps Booklet". erg.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  25. Moore, Larry (December 2000). "The U.S. Geological Survey's Revision Program for 7.5-Minute Topographic Maps" (PDF). United States Geological Survey.
  26. "topoView – USGS". USGS Topoview.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Moore, Larry (May 16, 2011). "US Topo: A New National Map Series". Directions Magazine. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  28. "USGS Regional Map".
  29. USGS. "History of the HIF". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  30. "USGS Publications Series". Division of Geological and Geophysical Services. Alaska Department of Natural Resources. 2010.
  31. "USGS Store". United States Geological Survey. May 17, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  32. Ivan Suftin; David Sibley; James Kreft. "USGS Publications Warehouse". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  33. "Establishment of the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Circular 1050". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 5, 2014.

Works cited

USGS websites

Publications