O

Last updated

O
O o
(See below)
O cursiva.gif
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabetic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[ o ]
[ ]
[ ɔ ]
//
[ ]
[ ʌ ]
[ ɒ ]
[ ø ]
[ a ]
[ ʕ ]
[ w ]
[ ◌ʷ ]
[ ʊ ]
Unicode valueU+004F, U+006F
Alphabetical position15
History
Development
O
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants  Ö
 
  Ø
  Œ
  Ɔ
  Ơ
 
 
 
  º
 
Sisters
Ƹ
ʿ
О
Ю
Ө
ע
ع
ܥ





Ո ո
Օ օ


Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with o(x)

O or o is the 15th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet and the fourth vowel letter in the modern English alphabet. Its name in English is o (pronounced /ˈ/ ), plural oes. [1]

Contents

History

Its graphic form has remained fairly constant from Phoenician times until today. The name of the Phoenician letter was ʿeyn , meaning "eye", and indeed its shape originates simply as a drawing of a human eye (possibly inspired by the corresponding Egyptian hieroglyph, cf. Proto-Sinaitic script). Its original sound value was that of a consonant, probably [ ʕ ], the sound is represented by the cognate Arabic letter ع ʿayn.

The use of this Phoenician letter for a vowel sound is due to the early Greek alphabets, which adopted the letter as O "omicron" to represent the vowel /o/. The letter was adopted with this value in the Old Italic alphabets, including the early Latin alphabet. In Greek, a variation of the form later came to distinguish this long sound (Omega, meaning "large O") from the short o (Omicron, meaning "small o"). Greek omicron gave rise to the corresponding Cyrillic letter O and the early Italic letter to runic ᛟ.

Even alphabets that are not derived from Semitic tend to have similar forms to represent this sound; for example, the creators of the Afaka and Ol Chiki scripts, each invented in different parts of the world in the last century, both attributed their vowels for 'O' to the shape of the mouth when making this sound.[ original research? ]

Use in writing systems

English

The letter o is the fourth most common letter in the English alphabet. [2] Like the other English vowel letters, it has associated "long" and "short" pronunciations. The "long" o as in boat is actually most often a diphthong // (realized dialectically anywhere from [o] to [əʊ]). In English there is also a "short" o as in fox, /ɒ/ , which sounds slightly different in different dialects. In most dialects of British English, it is either an open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔ] or an open back rounded vowel [ɒ]; in American English, it is most commonly an unrounded back [ɑ] to a central vowel [a].

Common digraphs include oo, which represents either // or /ʊ/ ; oi or oy, which typically represents the diphthong /ɔɪ/ , and ao, oe, and ou which represent a variety of pronunciations depending on context and etymology.

In other contexts, especially before a letter with a minim, o may represent the sound /ʌ/ , as in 'son' or 'love'. It can also represent the semivowel /w/ as in choir or quinoa.

In English, the letter o in isolation before a noun, usually capitalized, marks the vocative case, as in the titles to O Canada or O Captain! My Captain! or certain verses of the Bible. [3]

Other languages

Pronunciation of the name of the letter <o>  in European languages Pronunciation of the name of the letter <o>  in European languages.png
Pronunciation of the name of the letter o in European languages

o is commonly associated with the open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔ], mid back rounded vowel [o̞] or close-mid back rounded vowel [o] in many languages. Other languages use o for various values, usually back vowels which are at least partly open. Derived letters such as ö and ø have been created for the alphabets of some languages to distinguish values that were not present in Latin and Greek, particularly rounded front vowels.

Other systems

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, o represents the close-mid back rounded vowel.

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

Computing codes

CharacterOo
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER OLATIN SMALL LETTER OFULLWIDTH LATIN CAPITAL LETTER OFULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER O
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 79U+004F111U+006F65327U+FF2F65359U+FF4F
UTF-8 794F1116F239 188 175EF BC AF239 189 143EF BD 8F
Numeric character reference &#79;&#x4F;&#111;&#x6F;&#65327;&#xFF2F;&#65359;&#xFF4F;
EBCDIC family214D615096
ASCII g1794F1116F
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Oscar –––
ICS Oscar.svg Semaphore Oscar.svg Sign language O.svg Braille O.svg
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille
dots-135

See also

Related Research Articles

A First letter of the Latin alphabet

A or a is the first letter and the first vowel letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is a, plural aes. It is similar in shape to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

D Letter of the Latin alphabet

D or d is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is dee, plural dees.

E letter of the Latin alphabet

E or e is the fifth letter and the second vowel letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is e, plural ees. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latin, Latvian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish.

F letter of the Latin alphabet

F or f is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ef, plural efs.

H letter of the Latin alphabet

H or h is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is aitch, or regionally haitch.

K Eleventh letter of the Latin alphabet

K is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is kay, plural kays. The letter K usually represents the voiceless velar plosive.

M Letter in the Latin alphabet

M or m is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is em, plural ems.

N Letter of the Latin Alphabet

N or n is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is en, plural ens.

P letter of the Latin alphabet

P or p is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is pee, plural pees.

R letter of the Latin alphabet

R or r is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ar, plural ars, or in Ireland or.

T Letter of the Latin alphabet

T or t is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is tee, plural tees. It is derived from the Semitic letter taw via the Greek letter tau. In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most common letter in English-language texts.

U Letter in the Latin alphabet

U or u is the 21st and sixth-to-last letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and the fifth vowel letter of the modern English alphabet. Its name in English is u, plural ues.

V Letter of Latin-based alphabets

V or v is the 22nd and fifth-to-last letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is vee, plural vees.

X letter of the Latin alphabet

X or x is the 24th and third-to-last letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ex, plural exes.

Eng (letter) letter of the Latin alphabet

Eng or engma is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Latin alpha letter of the Latin alphabet

Latin alpha or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).

L letter of the Latin alphabet

L is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el, plural els.

J letter of the Latin alphabet

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its usual name in English is jay, with a now-uncommon variant jy. When used in the International Phonetic Alphabet for the y sound, it may be called yod.

C Letter of the Latin alphabet

C or c is the third letter in the English and ISO basic Latin alphabets. Its name in English is cee, plural cees.

I Letter of the Latin alphabet

I or i is the ninth letter and the third vowel letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is i, plural ies.

References

  1. "O" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989);Chambers-Happap, "oes" op. cit.Oes is the plural of the name of the letter. The plural of the letter itself is rendered Os, O's, os, o's.
  2. "Frequency Table". www.math.cornell.edu.
  3. "Quick search: "o lord"" . Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  4. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  5. 1 2 Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  6. Lemonen, Therese; Ruppel, Klaas; Kolehmainen, Erkki I.; Sandström, Caroline (2006-01-26). "L2/06-036: Proposal to encode characters for Ordbok över Finlands svenska folkmål in the UCS" (PDF).
  7. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
  8. Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).
  9. Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). "L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).
  10. "Earliest Uses of Symbols of Set Theory and Logic". jeff560.tripod.com.