Last updated

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, biblía , 'the books') is a collection of religious texts, writings, or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other faiths. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilation of texts of a variety of forms, originally written in Hebrew and Koine Greek. These texts include theologically-focused historical accounts, hymns, prayers, proverbs, parables, didactic letters, admonitions, essays, poetry, and prophecies. Believers also generally consider the Bible to be a product of divine inspiration.


The collection of materials that are included in the Bible by a particular tradition or group are called biblical canon. There is no scholarly consensus as to when the Jewish Hebrew Bible canon was settled in present form. Some scholars argue that it was fixed by the Hasmonean dynasty (140–40 BCE), [1] while others argue it was not fixed until the second century CE or even later. [2]

Christian Bible canons range from the 73 books of the Catholic Church canon, the 66 books of the canon of the most Protestant denominations, to the 81 books of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church canon. The list of books included in the Catholic Bible was established as the biblical canon by the Councils of Hippo in 393 and in Carthage in 397 CE. It appears for the first time in Athanasius' Easter letter from 367 CE. [3] Catechesis are published by different churches in different contexts as a form of biblical interpretation.

With estimated total sales of over five billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the best-selling book of all time. [4] [5] It has had a profound influence on Western culture and history. [6]


The English word Bible is derived from Koinē Greek : τὰ βιβλία, romanized: ta biblia, meaning "the books" (singular βιβλίον, biblion). [7] The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book". It is the diminutive of βύβλοςbyblos, "Egyptian papyrus", possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos (also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece.[ citation needed ]

By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible "scriptures", and referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew, כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ (Kitvei hakkodesh). Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "the Holy Bible" (in Greek, τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια, tà biblía tà ágia) or "the Holy Scriptures" (η Αγία Γραφή, e Agía Graphḗ). [8]

The Greek ta biblia (lit. "little papyrus books") [9] was "an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books" (the Septuagint). [10] [11] Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer (in his Homilies on Matthew, delivered between 386 and 388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia ("the books") to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. [12]

Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural (gen. bibliorum). It gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae) in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. [13] Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγιαtà biblía tà hágia, "the holy books". [14]


The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century) Gutenberg Bible, Lenox Copy, New York Public Library, 2009. Pic 01.jpg
The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)

The Bible is not a single book but a collection of books, whose complex development is not completely understood. The books began as songs and stories orally transmitted from generation to generation before being written down in a process that began sometime around the start of the first millennium BCE and continued for over a thousand years. The Bible was written and compiled by many people, from a variety of disparate cultures, most of whom are unknown. [15]

British biblical scholar John K. Riches wrote: [16]

[T]he biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural, economic, and ecological – varied enormously. There are texts which reflect a nomadic existence, texts from people with an established monarchy and Temple cult, texts from exile, texts born out of fierce oppression by foreign rulers, courtly texts, texts from wandering charismatic preachers, texts from those who give themselves the airs of sophisticated Hellenistic writers. It is a time-span which encompasses the compositions of Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Thucydides, Sophocles, Caesar, Cicero, and Catullus. It is a period which sees the rise and fall of the Assyrian empire (twelfth to seventh century) and of the Persian empire (sixth to fourth century), Alexander's campaigns (336–326), the rise of Rome and its domination of the Mediterranean (fourth century to the founding of the Principate, 27  BCE), the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple (70 CE), and the extension of Roman rule to parts of Scotland (84 CE).

Considered to be scriptures (sacred, authoritative religious texts), the books were compiled by different religious communities into various biblical canons (official collections of scriptures). The earliest compilation, containing the first five books of the Bible and called the Torah (meaning "law", "instruction", or "teaching") or Pentateuch ("five books"), was accepted as Jewish canon by the 5th century BCE. A second collection of narrative histories and prophesies, called the Nevi'im ("prophets"), was canonized in the 3rd century BCE. A third collection called the Ketuvim ("writings"), containing psalms, proverbs, and narrative histories, was canonized sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 2nd century CE. These three collections were written mostly in Hebrew, with some parts in Aramaic, and together form the Hebrew Bible or "TaNaKh" (an abbreviation of "Torah", "Nevi'im", and "Ketuvim"). [17]

The Hebrew Bible shares most of its content with its ancient Greek translation, the Septuagint, and in turn was the basis for the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians written in Koine Greek. The books that are included in the Bible by a tradition or group are called a biblical canon. A number of biblical canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents from denomination to denomination. [18]

Greek-speaking Jews in Alexandria and elsewhere in the Jewish diaspora considered additional scriptures, composed between 200 BCE and 100 CE and not included in the Hebrew Bible, to be canon. These additional texts were included in a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Koine Greek (common Greek spoken by ordinary people) known as the Septuagint (meaning "the work of the seventy"), which began as a translation of the Torah made around 250 BCE and continued to develop for several centuries. The Septuagint contained all of the books of the Hebrew Bible, re-organized and with some textual differences, with the additional scriptures interspersed throughout. [19]

Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1619 painting by Valentin de Boulogne PaulT.jpg
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles , c.1619 painting by Valentin de Boulogne

During the rise of Christianity in the 1st century CE, new scriptures were written in Greek about the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who Christians believed was the messiah prophesied in the books of the Hebrew Bible. Two collections of these new scriptures the Pauline epistles and the Gospels  were accepted as canon by the end of the 2nd century CE. A third collection, the catholic epistles, were canonized over the next few centuries. Christians called these new scriptures the "New Testament", and began referring to the Septuagint as the "Old Testament". [20]

Between 385 and 405 CE, the early Christian church translated its canon into Vulgar Latin (the common Latin spoken by ordinary people), a translation known as the Vulgate, which included in its Old Testament the books that were in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Bible. The Vulgate introduced stability to the Bible, but also began the East-West Schism between Latin-speaking Western Christianity (led by the Catholic Church) and multi-lingual Eastern Christianity (led by the Eastern Orthodox Church). Christian denominations' biblical canons varied not only in the language of the books, but also in their selection, organization, and text. [21]

Jewish rabbis began developing a standard Hebrew Bible in the 1st century CE, maintained since the middle of the first millennium by the Masoretes, and called the Masoretic Text. Christians have held ecumenical councils to standardize their biblical canon since the 4th century CE. The Council of Trent (1545–63), held by the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation, authorized the Vulgate as its official Latin translation of the Bible. The Church deemed the additional books in its Old Testament that were interspersed among the Hebrew Bible books to be "deuterocanonical" (meaning part of a second or later canon). Protestant Bibles either separated these books into a separate section called the "Apocrypha" (meaning "hidden away") between the Old and New Testaments, or omitted them altogether. The 17th-century Protestant King James Version was the most ubiquitous English Bible of all time, but it has largely been superseded by modern translations. [22]

Hebrew Bible

The name Tanakh (Hebrew: תנ"ך) reflects the threefold division of the Hebrew scriptures, Torah ("Teaching"), Nevi'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings").[ citation needed ]

The Tanakh was mainly written in Biblical Hebrew, with some small portions (Ezra 4:8–6:18 and 7:12–26, Jeremiah 10:11, Daniel 2:4–7:28) [23] written in Biblical Aramaic, a language which had become the lingua franca for much of the Semitic world. [24]


A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne. Koln-Tora-und-Innenansicht-Synagoge-Glockengasse-040.JPG
A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne.

The Torah (תּוֹרָה) is also known as the "Five Books of Moses" or the Pentateuch, meaning "five scroll-cases". [25] Traditionally these books were considered to have been written almost entirely by Moses himself, [26] although since the 17th century scholars have viewed it as being the product of multiple anonymous authors. [27] There are a variety of hypotheses regarding when and how the Torah was composed, [28] but there is a general consensus that it took its final form during the reign of the Persian Achaemenid Empire (probably 450–350 BCE), [29] [30] or perhaps in the early Hellenistic period (333–164 BCE). [31]

Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum.jpg
Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum

The Hebrew names of the books are derived from the first words in the respective texts. The Torah consists of the following five books:

The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts of the creation (or ordering) of the world and the history of God's early relationship with humanity. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God's covenant with the biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel) and Jacob's children, the "Children of Israel", especially Joseph. It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt. The remaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. He leads the Children of Israel from slavery in ancient Egypt to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai and their wanderings in the desert until a new generation was ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah ends with the death of Moses. [32]

The commandments in the Torah provide the basis for Jewish religious law. Tradition states that there are 613 commandments (taryag mitzvot).


Nevi'im (Hebrew : נְבִיאִים, romanized: Nəḇî'îm, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah and Ketuvim. It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets (Nevi'im Rishonimנביאים ראשונים, the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Nevi'im Aharonimנביאים אחרונים, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets).

The Nevi'im tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancient Israel and Judah, focusing on conflicts between the Israelites and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites, specifically, struggles between believers in "the LORD God" [33] (Yahweh) and believers in foreign gods, [34] [35] and the criticism of unethical and unjust behaviour of Israelite elites and rulers; [36] [37] [38] in which prophets played a crucial and leading role. It ends with the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians followed by the conquest of the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Former Prophets

The Former Prophets are the books Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings. They contain narratives that begin immediately after the death of Moses with the divine appointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads the people of Israel into the Promised Land, and end with the release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah. Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover:

  • Joshua's conquest of the land of Canaan (in the Book of Joshua),
  • the struggle of the people to possess the land (in the Book of Judges),
  • the people's request to God to give them a king so that they can occupy the land in the face of their enemies (in the Books of Samuel)
  • the possession of the land under the divinely appointed kings of the House of David, ending in conquest and foreign exile (Books of Kings)

Latter Prophets

The Latter Prophets are divided into two groups, the "major" prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel) and the Twelve Minor Prophets, collected into a single book. The collection is broken up to form twelve individual books in the Christian Old Testament, one for each of the prophets:


Ketuvim or Kəṯûḇîm (in Biblical Hebrew : כְּתוּבִים "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh. The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level less authority than that of prophecy. [39]

The poetic books

Hebrew text of Psalm 1:1-2 Bhs psalm1.png
Hebrew text of Psalm 1:1–2

In Masoretic manuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallel stichs in the verses, which are a function of their poetry. Collectively, these three books are known as Sifrei Emet (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yields Emet אמ"ת, which is also the Hebrew for "truth").

These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh with a special system of cantillation notes that are designed to emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prose system.[ citation needed ]

The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot)

The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book of Ruth, the Book of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Book of Esther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot (Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected and designated as "authoritative" in the Jewish canon even though they were not complete until the 2nd century CE. [40]

Other books

Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim are Daniel, Ezra–Nehemiah and Chronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish tradition, they nevertheless share a number of distinguishing characteristics:

  • Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events (i.e., the Babylonian captivity and the subsequent restoration of Zion).
  • The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship to all of them.
  • Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in the Tanakh with significant portions in Aramaic.

Book order

The following list presents the books of Ketuvim in the order they appear in most printed editions. It also divides them into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness of Sifrei Emet and Hamesh Megillot.

The Three Poetic Books (Sifrei Emet)

The Five Megillot (Hamesh Megillot)

Other books

The Jewish textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud (Bava Batra 14b–15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles. [41]

In Tiberian Masoretic codices, including the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, and often in old Spanish manuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra. [42]


The Ketuvim is the last of the three portions of the Tanakh to have been accepted as biblical canon. While the Torah may have been considered canon by Israel as early as the 5th century BCE and the Former and Latter Prophets were canonized by the 2nd century BCE, the Ketuvim was not a fixed canon until the 2nd century of the Common Era. [40]

Evidence suggests, however, that the people of Israel were adding what would become the Ketuvim to their holy literature shortly after the canonization of the prophets. As early as 132 BCE references suggest that the Ketuvim was starting to take shape, although it lacked a formal title. [43] References in the four Gospels as well as other books of the New Testament indicate that many of these texts were both commonly known and counted as having some degree of religious authority early in the 1st century CE.

Many scholars believe that the limits of the Ketuvim as canonized scripture were determined by the Council of Jamnia c. 90 CE. Against Apion , the writing of Josephus in 95 CE, treated the text of the Hebrew Bible as a closed canon to which "... no one has ventured either to add, or to remove, or to alter a syllable..." [44] For a long time following this date the divine inspiration of Esther, the Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes was often under scrutiny. [45]

Masoretic Text

The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisrael prayer. 2nd century Hebrew decalogue.jpg
The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisrael prayer.

The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible. It defines the books of the Jewish canon, and also the precise letter-text of these biblical books, with their vocalization and accentuation. The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century CE, [46] and the Aleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the 10th century. The term "Keter" (crown, from the Arabic, taj) originally referred to this particular manuscript. Over the years, the term Keter came to refer to any full text of the Hebrew Bible, or significant portion of it, bound as a codex (not a scroll) and including vowel points, cantillation marks, and Masoretic notes. Medieval handwritten manuscripts were considered extremely precise, the most authoritative documents from which to copy other texts. [47]

Samaritan Pentateuch

Samaritans include only the Pentateuch (Torah) in their biblical canon. [48] They do not recognize divine authorship or inspiration in any other book in the Jewish Tanakh. [49] A Samaritan Book of Joshua partly based upon the Tanakh's Book of Joshua exists, but Samaritans regard it as a non-canonical secular historical chronicle. [50]


Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325-350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation. Codex Vaticanus (1 Esdras 1-55 to 2-5) (The S.S. Teacher's Edition-The Holy Bible).jpg
Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation.

The Septuagint, or the LXX, is a translation of the Hebrew scriptures and some related texts into Koine Greek, begun in the late 3rd century BCE and completed by 132 BCE, [51] [52] [53] initially in Alexandria, but in time it was completed elsewhere as well. [54] It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised. [55]

As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Septuagint expanded. The Torah always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon but the collection of prophetic writings, based on the Nevi'im, had various hagiographical works incorporated into it. In addition, some newer books were included in the Septuagint, among these are the Maccabees and the Wisdom of Sirach. However, the book of Sirach is now known to have existed in a Hebrew version, since ancient Hebrew manuscripts of it were rediscovered in modern times. The Septuagint version of some biblical books, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Jewish canon. [56]

Since Late Antiquity, once attributed to a hypothetical late 1st-century Council of Jamnia, mainstream Rabbinic Judaism rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scriptural texts. Several reasons have been given for this. First, some mistranslations were claimed. Second, the Hebrew source texts used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretic tradition of Hebrew texts, which was chosen as canonical by the Jewish rabbis. [57] Third, the rabbis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the newly emerging tradition of Christianity. [53] [58]

Finally, the rabbis claimed a divine authority for the Hebrew language, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek – even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period (and Aramaic would eventually be given a holy language status comparable to Hebrew). [59]

The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament. [60] The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches use most of the books of the Septuagint, while Protestant churches usually do not. After the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant Bibles began to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called biblical apocrypha. The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible, the basis for the Revised Standard Version. [61]

Incorporations from Theodotion

The Book of Daniel is preserved in the 12-chapter Masoretic Text and in two longer Greek versions, the original Septuagint version, c. 100 BCE, and the later Theodotion version from c. 2nd century CE. Both Greek texts contain three additions to Daniel: The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children; the story of Susannah and the Elders; and the story of Bel and the Dragon. Theodotion is much closer to the Masoretic Text and became so popular that it replaced the original Septuagint version in all but two manuscripts of the Septuagint itself. [62] [63] [64] The Greek additions were apparently never part of the Hebrew text. [65] St. Jerome reports, in the preface to the Vulgate version of Daniel, "This thing 'just' happened." [66] One of two Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book. [67]

The canonical Ezra–Nehemiah is known in the Septuagint as "Esdras B", and 1 Esdras is "Esdras A". 1 Esdras is a very similar text to the books of Ezra–Nehemiah, and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derived from the same original text. It has been proposed, and is thought highly likely by scholars, that "Esdras B" – the canonical Ezra–Nehemiah – is Theodotion's version of this material, and "Esdras A" is the version which was previously in the Septuagint on its own. [66]

Final form

Some texts are found in the Septuagint but are not present in the Hebrew. These additional books are Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah (which later became chapter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh, the Psalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151.

Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic Text are grouped together. For example, the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are in the LXX one book in four parts called Βασιλειῶν ("Of Reigns"). In LXX, the Books of Chronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Paralipomenon (Παραλειπομένων – things left out). The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve. [67]

The Orthodox
Old Testament [54] [68] [lower-alpha 1]
English name
Ἰησοῦς NαυῆIêsous NauêJoshua
Βασιλειῶν Αʹ [lower-alpha 2] I ReignsI Samuel
Βασιλειῶν ΒʹII ReignsII Samuel
Βασιλειῶν ΓʹIII ReignsI Kings
Βασιλειῶν ΔʹIV ReignsII Kings
Παραλειπομένων ΑʹI Paralipomenon [lower-alpha 3] I Chronicles
Παραλειπομένων ΒʹII ParalipomenonII Chronicles
Ἔσδρας ΑʹI Esdras1 Esdras
Ἔσδρας ΒʹII EsdrasEzra–Nehemiah
Τωβίτ [lower-alpha 4] TobitTobit or Tobias
ἘσθήρEstherEsther with additions
Μακκαβαίων Αʹ I Makkabaioi 1 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Βʹ II Makkabaioi 2 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Γʹ III Makkabaioi 3 Maccabees
Ψαλμοί Psalms Psalms
Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ Psalm 151 Psalm 151
Προσευχὴ Μανάσση Prayer of Manasseh Prayer of Manasseh
Παροιμίαι Proverbs Proverbs
Ἐκκλησιαστής Ekklesiastes Ecclesiastes
Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Song of Songs Song of Solomon or Canticles
Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom
Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Wisdom of Jesus the son of Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus
Ψαλμοί Σαλoμῶντος Psalms of Solomon Psalms of Solomon [69]
ΔώδεκαThe TwelveMinor Prophets
Ὡσηέ ΑʹI. OsëeHosea
Ἀμώς ΒʹII. AmōsAmos
Μιχαίας ΓʹIII. MichaiasMicah
Ἰωήλ ΔʹIV. IoëlJoel
Ὀβδίου Εʹ [lower-alpha 5] V. ObdiasObadiah
Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ'VI. IonasJonah
Ναούμ ΖʹVII. NaoumNahum
Ἀμβακούμ ΗʹVIII. AmbakumHabakkuk
Σοφονίας ΘʹIX. SophoniasZephaniah
Ἀγγαῖος ΙʹX. AngaiosHaggai
Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹXI. ZachariasZachariah
Ἄγγελος ΙΒʹXII. MessengerMalachi
Ἐπιστολή Ιερεμίου Epistle of Jeremiah Letter of Jeremiah
ΔανιήλDaniêlDaniel with additions
Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα IV Makkabees 4 Maccabees [lower-alpha 6]

Christian Bible

A page from the Gutenberg Bible Gutenberg Bible scan.jpg
A page from the Gutenberg Bible

A Christian Bible is a set of books that a Christian denomination regards as having supplied the foundation of their religion. [70] The Early Church primarily used the Septuagint as it was written in Greek, the common tongue of the day, or they used the Targums among Aramaic speakers. The Pauline epistles and the gospels were soon added as the early church continued the Jewish tradition of writing and incorporating what it saw as authoritative religious books. [71] :2 These were accepted by early believers as handed down from those Apostles who had known Jesus and been taught by him. [72] Later biblical criticism has questioned the authorship and datings of the gospels, and this remains disputed as no other authors were ever proposed. It was characteristic of the age that the Old Testament was equally important with the gospels. [73]

John Barton writes that the New Testament was formed in three stages. The first was completed remarkably early. [71] :17–18 Theodor Zahn "made an exhaustive examination of New Testament citations in the Fathers, and concluded there was already a Christian canon by the end of the First century". [71] :3 This did not include all 27 books. Evidence of all kinds has both undergirded and undermined this position. [71] :3

A. C. Sundberg insists that "canon" and "scripture" are separate things with scripture recognized long before canon. [71] :9–11 Sundberg says that in the first centuries, there was no criterion for inclusion in the sacred writings beyond inspiration. [71] :9–11 No one in the first century had the idea of a closed canon. [71] :11 It is widely recognized that a Christian Bible similar to its modern version was asserted in the second century in response to heresy. [71] :7 What became the final canon was determined in the fourth century.

Old Testament

The Christian Old Testament is based on the Tanakh, with some texts divided and placed in a different order. The books which make up the Old Testament differ between the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Bibles. The Protestant movement accepts only those books contained in the Hebrew Bible, while Catholic and Orthodox traditions accept books that are found in the Septuagint but are not found in the Hebrew Bible. The first five books – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy – reached their present form in the Persian period (538–332 BCE), and their authors were the elite of exilic returnees who controlled the Temple at that time. [74] The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings follow, forming a history of Israel from the Conquest of Canaan to the Siege of Jerusalem c. 587 BCE. [75]

These history books make up around half the total content of the Old Testament. Of the remainder, the books of the various prophets – Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve "minor prophets" – were written between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, with the exceptions of Jonah and Daniel, which were written much later. The "wisdom" books – Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Psalms, Song of Solomon – have various dates: Proverbs possibly was completed by the Hellenistic time (332–198 BCE), though containing much older material as well; Job completed by the 6th century BCE; Ecclesiastes by the 3rd century BCE. [76]


The contents page in a complete 80 book King James Bible, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament". KJV 1769 Oxford Edition, vol. 1.djvu
The contents page in a complete 80 book King James Bible, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament".

Christian Bibles often include books from the Septuagint that are not found in the Hebrew Bible, although the view of these books and which books are included in these bibles differs between different denominations. In general it can be said that Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches embrace part of these books as part of the biblical canon, while newer denominations with roots in the Reformation to varying degrees reject those as part of the canon.[ citation needed ]

In Eastern Christianity, translations based on the Septuagint still prevail. The Septuagint was generally abandoned in favour of the 10th-century Masoretic Text as the basis for translations of the Old Testament into Western languages.[ citation needed ]

Some modern Western translations since the 14th century make use of the Septuagint to clarify passages in the Masoretic Text, where the Septuagint may preserve a variant reading of the Hebrew text.[ citation needed ] They also sometimes adopt variants that appear in other texts, such as those discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. [77] [78]

A number of books which are part of the Peshitta or the Greek Septuagint but are not found in the Hebrew Bible (i.e., among the protocanonical books) are often referred to as deuterocanonical books by Roman Catholics referring to a later secondary (i.e., deutero) canon, that canon as fixed definitively by the Council of Trent 1545–1563. [79] [80] It includes 46 books for the Old Testament (45 if Jeremiah and Lamentations are counted as one) and 27 for the New. [81]

Eighty book Protestant Bibles have fourteen books that are found in the Septuagint and they are between the Old Testament and New Testament in a section called the Apocrypha. [82] [83] Protestant traditions traditionally teach that these books are useful for instruction, but are non-canonical. [82] [83] However, Eastern Orthodox Churches include these books as part of their Old Testament and the Roman Catholic Church includes most of them in their Old Testament with the exception of three books. [82] [83]

The Roman Catholic Church recognizes: [84]

In addition to those, the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches recognize the following:[ citation needed ]

Russian and Georgian Orthodox Churches include:[ citation needed ]

  • 2 Esdras i.e., Latin Esdras in the Russian and Georgian Bibles

There is also 4 Maccabees which is only accepted as canonical in the Georgian Church. It is an appendix to the Greek Orthodox Bible, and it is therefore sometimes included in collections of the Apocrypha.[ citation needed ]

The Syriac Orthodox Church includes:[ citation needed ]

The Ethiopian Orthodox biblical canon includes: [85]

and some other books.

The Revised Common Lectionary of the Lutheran Church, Moravian Church, Reformed Churches, Anglican Church and Methodist Church uses the Apocryphal Books liturgically, with alternative Old Testament readings available. [86] Therefore, editions of the Bible intended for use in the Lutheran Church and Anglican Church include the fourteen books of the Protestant Apocrypha, many of which are the Deuterocanonical books accepted by the Catholic Church, plus 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh, which were in the Vulgate appendix.

Pseudepigraphal books

The term pseudepigrapha commonly describes numerous works of Jewish religious literature written from about 300 BCE to 300 CE. Not all of these works are actually pseudepigraphical. It also refers to books of the New Testament canon whose authorship is misrepresented or questionable. The Old Testament pseudepigraphal works include the following: [87]

Book of Enoch

Notable pseudepigraphal works include the Books of Enoch (such as 1 Enoch, 2 Enoch, surviving only in Old Slavonic, and 3 Enoch, surviving in Hebrew, c. 5th to 6th century CE). These are ancient Jewish religious works, traditionally ascribed to the prophet Enoch, the great-grandfather of the patriarch Noah. They are not part of the biblical canon used by Jews, apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denominations and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch as having some historical or theological interest or significance. It has been observed that part of the Book of Enoch is quoted in the Epistle of Jude (part of the New Testament) but Christian denominations generally regard the Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired. [88] However, the Enoch books are treated as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church.[ citation needed ]

The older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) are estimated to date from about 300 BCE, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BCE. [89]

Denominational views of pseudepigrapha

In some Protestant biblical scholarship an extended use of the term pseudepigrapha for works that appeared as though they ought to be part of the biblical canon, because of the authorship ascribed to them, but which stood outside both the biblical canons recognized by Protestants and Catholics. These works were also outside the particular set of books that Catholics called deuterocanonical and to which Protestants had generally applied the term apocryphal.

The term pseudepigraphical, as now used often among both Protestants and Catholics (allegedly for the clarity it brings to the discussion), may make it difficult to discuss questions of pseudepigraphical authorship of canonical books dispassionately with a lay audience. To confuse the matter further, Eastern Orthodox Christians accept books as canonical that Catholics and most Protestant denominations consider pseudepigraphical or at best of much less authority.

Role of the Old Testament in Christian theology

The Old Testament has always been central to the life of the Christian church. Bible scholar N.T. Wright says "Jesus himself was profoundly shaped by the scriptures." [90] He adds that the earliest Christians also searched those same Hebrew scriptures in their effort to understand the earthly life of Jesus. They regarded the "holy writings" of the Israelites as necessary and instructive for the Christian, as seen from Paul's words to Timothy (2 Timothy 3:15), and as pointing to the Messiah, and as having reached a climactic fulfilment in Jesus himself, generating the "new covenant" prophesied by Jeremiah. [91]

New Testament

The New Testament is the name given to the second portion of the Christian Bible. The mainstream consensus is that the New Testament was written in a form of Koine Greek, [92] [93] which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean [94] [95] [96] [97] from the Conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323 BCE) until the evolution of Byzantine Greek (c. 600).

The term "New Testament" came into use in the 2nd century during a controversy among Christians over whether the Hebrew Bible should be included with the Christian writings as sacred scripture.[ citation needed ] Some other works which were widely read by early churches were excluded from the New Testament and relegated to the collections known as the Apostolic Fathers (generally considered orthodox) and the New Testament apocrypha.

The New Testament is a collection of 27 books [98] of 4 different genres of Christian literature (Gospels, one account of the Acts of the Apostles, Epistles and an Apocalypse). These books can be grouped into:

The New Testament books are ordered differently in the Catholic/Orthodox/Protestant tradition, the Slavonic tradition, the Syriac tradition and the Ethiopian tradition.

Development of the Christian canons

St. Jerome in his Study, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1541. Jerome produced a 4th-century Latin edition of the Bible, known as the Vulgate, that became the Catholic Church's official translation. Marinus Claesz. van Reymerswaele 002.jpg
St. Jerome in his Study, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1541. Jerome produced a 4th-century Latin edition of the Bible, known as the Vulgate , that became the Catholic Church's official translation.

The Old Testament canon entered into Christian use in the Greek Septuagint translations and original books, and their differing lists of texts. In addition to the Septuagint, Christianity[ vague ] subsequently added various writings that would become the New Testament. Somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity. In the 4th century a series of synods produced a list of texts equal to the 39, 46, 51, or 54-book[ citation needed ] canon of the Old Testament and to the 27-book canon of the New Testament that would be subsequently used to today, most notably the Synod of Hippo in 393 CE. Also c. 400, Jerome produced a definitive Latin edition of the Bible (see Vulgate), the canon of which, at the insistence of the Pope, was in accord with the earlier Synods. With the benefit of hindsight, it can be said that this process effectively set the New Testament canon, although there are examples of other canonical lists in use after this time.

The Protestant Old Testament of today has a 39-book canon – the number of books (though not the content) varies from the Jewish Tanakh only because of a different method of division – while the Roman Catholic Church recognizes 46 books as the canonical Old Testament. The Eastern Orthodox Churches recognize 3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151 in addition to the Catholic canon. Some include 2 Esdras. The term "Hebrew scriptures" is often used as being synonymous with the Protestant Old Testament, since the surviving scriptures in Hebrew include only those books, while Catholics and Orthodox include additional texts that have not survived in Hebrew. Eighty book Protestant Bibles include 14 books called Apocrypha in between the Old Testament and the New Testament that are deemed useful for instruction but non-canonical. [83] [99] [82] Both Catholics and Protestants (as well as Greek Orthodox) have the same 27-book New Testament Canon. [100]

The New Testament writers assumed the inspiration of the Old Testament, probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy 3:16 , "All scripture is given by inspiration of God". [9]

Some denominations have additional canonical texts beyond the Bible, including the Standard Works of the Latter Day Saints movement and Divine Principle in the Unification Church.

Ethiopian Orthodox canon

The Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is wider than the canons used by most other Christian churches. There are 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. [85] In addition to the books found in the Septuagint accepted by other Orthodox Christians, the Ethiopian Old Testament Canon uses Enoch and Jubilees (ancient Jewish books that only survived in Ge'ez, but are quoted in the New Testament),[ citation needed ] Greek Ezra and the Apocalypse of Ezra, 3 books of Meqabyan, and Psalm 151 at the end of the Psalter. The three books of Meqabyan are not to be confused with the books of Maccabees. The order of the other books is somewhat different from other groups', as well. The Old Testament follows the Septuagint order for the Minor Prophets rather than the Jewish order.[ citation needed ]


The Peshitta (Classical Syriac : ܦܫܺܝܛܬܳܐorܦܫܝܼܛܬܵܐpšīṭtā) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition. The consensus within biblical scholarship, although not universal, is that the Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated into Syriac from biblical Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century AD, and that the New Testament of the Peshitta was translated from the Greek. [101] This New Testament, originally excluding certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become a standard by the early 5th century. The five excluded books were added in the Harklean Version (616 AD) of Thomas of Harqel. [102] [103] [104]


Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, High Church Anglicans, Methodists and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of both the Bible and sacred tradition, [105] [106] while many Protestant churches focus on the idea of sola scriptura , or scripture alone. This concept rose to prominence during the Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. Others, though, advance the concept of prima scriptura in contrast, meaning scripture primarily or scripture mainly. [105]

Textual history

The Rylands fragment P52 verso is the oldest existing fragment of New Testament papyrus. It contains phrases from the Book of John. P52 verso.jpg
The Rylands fragment P52 verso is the oldest existing fragment of New Testament papyrus. It contains phrases from the Book of John.

The books of the Bible were written and copied by hand, initially on papyrus scrolls. No originals survive. Very early on, Christianity replaced scrolls with codexes, the forerunner of bound books, and by the 3rd century, collections of biblical books began being copied as a set. [108] Since these texts were written by hand, by copying from another handwritten text, they are not alike in the manner of printed works. The differences between them are called variants. [109] :204 A variant is simply any variation between two texts. For example, a scribe might misspell or misplace a word, drop one or more letters, skip a word or line, write one letter for another, transpose letters, and so on. Some variants represent a scribal attempt to simplify or harmonize, by changing a word or a phrase. [110]

Variants are not evenly distributed throughout any set of ancient texts. Charting the variants in the New Testament shows it is 62.9 percent variant-free. [111] The exact number of variants is disputed, but the more texts there are that survive, the more likely there will be variants of some kind. [112] The New Testament has been preserved in more manuscripts than any other ancient work, having over 5,800 complete or fragmented Greek manuscripts, 10,000 Latin manuscripts and 9,300 manuscripts in various other ancient languages including Syriac, Slavic, Gothic, Ethiopic, Coptic and Armenian texts. The dates of these manuscripts are generally accepted to range from c.110–125 (the 𝔓52 papyrus) to the introduction of printing in Germany in the fifteenth century. There are also approximately a million direct New Testament quotations in the collected writings of the Church Fathers of the first four centuries. (As a comparison, the next best-sourced ancient text is the Iliad , presumably written by the ancient Greek Homer in the late eighth or early seventh century BCE, which survives in more than 1,900 manuscripts, though many are of a fragmentary nature. [113]

The impact of variants on the reliability of a single text is usually tested by comparing it to a manuscript whose reliability has been long established. Though many new early manuscripts have been discovered since 1881, there are critical editions of the Greek New Testament, such as NA28 and UBS5, that "have gone virtually unchanged" from these discoveries. All of these manuscripts are grouped according to their similarities and differences into textual families or lineages; the four most commonly recognized are Alexandrian, Western, Caesarean, and Byzantine. [114] Andrews says "The fourth century 'best texts', the 'Alexandrian' codices Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, have roots extending throughout the entire third century and even into the second". [115]

The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE. Great Isaiah Scroll.jpg
The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE.

More than 220 Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in Qumran in 1947, which date between 250 BCE and 100 CE, are the oldest existing copies of the books of the Hebrew Bible of any considerable length. They represent every book except Esther, though most books appear only in fragmentary form. [116] The Qumran scrolls attest to many different biblical text types. In addition to the Qumran scrolls, there are three major manuscript witnesses (historical copies) of the Hebrew Bible: the Septuagint, the Masoretic Text, and the Samaritan Pentateuch. Existing complete copies of the Septuagint, a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, date from the 3rd to the 5th centuries CE, with fragments dating back to the 2nd century BCE. The Masoretic Text is a standardized version of the Hebrew Bible that began to be developed in the 1st century CE and has been maintained by the Masoretes since the latter half of the first millennium CE. Its oldest complete copy in existence is the Leningrad Codex, dating to c. 1000 CE. The Samaritan Pentateuch is a version of the Torah maintained by the Samaritan community since antiquity and rediscovered by European scholars in the 17th century; the oldest existing copies date to c. 1100 CE. [117]

Biblical criticism

Jean Astruc, often called the "Father of Biblical criticism", at Centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulouse [fr] Faculte de Medecine Purpan 01.jpg
Jean Astruc, often called the "Father of Biblical criticism", at Centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulouse  [ fr ]

During the Age of Enlightenment in the European West, philosophers and theologians such as Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679), Benedict Spinoza (1632–1677), and Richard Simon (1638–1712) strongly asserted that Moses could not possibly have been the author of the first five books of the Bible known as the Pentateuch. [118] [119] Jean Astruc (1684–1766), a French physician, believed these critics were wrong. He believed that Moses assembled the first book of the Pentateuch, the book of Genesis, using hereditary accounts passed down through the Hebrew people. [120]

Biblical criticism began when Astruc borrowed methods of textual criticism which were already used to investigate Greek and Roman texts and applied them to the Bible in search of those original accounts. [121] :204,217 Astruc believed this approach did identify the separate sources that were edited together into the book of Genesis. The existence of separate sources explained the inconsistent style and vocabulary of Genesis, discrepancies in the narrative, differing accounts and chronological difficulties, while still allowing for Mosaic authorship. [121] :xvi [122]

Biblical criticism reached its peak in the nineteenth century. [109] :79 The majority of biblical critics of this period were white, liberal Protestants, and they operated according to principles grounded in philosophical presuppositions and a distinctively European rationalism. [123] :91 fn.8 By the end of the nineteenth century, Ernst Troeltsch described these presuppositions as: methodological doubt (a way of searching for certainty by doubting everything); analogy (the idea that we understand the past by relating it to our present); and mutual inter-dependence (every event is related to events that proceeded it). [124]

In the early twentieth century, Anders Gerdmar  [ de ] says the focus on pure reason had already produced a paradigm shift that profoundly changed Christian theology concerning the Jews. In the previous century, Johann Salomo Semler (1725–1791) had taken a stand against discrimination in society, but he also wrote that Christianity 'superseded' all that came before it. [125] :39,40 This stark contrast between Judaism and Christianity known as supersessionism, was an alternative to traditional millennialism, and became a common theme of the early twentieth century biblical critics. It produced increasingly antisemitic sentiments up to World War II. [125] :vii–xiii,228 After 1970, biblical criticism began to change radically and pervasively. [109] :vii,21 By the end of the twentieth century, multiple new points of view developed new and different biblical-critical disciplines. These changed biblical criticism's central guiding concept into beginning from a recognition of the biases the reader brings to the study of the texts. [109] :21–22

Biblical criticism made study of the Bible secularized, scholarly and more democratic, while it also permanently altered the way people understood the Bible. [109] :22 It is no longer thought of solely as a religious artifact, and its interpretation is no longer restricted to the community of believers. [126] :129 Critical study divested the Bible of its scriptural character. [127] :9 Rationalism and the pursuit of history were its key elements. [128] [129] :8,224 [130] :214 Part of the legacy of biblical criticism is that, as it rose, it led to the decline of biblical authority. [131] :137 Jeffrey Burton Russell describes it thus: "Faith was transferred from the words of scripture itself to those of influential biblical critics ... liberal Christianity retreated hastily before the advance of science and biblical criticism. By the end of the eighteenth century, advanced liberals had abandoned the core of Christian beliefs." [132] :151,153

In this way, biblical criticism also led to conflict as so many conservatives saw biblical criticism as innately hostile to the Bible and the religions who see it as their sacred scripture. [133] [131] :119,120 [134] This created an "intellectual crisis" in American Christianity of the early twentieth century which led to a backlash against the critical approach. This backlash produced a fierce internal battle for control of local churches, national denominations, divinity schools and seminaries. [135] :93

"There are those who regard the desacralization of the Bible as the fortunate condition for the rise of new sensibilities and modes of imagination" that went into developing the modern world. [126] :121 For many, biblical criticism "released a host of threats" to the Christian faith. For others biblical criticism "proved to be a failure, due principally to the assumption that diachronic, linear research could master any and all of the questions and problems attendant on interpretation". [133] Still others believed that biblical criticism, "shorn of its unwarranted arrogance," could be a reliable source of interpretation. [133] Michael Fishbane compares biblical criticism to Job, a prophet who destroyed "self-serving visions for the sake of a more honest crossing from the divine textus to the human one". [126] :129 Or as Rogerson says: biblical criticism has been liberating for those who want their faith "intelligently grounded and intellectually honest". [136] :298

Divine inspiration

A Bible is placed centrally on a Lutheran altar, highlighting its importance Altar and bible st Johns Lutheran.jpg
A Bible is placed centrally on a Lutheran altar, highlighting its importance

The Second Epistle to Timothy says that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness". ( 2 Timothy 3:16 ) [137] Various related but distinguishable views on divine inspiration include:

Within these broad beliefs many schools of hermeneutics operate. "Bible scholars claim that discussions about the Bible must be put into its context within church history and then into the context of contemporary culture." [91] Fundamentalist Christians are associated with the doctrine of biblical literalism, where the Bible is not only inerrant, but the meaning of the text is clear to the average reader. [139]

Jewish antiquity attests to belief in sacred texts, [140] [141] and a similar belief emerges in the earliest of Christian writings. Various texts of the Bible mention divine agency in relation to its writings. [142] In their book A General Introduction to the Bible, Norman Geisler and William Nix write: "The process of inspiration is a mystery of the providence of God, but the result of this process is a verbal, plenary, inerrant, and authoritative record." [143] Most evangelical biblical scholars [144] [145] [146] associate inspiration with only the original text; for example some American Protestants adhere to the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy which asserted that inspiration applied only to the autographic text of scripture. [147] Among adherents of biblical literalism, a minority, such as followers of the King-James-Only Movement, extend the claim of inerrancy only to a particular version. [148]

Versions and translations

Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588. William Morgan (1545-1604) 1588 First Welsh Bible.jpg
Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588. William Morgan (1545–1604)

The original texts of the Tanakh were almost entirely written in Hebrew; about one per cent is written in Aramaic. In addition to the authoritative Masoretic Text, Jews still refer to the Septuagint, the translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, and the Targum Onkelos, an Aramaic version of the Bible. There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh in Hebrew, mostly differing by spelling, and the traditional Jewish version is based on the version known as Aleppo Codex. Even in this version there are words which are traditionally read differently from written, because the oral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one, and presumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over the generations.

The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint. In addition, they translated the Hebrew Bible into several other languages. Translations were made into Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Latin, among other languages. The Latin translations were historically the most important for the Church in the West, while the Greek-speaking East continued to use the Septuagint translations of the Old Testament and had no need to translate the New Testament.

The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text, or Vetus Latina , which, from internal evidence, seems to have been made by several authors over a period of time. It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included books not in the Hebrew Bible.

According to the Latin Decretum Gelasianum (also known as the Gelasian Decree), thought to be of a 6th-century document [149] [150] of uncertain authorship and of pseudepigraphal papal authority (variously ascribed to Pope Gelasius I, Pope Damasus I, or Pope Hormisdas) [151] [152] [153] but reflecting the views of the Roman Church by that period, [154] the Council of Rome in 382 CE under Pope Damasus I (366–383) assembled a list of books of the Bible. Damasus commissioned Saint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin. This translation became known as the Latin Vulgate Bible, in the 4th century CE (although Jerome expressed in his prologues to most deuterocanonical books that they were non-canonical). [155] [156] In 1546, at the Council of Trent, Jerome's Vulgate translation was declared by the Roman Catholic Church to be the only authentic and official Bible in the Latin Church.

Since the Protestant Reformation, Bible translations for many languages have been made. The Bible continues to be translated to new languages, largely by Christian organizations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators, New Tribes Mission and Bible societies.

Bible translations, worldwide (as of September 2021) [157]
7378Approximate number of languages spoken in the world today
2217Number of translations into new languages in progress
1196Number of languages with some translated Bible portions
1582Number of languages with a translation of the New Testament
717Number of languages with a full translation of the Bible (Protestant Canon)
3495Total number of languages with some Bible translation

Biblical studies

Biblical criticism refers to the investigation of the Bible as a text, and addresses questions such as authorship, dates of composition, and authorial intention. It is not the same as criticism of the Bible, which is an assertion against the Bible being a source of information or ethical guidance, or observations that the Bible may have translation errors. [158]

In the 17th century, Thomas Hobbes collected the current evidence to conclude outright that Moses could not have written the bulk of the Torah. Shortly afterwards the philosopher Baruch Spinoza published a unified critical analysis, arguing that the problematic passages were not isolated cases that could be explained away one by one, but pervasive throughout the five books, concluding that it was "clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses ..." [159]

Archaeological and historical research

Biblical archaeology is the archaeology that relates to and sheds light upon the Hebrew scriptures and the Christian Greek scriptures (or the New Testament). It is used to help determine the lifestyle and practices of people living in biblical times. There are a wide range of interpretations in the field of biblical archaeology. One broad division includes biblical maximalism which generally takes the view that most of the Old Testament or the Hebrew Bible is based on history although it is presented through the religious viewpoint of its time. It is considered to be the opposite of biblical minimalism which considers the Bible to be a purely post-exilic (5th century BCE and later) composition. Even among those scholars who adhere to biblical minimalism, the Bible is a historical document containing first-hand information on the Hellenistic and Roman eras, and there is universal scholarly consensus that the events of the 6th century BCE Babylonian captivity have a basis in history.

The historicity of the biblical account of the history of ancient Israel and Judah of the 10th to 7th centuries BCE is disputed in scholarship. The biblical account of the 8th to 7th centuries BCE is widely, but not universally, accepted as historical, while the verdict on the earliest period of the United Monarchy (10th century BCE) and the historicity of David is unclear. Archaeological evidence providing information on this period, such as the Tel Dan Stele, can potentially be decisive. The biblical account of events of the Exodus from Egypt in the Torah, and the migration to the Promised Land and the period of Judges are not considered historical in scholarship. [160] [161]

Text types

An early German translation by Martin Luther. His translation of the text into the vernacular was highly influential. Lutherbibel.jpg
An early German translation by Martin Luther. His translation of the text into the vernacular was highly influential.

The original autographs, that is, the original Greek writings and manuscripts written by the original authors of the New Testament, have not survived. [162] But historically copies exist of those original autographs, transmitted and preserved in a number of manuscript traditions. There have been some minor variations, additions or omissions, in some of the texts. When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they sometimes wrote notes on the margins of the page ( marginal glosses ) to correct their text – especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line – and to comment about the text. When later scribes were copying the copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text.

The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type (generally minimalist), the Byzantine text-type (generally maximalist), and the Western text-type (occasionally wild). Together they comprise most of the ancient manuscripts.

Perspectives and cultural influence

Perspectives on the Bible and its authority vary among world religions. The Rastafari view the Bible as essential to their religion, [163] while the Unitarian Universalists view it as "one of many important religious texts". [164] Muslims view the Bible to reflect true unfolding revelation from God; but revelation which had been corrupted or distorted (in Arabic: tahrif ); which necessitated the giving of the Qur'an to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to correct this deviation. [165]

The Bible is one of the world's most published books, with estimated total sales of over five billion copies. [5] As such, the Bible has had a profound influence on literature and history, especially in the Western world, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. [6] [166] According to the March 2007 edition of Time , the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history, entertainment, and culture than any book ever written. Its influence on world history is unparalleled, and shows no signs of abating." [6] John Riches, professor of divinity and biblical criticism at the University of Glasgow, provides the following view of the diverse historical influences of the Bible:

It has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature, and art; it has equally fuelled some of the worst excesses of human savagery, self-interest, and narrow-mindedness. It has inspired men and women to acts of great service and courage, to fight for liberation and human development; and it has provided the ideological fuel for societies which have enslaved their fellow human beings and reduced them to abject poverty. ... It has, perhaps above all, provided a source of religious and moral norms which have enabled communities to hold together, to care for, and to protect one another; yet precisely this strong sense of belonging has in turn fuelled ethnic, racial, and international tension and conflict. [167]

Bible museums


The grandest medieval Bibles were illuminated manuscripts in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. Up to the 12th century, most manuscripts were produced in monasteries in order to add to the library or after receiving a commission from a wealthy patron. Larger monasteries often contained separate areas for the monks who specialized in the production of manuscripts called a scriptorium, where "separate little rooms were assigned to book copying; they were situated in such a way that each scribe had to himself a window open to the cloister walk." [179] By the 14th century, the cloisters of monks writing in the scriptorium started to employ laybrothers from the urban scriptoria, especially in Paris, Rome and the Netherlands. [180] Demand for manuscripts grew to an extent that the Monastic libraries were unable to meet with the demand, and began employing secular scribes and illuminators. [181] These individuals often lived close to the monastery and, in certain instances, dressed as monks whenever they entered the monastery, but were allowed to leave at the end of the day. [182] A notable example of an illuminated manuscript is the Book of Kells, produced circa the year 800 containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.

The manuscript was "sent to the rubricator, who added (in red or other colours) the titles, headlines, the initials of chapters and sections, the notes and so on; and then – if the book was to be illustrated – it was sent to the illuminator." [179] In the case of manuscripts that were sold commercially, the writing would "undoubtedly have been discussed initially between the patron and the scribe (or the scribe's agent,) but by the time that the written gathering were sent off to the illuminator there was no longer any scope for innovation." [183]

See also


  1. The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.
  2. Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα (Basileia).
  3. That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.
  4. Also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.
  5. Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias", which opens the book.
  6. Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon.

Related Research Articles

Apocrypha Works of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin

Apocrypha are the biblical books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews from their canon. Their position in Christian usage has been ambiguous.

Deuterocanonical books Books of the Bible which are considered non-canonical by Protestant denominations

The deuterocanonical books are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Assyrian Church of the East to be canonical books of the Old Testament, but which Protestant denominations regard as apocrypha. They date from 300 BC–AD 100, mostly from 200 BC–AD 70, before the definite separation of the Christian church from Judaism. While the New Testament never directly quotes from or names these books, the apostles most frequently used and quoted the Septuagint, which includes them. Some say there is a correspondence of thought, and others see texts from these books being paraphrased, referred or alluded to many times in the New Testament, particularly in the Pauline epistles, depending in large measure on what is counted as a reference.

Old Testament First division of Christian Bibles

The Old Testament is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew writings by the Israelites. The second division of Christian Bibles is the New Testament, written in the Koine Greek language.

Septuagint Greek translation of Hebrew scriptures

The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint, is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Torah or the Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE. The remaining books of the Greek Old Testament are presumably translations of the 2nd century BCE.

Hebrew Bible Collection of ancient Hebrew scriptures, central to Judaism

The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passages in Biblical Aramaic.

Bible translations Translations of the Bible

The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. As of September 2020 the full Bible has been translated into 704 languages, the New Testament has been translated into an additional 1,551 languages and Bible portions or stories into 1,160 other languages. Thus at least some portions of the Bible have been translated into 3,415 languages.

Ketuvim Third and final section of the Tanakh

Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh, after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually titled "Writings" or "Hagiographa".

Book of Baruch Deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions

The Book of Baruch is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions. In Judaism and Protestant Christianity, it is considered not to be part of the canon, with the Protestant Bibles categorizing it as part of the Biblical apocrypha. The book is named after Baruch ben Neriah, Jeremiah's well-known scribe, who is mentioned at Baruch 1:1, and has been presumed to be the author of the whole work. The book is a reflection of a late Jewish writer on the circumstances of Jewish exiles from Babylon, with meditations on the theology and history of Israel, discussions of wisdom, and a direct address to residents of Jerusalem and the Diaspora. Some scholars propose that it was written during or shortly after the period of the Maccabees.

Biblical apocrypha Collection of ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles

The biblical apocrypha denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and AD 400. Some Christian churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament, terming them deuterocanonical books. Traditional 80 book Protestant Bibles include fourteen books in an intertestamental section between the Old Testament and New Testament called the Apocrypha, deeming these useful for instruction, but non-canonical.

Development of the Old Testament canon Development of the Old Testament canon

The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian biblical canon; the second section is the New Testament. The Old Testament includes the books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) or protocanon, and in various Christian denominations also includes deuterocanonical books. Orthodox Christians, Catholics and Protestants use different canons, which differ with respect to the texts that are included in the Old Testament.

Development of the Hebrew Bible canon Process of canonization in Judaism

There is no scholarly consensus as to when the Hebrew Bible canon was fixed. Some scholars argue that it was fixed by the Hasmonean dynasty, while others argue it was not fixed until the second century CE or even later.

Biblical languages Bible

Biblical languages are any of the languages employed in the original writings of the Bible. Partially owing to the significance of the Bible in society, Biblical languages are studied more widely than many other dead languages. Furthermore, some debates exist as to which language is the original language of a particular passage, and about whether a term has been properly translated from an ancient language into modern editions of the Bible. Scholars generally recognize three languages as original biblical languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek.

Catholic Bible Catholic Church canon of Bible books

A Catholic Bible is a Christian Bible that includes the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including the deuterocanon—a term used by some scholars and by Catholics to denote the books of the Old Testament which are in the Greek Septuagint collection but not in the Hebrew Masoretic Text collection.

Biblical canon Texts which a religious community regards as scripture

A biblical canon is a set of texts which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as sacred scripture.

Protestant Bible Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants

A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants. Such Bibles comprise 39 books of the Old Testament and 27 books of the New Testament for a total of 66 books. Some Protestants use Bibles which also include 14 additional books in a section known as the Apocrypha bringing the total to 80 books. This is often contrasted with the 73 books of the Catholic Bible, which includes seven deuterocanonical books as a part of the Old Testament. The division between protocanonical and deuterocanonical books is not accepted by all Protestants who simply view books as being canonical or not and therefore classify books found in the deuterocanon, along with other books, as part of the Apocrypha.

The Literal English Version of Scripture (LEV) is a translation of the Bible based on the World English Bible. Formerly known as the "Shem Qadosh Version", the title was officially changed in November 2016. It is considered a Sacred Name Bible rendering the name of God using the Hebrew characters יהוה, and that of Jesus in Hebrew as ישוע. It was created by a team of volunteers across the United States with additional proofing and editing assistance by individuals in Poland and Taiwan. Footnotes and appendices were written by the General Editor, J. A. Brown.

Habakkuk 2 Chapter of book in the Bible

Habakkuk 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Habakkuk in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Habakkuk, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter and the previous one form a unit, which Marvin Sweeney sees as "a report of a dialogue between the prophet and YHWH" about the fate of Judah, which biblical scholars, such as F. F. Bruce, label as "the oracle of Habakkuk".

Outline of Bible-related topics Overview of and topical guide to Bible-related topics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Bible:

Jeremiah 37

Jeremiah 37 is the thirty-seventh chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 44 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is the start of a narrative section consisting of chapters 37 to 44. Chapter 37 records King Zedekiah's request for prayer, Jeremiah's reply to the king, and Jeremiah's arrest and imprisonment.

Karen H. Jobes is an American biblical scholar who is Gerald F. Hawthorne Professor Emerita of New Testament Greek and Exegesis at Wheaton College. She has written a number of books and biblical commentaries. In 2015, she received the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association's Christian Book of the Year Award for "Bible Reference" books.


  1. Philip R. Davies in McDonald & Sanders 2002 , p. 50: "With many other scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost certainly the achievement of the Hasmonean dynasty."
  2. McDonald & Sanders 2002 , p. 5, cited are Neusner's Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine, pp. 128–45, and Midrash in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism, pp. 1–22.
  3. Schaff Philip, A selected library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 1888 Vol IV, Athanasius Letters No 39
  4. "Best selling book of non-fiction". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  5. 1 2 Ryken, Leland. "How We Got the Best-Selling Book of All Time". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  6. 1 2 3 Biema, David (22 March 2007). "The Case For Teaching The Bible". Time . Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018. Simply put, the Bible is the most influential book of all-time... The Bible has done more to shape literature, history, entertainment, and culture than any book ever written. Its influence on world history is unparalleled, and shows no signs of abating. Even pop culture is deeply influenced by the Bible.
  7. Bandstra 2009, p. 7; Gravett et al. 2008, p. xv.
  8. Bible Hub Archived 16 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine – The NT generally uses 1124 (graphḗ) for the Hebrew Scriptures (the OT) – but see also 2 Tim 3:16 and 2 Pet 3:16. 1124 (graphḗ) was used for the Hebrew Scriptures as early as Aristeas (about 130 bc; so MM)
  9. 1 2 Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Nashville: Broadman, 1962. ISBN   0805416137.
  10. "From Hebrew Bible to Christian Bible" by Mark Hamilton Archived 14 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine on PBS's site From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians Archived 21 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
  11. etymology of the word "Bible" Archived 15 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine .
  12. Bruce 1988, p. 214.
  13. "The Catholic Encyclopedia". 1907. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  14. Biblion, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus.
  15. Lim 2017, pp. 40, 44, 58–59; Hayes 2012, ch. 1; Brown 2010, Intro.; Carr 2010, p. 17; Bandstra 2009, pp. 7–9; Gravett et al. 2008, pp. xv, 41; Harris & Platzner 2008, pp. 21–22; Riches 2000, pp. 9, 18.
  16. Riches 2000, p. 9.
  17. Lim 2017, pp. 40, 44–45, 58–60; Hayes 2012, ch. 1; Brown 2010, Intro.; Carr 2010, pp. 3, 17; Bandstra 2009, pp. 7–9; Gravett et al. 2008, p. 54; Harris & Platzner 2008, p. 3; Riches 2000, chs. 2 and 3.
  18. Riches 2000, pp. 7–8.
  19. Lim 2017, pp. 45–46, 58; Hayes 2012, ch. 1; Brown 2010, Intro.; Carr 2010, p. 250; Bandstra 2009, pp. 8, 480; Gravett et al. 2008, p. 47; Harris & Platzner 2008, p. 27; Riches 2000, ch. 3.
  20. Lim 2017, pp. 45–46; Brown 2010, Intro. and ch. 1; Carr 2010, p. 17; Bandstra 2009, pp. 7, 484; Riches 2000, chs. 2 and 3.
  21. Lim 2017, p. 40; Hayes 2012, ch. 1; Brown 2010, Intro.; Carr 2010, pp. 3–5; Bandstra 2009, pp. 7–8, 480–481; Gravett et al. 2008, p. xv; Harris & Platzner 2008, pp. 3–4, 28, 371; Riches 2000, ch. 3.
  22. Lim 2017, pp. 40, 46, 49, 58–59; Hayes 2012, ch. 1; Brown 2010, Intro.; Carr 2010, pp. 3–5; Bandstra 2009, pp. 7–8, 480–481; Gravett et al. 2008, pp. xv, 49; Harris & Platzner 2008, pp. 3–4, 28, 31–32, 371; Riches 2000, ch. 3.
  23. Ezra 4:8–6:18 and 7:12–26 , Jeremiah 10:11 , Daniel 2:4–7:28
  24. Sir Godfrey Driver. "Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible." Web: 30 November 2009
  25. The Restored New Testament: A New Translation with Commentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels Thomas, Mary, and Judas by Willis Barnstone – W. W. Norton & Company. p. 647
  26. "Pentateuch". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  27. Baden 2012, p. 13.
  28. Greifenhagen 2003, p. 206.
  29. Greifenhagen 2003, pp. 206–207.
  30. Newsom, Carol Ann (2004). The Self as Symbolic Space: Constructing Identity and Community at Qumran. Brill. p. 26. ISBN   9789004138032.
  31. Greifenhagen 2003, p. 224 n. 49.
  32. Seymour Rossel (2007). Archived 27 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Torah: Portion by Portion, p. 355. Torah Aura Productions, CA. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  33. 1 Kings.18:24;1 Kings.18:37–39 9
  34. George Savran "I and II Kings" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Each king is judged either good or bad in black-and-white terms, according to whether or not he "did right" or "did evil" in the sight of the Lord. This evaluation is not reflective of the well-being of the nation, of the king's success or failure in war, or of the moral climate of the times, but rather the state of cultic worship during his reign. Those kings who shun idolatry and enact religious reforms are singled out for praise, and those who encourage pagan practices are denounced." 146
  35. Yehezkel Kaufmann "Israel In Canaan" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The fight against Baal was initiated by the prophets" 54
  36. Yehezkel Kaufmann "The Age of Prophecy" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The immediate occasion of the rise of the new prophecy was the political and social ruin caused by the wars with Israel's northerly neighbor, Aram, which continued for more than a century. They raged intensely during the reign of Ahab, and did not end until the time of Jeroboam II (784–744). While the nation as a whole was impoverished, a few – apparently of the royal officialdom – grew wealthy as a result of the national calamity. Many of the people were compelled to sell their houses and lands, with the result that a sharp social cleavage arose: on the one hand a mass of propertyless indigents, on the other a small circle of the rich. A series of disasters struck the nation – drought, famine, plagues, death and captivity (Amos 4: 6–11), but the greatest disaster of all was the social disintegration due to the cleavage between the poor masses and the wealthy, dissolute upper class. The decay affected both Judah and Israel ... High minded men were appalled at this development. Was this the people whom YHWH had brought out of Egypt, to whom He had given the land and a law of justice and right? it seemed as if the land was about to be inherited by the rich, who would squander its substance in drunken revelry. it was this dissolution that brought the prophetic denunciations to white heat." 57–58
  37. Abraham Joshua Heschel 1955 The Prophets Harper and Row: "What manner of man is the prophet? A student of philosophy who runs from the discourses of the great metaphysicians to the orations of the prophets may feel as if he were going from the realm of the sublime to an area of trivialities. Instead of dealing with the timeless issues of being and becoming, of matter and form, of definitions and demonstrations, he is thrown into orations about widows and orphans, about the corruption of judges and affairs of the market place. Instead of showing us a way through the elegant mansions of the mind, the prophets take us to the slums. The world is a proud place, full of beauty, but the prophets are scandalized, and rave as if the whole world were a slum. They make much ado about paltry things, lavishing excessive language upon trifling subjects. What if somewhere in ancient Palestine poor people have not been treated properly by the rich? .... Indeed, the sorts of crimes and even the amount of delinquency that fill the prophets of Israel with dismay do not go beyond that which we regard as normal, as typical ingredients of social dynamics. To us a single act of injustice – cheating in business, exploitation of the poor – is slight; to the prophets, a disaster. To us an injustice is injurious to the welfare of the people; to the prophets it is a deathblow to existence; to us an episode; to them, a catastrophe, a threat to the world." 3–4
  38. Joel Rosenberg "I and II Samuel" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Samuel is thus a work of national self-criticism. It recognizes that Israel would not have survived, either politically or culturally, without the steadying presence of a dynastic royal house. But it makes both that house and its subjects answerable to firm standards of prophetic justice – not those of cult prophets or professional ecstatics, but of morally upright prophetic leaders in the tradition of Moses, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, and others ..." 141
  39. Neusner, Jacob, The Talmud Law, Theology, Narrative: A Sourcebook. University Press of America, 2005
  40. 1 2 Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible in its Context. Oxford University Press. 2009; p. 5
  41. Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 7 of 9: Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate) translated by Michael L. Rodkinson, first published 1918 – published 2008 by Forgotten Books, p. 53
  42. Archived 23 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine Ketuvim כְּתוּבִים 30 July 2008
  43. Henshaw 1963, pp. 16–17.
  44. Lightfoot, Neil R. How We Got the Bible, 3rd edition, rev. and expanded. Baker Book House Company. 2003, pp. 154–155.
  45. Henshaw 1963, p. 17.
  46. A 7th-century fragment containing the Song of the Sea (Exodus 13:19–16:1) is one of the few surviving texts from the "silent era" of Hebrew biblical texts between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Aleppo Codex. See "Rare scroll fragment to be unveiled," Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2007.
  47. "The Damascus Keters". National Library of Israel. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  48. Vanderkam 2002, p. 91 Archived 26 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine .
  49. Although a paucity of extant source material makes it impossible to be certain that the earliest Samaritans also rejected the other books of the Tanakh, the 3rd-century church father Origen confirms that the Samaritans in his day "receive[d] the books of Moses alone." (Commentary on John 13:26 Archived 3 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine )
  50. Gaster, M. (1908). "A Samaritan Book of Joshua". The Living Age. 258: 166. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  51. Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004) Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine , Anchor Bible Reference Library, Alan F. Segal, p. 363
  52. Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p. 111
  53. 1 2 "[...] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang [...] [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (.) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff
  54. 1 2 Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint. Paternoster Press. ISBN   978-1842270615. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  55. Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint Archived 9 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  56. Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of the Septuagint", (Accessed 2006.9.5).
  57. "The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah." "Bible Translations – The Septuagint". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  58. "Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] [...] In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible [...] It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church." "Bible Translations – The Septuagint". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  59. Mishnah Sotah (7:2–4 and 8:1), among many others, discusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaic or Greek. This is comparable to the authority claimed for the original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching. As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only.
  60. Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 1995.
  61. "NETS: Electronic Edition". 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  62. Harrington 1999, pp. 119–120.
  63. Spencer 2002, p. 89.
  64. Collins 1984, p. 28.
  65. Seow 2003, p. 3.
  66. 1 2 This article incorporates text from the 1903 Encyclopaedia Biblica  article "Text and Versions" , a publication now in the public domain .
  67. 1 2 Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.
  68. Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN   0802860915. – The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX.
  69. Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX. Archived 29 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  70. Johnson, Paul (2012). History of Christianity. Simon and Schuster. p. 374. ISBN   9781451688511.
  71. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Barton, John (1998). Holy Writings, Sacred Text: The Canon in Early Christianity (reprint ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN   9780664257781.
  72. Kelly 2000, p. 4.
  73. Kelly 2000, p. 31–32.
  74. Barton, John (1998). The Cambridge companion to biblical interpretation. Barton, John (1st ed.). Cambridge. ISBN   978-0521481441. OCLC   37353764.
  75. Eerdmans commentary on the Bible. Dunn, James D. G., Rogerson, J. W. [John William]. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans. 2003. ISBN   978-0802837110. OCLC   53059839.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  76. Crenshaw, James L. (2010). Old Testament wisdom : an introduction (3rd ed.). Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN   978-0664234591. OCLC   426147298.
  77. The Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls Archived 27 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  78. "Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  79. Council of Trent: Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis "Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures" Archived 5 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine , from the Council's fourth session, of 4 April 1546: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, The Fourth Session, Celebrated on the eighth day of the month of April, in the year 1546, English translation by James Waterworth (London 1848).
  80. The Council of Trent confirmed the identical list/canon of sacred scriptures already anciently approved by the Synod of Hippo (Synod of 393), Council of Carthage, 28 August 397, and Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel), Session 11, 4 February 1442 Archived 24 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine   – [Bull of union with the Copts] seventh paragraph down.
  81. Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2019. Paragraph 120.
  82. 1 2 3 4 Wells, Preston B. (1911). The Story of the English Bible. Pentecostal Publishing Company. p. 41. Fourteen books and parts of books are considered Apocryphal by Protestants. Three of these are recognized by Roman Catholics also as Apocryphal.
  83. 1 2 3 4 Quaker Life, Volume 11. Friends United Press. 1970. p. 141. Even though they were not placed on the same level as the canonical books , still they were useful for instruction . ... These – and others that total fourteen or fifteen altogether – are the books known as the Apocrypha.
  84. the Canon of Trent:
    But if anyone receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition; and knowingly and deliberately contemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema.
    Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis, Council of Trent, 8 April 1546
  85. 1 2 "The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church". Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  86. "The Revised Common Lectionary" (PDF). Consultation on Common Texts. 1992. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. In all places where a reading from the deuterocanonical books (The Apocrypha) is listed, an alternate reading from the canonical Scriptures has also been provided.
  87. Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  88. The Book of Enoch Archived 8 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine – The Reluctant Messenger. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  89. Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P–Sh p. 411, ISBN   0802824161 (2004)
  90. Wright 2005, p. 3.
  91. 1 2 Wright 2005
  92. Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland The text of the New Testament: an introduction to the critical 1995 p. 52 "The New Testament was written in Koine Greek, the Greek of daily conversation. The fact that from the first all the New Testament writings were written in Greek is conclusively demonstrated by their citations from the Old Testament ..."
  93. Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testament 1972 p9 "How came the twenty-seven books of the New Testament to be gathered together and made authoritative Christian scripture? 1. All the New Testament books were originally written in Greek. On the face of it this may surprise us."
  94. Wenham The elements of New Testament Greek p. xxv Jeremy Duff, John William Wenham – 2005 "This is the language of the New Testament. By the time of Jesus the Romans had become the dominant military and political force, but the Greek language remained the 'common language' of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond, and Greek ..."
  95. Daniel B. Wallace Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament 1997
  96. Henry St. John Thackeray Grammar of New Testament Greek ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Blass, 1911 "By far the most predominant element in the language of the New Testament is the Greek of common speech which was disseminated in the East by the Macedonian conquest, in the form which it had gradually assumed under the wider development ..."
  97. David E. Aune The Blackwell companion to the New Testament 2009 p.61 Chapter 4 New Testament Greek Christophe Rico "In this short overview of the Greek language of the New Testament we will focus on those topics that are of greatest importance for the average reader, that is, those with important ..."
  98. Mears, Henrietta C. (2007) "A glossary of Bible words". Archived 27 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine What the Bible is All About Visual Edition, pp. 438–439. Gospel Light Publications, CA. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  99. Ewert, David (11 May 2010). A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations. Zondervan. p. 104. ISBN   9780310872436. English Bibles were patterned after those of the Continental Reformers by having the Apocrypha set off from the rest of the OT. Coverdale (1535) called them "Apocrypha". All English Bibles prior to 1629 contained the Apocrypha. Matthew's Bible (1537), the Great Bible (1539), the Geneva Bible (1560), the Bishop's Bible (1568), and the King James Bible (1611) contained the Apocrypha. Soon after the publication of the KJV, however, the English Bibles began to drop the Apocrypha and eventually they disappeared entirely. The first English Bible to be printed in America (1782–83) lacked the Apocrypha. In 1826 the British and Foreign Bible Society decided to no longer print them. Today the trend is in the opposite direction, and English Bibles with the Apocrypha are becoming more popular again.
  100. Archived 27 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Frank K. Flinn, Infobase Publishing, 2007, p. 103
  101. Sebastian P. Brock The Bible in the Syriac Tradition St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 1988. Quote p. 13: "The Peshitta Old Testament was translated directly from the original Hebrew text, and the Peshitta New Testament directly from the original Greek"
  102. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q–Z. p. 976. ISBN   0802837840. Printed editions of the Peshitta frequently contain these books in order to fill the gaps. D. Harklean Version. The Harklean version is connected with the labors of Thomas of Harqel. When thousands were fleeing Khosrou's invading armies, ...
  103. Kiraz, George Anton (2002) [1996]. Comparative Edition of the Syriac Gospels: Aligning the Old Syriac Sinaiticus, Curetonianus, Peshitta and Harklean Versions (2nd ed.). Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
  104. Kiraz, George Anton (2004) [1996]. Comparative Edition of the Syriac Gospels: Aligning the Old Syriac Sinaiticus, Curetonianus, Peshitta and Harklean Versions (3rd ed.). Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
  105. 1 2 "Methodist Beliefs: In what ways are Lutherans different from United Methodists?". Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. 2014. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014. The United Methodists see Scripture as the primary source and criterion for Christian doctrine. They emphasize the importance of tradition, experience, and reason for Christian doctrine. Lutherans teach that the Bible is the sole source for Christian doctrine. The truths of Scripture do not need to be authenticated by tradition, human experience, or reason. Scripture is self authenticating and is true in and of itself.
  106. Humphrey, Edith M. (15 April 2013). Scripture and Tradition. Baker Books. p. 16. ISBN   978-1-4412-4048-4. historically Anglicans have adopted what could be called a prima Scriptura position.
  107. Hurtado, Larry W. "P52 (P. Rylands Gk. 457) and the Nomina Sacra: Method and Probability". Edinburgh Research Archive. University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  108. Lim 2017, p. 47; Ulrich 2013, pp. 103–104; VanderKam & Flint 2013, ch. 5; Brown 2010, ch. 3(A); Harris & Platzner 2008, p. 22.
  109. 1 2 3 4 5 Soulen, Richard N.; Soulen, R. Kendall (2001). Handbook of Biblical Criticism (Third ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN   978-0-664-22314-4.
  110. Wegner, Paul D. (2004). The Journey from Texts to Translations The Origin and Development of the Bible. Baker Publishing Group. pp. 178–180. ISBN   978-0-8010-2799-4.
  111. Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1987). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism . Eerdmans. p. 29. ISBN   978-0-8028-3620-5.
  112. Rezetko, Robert; Young, Ian (2014). Historical Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew Steps Toward an Integrated Approach. SBL Press. p. 164. ISBN   978-1-62837-046-1.
  113. Bird, Graeme D. (2010). "Textual Criticism as Applied to Classical and Biblical Texts". Multitextuality in the Homeric Iliad: The Witness of the Ptolemaic Papyri. Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0-674-05323-6.
  114. Parker 2013, pp. 412–420, 430–432; Brown 2010, ch. 3(A).
  115. Andrews, Edward D. (2019). 400,000+ Scribal Errors in the Greek New Testament Manuscripts What Assurance Do We Have that We Can Trust the Bible?. Christian Publishing House. p. 56. ISBN   978-1-949586-92-3.
  116. Bruce, F. F. (June 2006). Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Wipf & Stock. p. 31. ISBN   978-1-59752-700-2.
  117. Lim 2017, pp. 46–49; Ulrich 2013, pp. 95–104; VanderKam & Flint 2013, ch. 5; Carr 2010, p. 8; Bandstra 2009, p. 482; Gravett et al. 2008, pp. 47–49; Harris & Platzner 2008, pp. 23–28.
  118. Walther League (1924). The Walther League Messenger. University of Wisconsin. p. 332.
  119. Popkin, R. H. (2013). The Books of Nature and Scripture Recent Essays on Natural Philosophy, Theology and Biblical Criticism in the Netherlands of Spinoza's Time and the British Isles of Newton's Time. Springer Netherlands. p. 5. ISBN   978-94-017-3249-9.
  120. Young, Edward Joseph (1989) [1964]. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Eerdmans. pp. 119–120. ISBN   978-0-8028-0339-9.
  121. 1 2 Nahkola, Aulikki (2007). "The Memoires of Moses and the Genesis of Method in Biblical Criticism: Astruc's Contribution". In Jarick, John (ed.). Sacred Conjectures: The Context and Legacy of Robert Lowth and Jean Astruc. T&T Clark. ISBN   978-0-567-02932-4.
  122. Grieve, Alexander James (1920). Peake, Arthur Samuel; Grieve, Alexander James (eds.). A Commentary on the Bible. Harvard University. p. 133.
  123. Prior, Joseph G. (1999). The Historical Critical Method in Catholic Exegesis. Pontificia Università Gregoriana. ISBN   978-88-7652-825-5.
  124. Brown, Michael Joseph (2004). Blackening of the Bible: The Aims of African American Biblical Scholarship. Bloomsbury Academic. pp.  3, 4. ISBN   978-1-56338-363-2.
  125. 1 2
  126. 1 2 3 Fishbane, Michael (1992). The Garments of Torah, Essays in Biblical Hermeneutics. Indiana University Press. ISBN   978-0-253-11408-2.
  127. Legaspi, Michael C. (2010). The Death of Scripture and the Rise of Biblical Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-539435-1.
  128. Thielman, Frank S. (2011). Theology of the New Testament A Canonical and Synthetic Approach. Zondervan. pp. 20, 22. ISBN   978-0-310-86433-2.
  129. Law, David R. (2012). The Historical-Critical Method: A Guide for the Perplexed. T&T Clark. ISBN   978-0-56740-012-3.
  130. Reill, Peter Hanns (1975). The German Enlightenment and the Rise of Historicism. University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-520-02594-3.
  131. 1 2
  132. Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1990). Mephistopheles The Devil in the Modern World. Cornell University Press. ISBN   978-0-8014-9718-6.
  133. 1 2 3 Harrisville, Roy A. (2014). Pandora's Box Opened: An Examination and Defense of Historical-Critical Method and Its Master Practitioners. Eerdmans. p. vii. ISBN   978-0-8028-6980-7.
  134. Roberts, Tyler (2013). Encountering Religion Responsibility and Criticism After Secularism. Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN   978-0-231-53549-6.
  135. Davaney, Sheila Greeve (2006). Historicism: The Once and Future Challenge for Theology. Fortress Press. ISBN   978-1-4514-1831-6.
  136. Rogerson, J. W. (2000). "Higher criticism". In Mason, Alistair; Hastings, Adrian; Hastings, Ed; Pyper, Hugh (eds.). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. p.  298. ISBN   978-0-19-860024-4.
  137. Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 49–50.
  138. Rice, John R. – Our God-Breathed Book: The Bible ISBN   0873986288, Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1969, pp. 68–88.
  139. "Beyond Biblical Literalism and Inerrancy: Conservative Protestants and the Hermeneutic Interpretation of Scripture", John Bartkowski, Sociology of Religion, 57, 1996.
  140. Philo of Alexandria, De vita Moysis 3.23.
  141. Josephus, Contra Apion 1.8.
  142. "Basis for belief of Inspiration Biblegateway". Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  143. Norman L. Geisler, William E. Nix. A General Introduction to the Bible. Moody Publishers, 1986, p. 86. ISBN   0802429165
  144. For example, see Leroy Zuck, Roy B. Zuck. Basic Bible Interpretation. Chariot Victor Pub, 1991, p. 68. ISBN   0896938190
  145. Roy B. Zuck, Donald Campbell. Basic Bible Interpretation. Victor, 2002. ISBN   0781438772
  146. Norman L. Geisler. Inerrancy. Zondervan, 1980, p. 294. ISBN   0310392810
  147. International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978). "The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy" (PDF). International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2008.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  148. "Ruckman's belief in advanced revelations in the KJV". Archived from the original on 27 October 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  149. Clark, Francis (1987). The Pseudo-Gregorian dialogues. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 601–602. ISBN   978-9004077737. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  150. Bruce 1988, p. 234.
  151. Frazier, Alison (2015). Essays in Renaissance Thought and Letters: In Honor of John Monfasani. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 465. ISBN   978-9004294479. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  152. Burkitt (1913). "The Decretum Geladianum". Journal of Theological Studies. 14: 469–471. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  153. Ellis, E. Earle (2003). The Old Testament in early Christianity : canon and interpretation in the light of modern research. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock. p. 26. ISBN   978-1592442560. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  154. "The Christian canon". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  155. Kelly, J. N. D. (1960). Early Christian Doctrines. San Francisco: Harper. p. 55.
  156. "The Bible". Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  157. "2021 Scripture Access Statistics". Archived from the original on 13 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  158. "Expondo Os Erros Da Sociedade Bíblica Internacional". 2000. Archived from the original on 29 October 2002. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  159. Potter, George (2005). Ten More Amazing Discoveries. CFI. p. 121. ISBN   978-1555178055. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  160. Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN   978-0743223386. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  161. Dever, William (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN   978-0802809759.
  162. Archived 27 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament: An Introduction for English Readers by Keith Elliott, Ian Moir – Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000, p. 9
  163. Becoming Rasta: Origins of Rastafari Identity in Jamaica. p. 171, Charles Price. 2009
  164. Unitarian Universalism. p. 42, Zondervan Publishing, 2009
  165. "…they [from the Children of Israel] pervert words from their meanings, and have forgotten a part of what they were reminded …" Quran 5:18.
  166. "The Bible tops 'most influential' book survey". BBC . 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  167. Riches 2000, p. 134.
  168. Turner, Allan (31 August 2015). "Historic Bibles ?' even a naughty one ?' featured at Houston's Dunham Museum". Houston Chronicle . Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  169. "About Us". Museum of the Bible. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  170. "Museum of the Bible opens in Washington, D.C., with celebration amid cynicism". NBC News. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  171. "Questions swirl around Museum of the Bible before grand opening". NBC News. Archived from the original on 9 December 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  172. "St Arnaud gets it own holy grail". The Herald and Weekly Times . 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 12 December 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  173. "Bible Museum Homepage | Features". Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020. Australia's only Bible Museum has temporarily closed and is preparing to relocate. Our exciting new location will be announced on this website.
  174. "Great Passion Play has some interesting new sights that don't cost anything to see". KSNF/KODE – 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  175. The Christian travel planner. Thomas Nelson. 2008. p. 327. ISBN   978-1401603748. Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  176. Jordan, Leah. "Shelby County awards $15,000 grant for Bible Museum in Collierville". WHBQ-TV . Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  177. "About". Bible Museum On The Square. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  178. Mary, Fonseca. Weekend Getaways in Louisiana. Pelican Publishing. p. 249. ISBN   978-1455613984. Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  179. 1 2 Putnam A.M., Geo. Haven. Books and Their Makers During The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. New York: Hillary House, 1962. Print.
  180. De Hamel 1992, p. 45.
  181. De Hamel 1992, p. 57.
  182. De Hamel 1992, p. 65.
  183. De Hamel 1992, p. 60.

Works cited

Further reading