Jesus in Christianity

Last updated
Jesus (on the left) is being identified by John the Baptist as the Lamb of God. Ottavio vannini, san giovanni che indica il Cristo a Sant'Andrea.jpg
Jesus (on the left) is being identified by John the Baptist as the Lamb of God.

In Christianity, Jesus is the Son of God and in many mainstream Christian denominations, he is the second Person in the Trinity. It is believed that through his crucifixion and subsequent resurrection, God offered humans salvation and eternal life. [2] He is the Jewish messiah who is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, which is called the Old Testament in Christianity. These teachings emphasize that as the Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer on the cross at Calvary as a sign of his obedience to the will of God, as an "agent and servant of God". [3] [4] Jesus died to atone for sin to make humanity right with God. [5] Jesus' choice positions him as a man of obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience. [6]

Contents

Christians believe that Jesus was both human and divine—the Son of God. While there has been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man"—both fully divine and fully human. Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin.

According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. [7] He ascended to heaven to sit at the right hand of God, [8] and he will return to Earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God. [9]

Core teachings

Although Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to summarize the key elements of the beliefs which major Christian denominations share based on their catechetical or confessional texts. [10] [11] [12] Christian views of Jesus are derived from various biblical sources, particularly from the canonical Gospels and New Testament letters such as the Pauline epistles. Christians predominantly hold that these works are historically true. [13]

Those Christian groups or denominations which are committed to what are considered biblically orthodox Christianity nearly all agree that Jesus: [14]

Some groups which are considered to be Christian hold beliefs which are considered to be heterodox. For example, believers in monophysitism reject the idea that Christ has two natures, one human and one divine.

The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his baptism, transfiguration, crucifixion, resurrection and ascension. [16] [17] [18] These are usually bracketed by two other episodes: his nativity at the beginning and the sending of the Paraclete (Holy Spirit) at the end. [16] [18] The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his "works and words", e.g., his ministry, parables and miracles. [19] [20]

Christians not only attach theological significance to the works of Jesus, but also to his name. Devotions to the name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity. [21] [22] These exist today both in Eastern and Western Christianity—both Catholic and Protestant. [22]

Christians predominantly profess that through Jesus' life, death, and resurrection, he restored humanity's communion with God with the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as a redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin [23] which had entered human history through the sin of Adam. [24]

Christ, Logos and Son of God

First page of Mark, by Sargis Pitsak (14th century): "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God". Sargis Pitsak.jpg
First page of Mark, by Sargis Pitsak (14th century): "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God".

But who do you say that I am? Only Simon Peter answered him: You are the Christ, the Son of the living GodMatthew 16:15-16 [25]

Jesus is mediator, but…the title means more than someone between God and man. He is not just a third party between God and humanity…. As true God he brings God to mankind. As true man he brings mankind to God. [26]

Most Christians generally consider Jesus to be the Christ, the long-awaited Messiah, as well as the one and only Son of God. The opening words in the Gospel of Mark (1:1), "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God", provide Jesus with the two distinct attributions as Christ and as the Son of God. His divinity is again re-affirmed in Mark 1:11. [27] Matthew 1:1 which begins by calling Jesus the Christ and in verse 16 explains it again with the affirmation: "Jesus, who is called Christ".

In the Pauline epistles, the word "Christ" is so closely associated with Jesus that apparently for the early Christians there was no need to claim that Jesus was Christ, for that was considered widely accepted among them. Hence Paul could use the term Christos with no confusion about who it referred to, and as in 1 Corinthians 4:15 and Romans 12:5 he could use expressions such as "in Christ" to refer to the followers of Jesus. [28]

In the New Testament, the title "Son of God" is applied to Jesus on many occasions. [29] It is often used to refer to his divinity, from the beginning in the Annunciation up to the crucifixion. [29] The declaration that Jesus is the Son of God is made by many individuals in the New Testament, and on two separate occasions by God the Father as a voice from Heaven, and is asserted by Jesus himself. [29] [30] [31] [32]

In Christology, the concept that the Christ is the Logos (i.e., "The Word") has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. This derives from the opening of the Gospel of John, commonly translated into English as: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." [33] In the original Greek, Logos (λόγος) is used for "Word," and in theological discourse, this is often left in its English transliterated form, "Logos".

The pre-existence of Christ refers to the doctrine of the personal existence of Christ before his conception. One of the relevant Bible passages is John 1:1-18 where, in the Trinitarian view, Christ is identified with a pre-existent divine hypostasis called the Logos or Word. This doctrine is reiterated in John 17:5 when Jesus refers to the glory which he had with the Father "before the world was" during the Farewell discourse. [34] John 17:24 also refers to the Father loving Jesus "before the foundation of the world". [34] Non-Trinitarian views about the pre-existence of Christ vary, with some rejecting it and others accepting it.

Following the Apostolic Age, from the 2nd century forward, several controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus. [35] [36] [37] Eventually in 451, the concept of a Hypostatic union was decreed, namely that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human. [35] [36] [38] [39] However, differences among Christian denominations continued thereafter, with some rejecting the hypostatic union in favor of monophysitism.

Incarnation, Nativity and Second Adam

Nativity of Jesus, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans, c. 1490 Geertgen tot Sint Jans, The Nativity at Night, c 1490.jpg
Nativity of Jesus , by Geertgen tot Sint Jans, c. 1490

He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible. — Colossians 1:15-16

The above verse from Colossians regards the birth of Jesus as the model for all creation. [40] [41] [42] [43] Apostle Paul viewed the birth of Jesus as an event of cosmic significance which brought forth a "new man" who undid the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. Just as the Johannine view of Jesus as the incarnate Logos proclaims the universal relevance of his birth, the Pauline perspective emphasizes the birth of a new man and a new world in the birth of Jesus. [6] Paul's eschatological view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation. [6]

In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second: Adam, having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as its inheritance. The birth of Jesus counterbalanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam. [44]

In the 2nd century Church Father Irenaeus writes:

"When He became incarnate and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam—namely to be according to the image and likeness of God- that we might recover in Christ Jesus." [45] [46]

In patristic theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. The nativity of Jesus thus began to serve as the starting point for "cosmic Christology" in which the birth, life and resurrection of Jesus have universal implications. [6] [47] [48] The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and rebirth of Jesus from his nativity to his resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a "new harmony" in the relationship between God the Father and man. The nativity and resurrection of Jesus thus created the author and exemplar of a new humanity. [49] In this view, the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus brought about salvation, undoing the damage of Adam. [50]

As the biological son of David, Jesus would be of the Jewish race, ethnicity, nation, and culture. [51] [52] One argument against this would be a contradiction in Jesus' genealogies: Matthew saying he is the son of Solomon and Luke saying he is the son of Nathan—Solomon and Nathan being brothers. John of Damascus taught that there is no contradiction, for Nathan wed Solomon's wife after Solomon died in accordance with scripture, namely, yibbum (the mitzvah that a man must marry his brother's childless widow). [53]

Jesus grew up in Galilee and much of his ministry took place there. [54] The languages spoken in Galilee and Judea during the 1st century AD include Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek, with Aramaic being predominant. [55] [56] There is substantial consensus that Jesus gave most of his teachings in Aramaic [57] in the Galilean dialect. [58] [59]

The New Testament describes Jesus wearing tzitzit - the tassels on a tallit - in Matthew 14:36 [60] and Luke 8:43-44. [61] Besides this, the New Testament includes no descriptions of Jesus' appearance before his death and the Gospel narratives are generally indifferent to people's racial appearance or features. [62] [63] [64] :48–51

Ministry

The Communion of the Apostles, by Luca Signorelli, 1512. Luca signorelli, comunione con gli apostoli, cortona.jpg
The Communion of the Apostles, by Luca Signorelli, 1512.

The thief comes only in order to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have and enjoy life, and have it in abundance (to the full, till it overflows).—John 10:10 (Ampl)

Jesus seemed to have two basic concerns with reference to people and the material: (1) that they be freed from the tyranny of things and (2) that they be actively concerned for the needs of others. [26]

In the canonical gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper. [65] The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. [66] [67] The date of the start of his ministry has been estimated at around AD 27-29 and the end in the range AD 30-36. [66] [67] [67] [68] [69]

Jesus' early Galilean ministry begins when after his baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. [70] In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church. [65] [71] The major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. [72] [73] The final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem. [74] [75]

In the later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea. [76] [77] [78] [79] As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. [80] [81] [82]

The final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. [83] The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. [84]

Teachings, parables and miracles

A Gospel of John, 1056 Ostromir Gospel 1.jpg
A Gospel of John, 1056

The words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father who dwells in me does his works.John 14:10 [85]

In the New Testament the teachings of Jesus are presented in terms of his "words and works". [19] [20] The words of Jesus include several sermons, in addition to parables that appear throughout the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels (the gospel of John includes no parables). The works include the miracles and other acts performed during his ministry. [20]

Although the Canonical Gospels are the major source of the teachings of Jesus, the Pauline epistles, which were likely written decades before the gospels, provide some of the earliest written accounts of the teachings of Jesus. [86]

The New Testament does not present the teachings of Jesus as merely his own teachings, but equates the words of Jesus with divine revelation, with John the Baptist stating in John 3:34: "For the one whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for God gives the Spirit without limit." and Jesus stating in John 7:16: “My teaching is not my own. It comes from the one who sent me". [85] [87] In Matthew 11:27 Jesus claims divine knowledge, stating: "No one knows the Son except the Father and no one knows the Father except the Son", asserting the mutual knowledge he has with the Father. [32] [88]

Discourses

Jesus' Farewell Discourse to his eleven remaining disciples after the Last Supper, from the Maesta by Duccio. Christ Taking Leave of the Apostles.jpg
Jesus' Farewell Discourse to his eleven remaining disciples after the Last Supper, from the Maestà by Duccio.

The gospels include several discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, such as the Farewell discourse delivered after the Last Supper, the night before his crucifixion. [89] Although some of the teachings of Jesus are reported as taking place within the formal atmosphere of a synagogue (e.g., in Matthew 4:23) many of the discourses are more like conversations than formal lectures. [90]

The Gospel of Matthew has a structured set of sermons, often grouped as the Five Discourses of Matthew which present many of the key teachings of Jesus. [91] [92] Each of the five discourses has some parallel passages in the Gospel of Mark or the Gospel of Luke. [93] The five discourses in Matthew begin with the Sermon on the Mount, which encapsulates many of the moral teaching of Jesus and which is one of the best known and most quoted elements of the New Testament. [90] [94] The Sermon on the Mount includes the Beatitudes which describe the character of the people of the Kingdom of God, expressed as "blessings". [95] The Beatitudes focus on love and humility rather than force and exaction and echo the key ideals of Jesus' teachings on spirituality and compassion. [96] [97] [98] The other discourses in Matthew include the Missionary Discourse in Matthew 10 and the Discourse on the Church in Matthew 18, providing instructions to the disciples and laying the foundation of the codes of conduct for the anticipated community of followers. [99] [100] [101]

Parables

The parables of Jesus represent a major component of his teachings in the gospels, the approximately thirty parables forming about one third of his recorded teachings. [102] [103] The parables may appear within longer sermons, as well as other places within the narrative. [90] Jesus' parables are seemingly simple and memorable stories, often with imagery, and each conveys a teaching which usually relates the physical world to the spiritual world. [104] [105]

In the 19th century, Lisco and Fairbairn stated that in the parables of Jesus, "the image borrowed from the visible world is accompanied by a truth from the invisible (spiritual) world" and that the parables of Jesus are not "mere similitudes which serve the purpose of illustration, but are internal analogies where nature becomes a witness for the spiritual world". [104] Similarly, in the 20th century, calling a parable "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning", [106] William Barclay states that the parables of Jesus use familiar examples to lead others' minds towards heavenly concepts. He suggests that Jesus did not form his parables merely as analogies but based on an "inward affinity between the natural and the spiritual order." [106]

Miracles of Jesus

Believe the miracles, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. —John 10:38 [107]

In Christian teachings, the miracles of Jesus were as much a vehicle for his message as were his words. Many of the miracles emphasize the importance of faith, for instance in cleansing ten lepers, [Lk 17:19] Jesus did not say: "My power has saved you" but says "Rise and go; your faith has saved you." [108] [109] Similarly, in the Walking on Water miracle, Apostle Peter learns an important lesson about faith in that as his faith wavers, he begins to sink. [Mt 14:34-36] [110]

Jesus healing the paralytic in The Pool by Palma il Giovane, 1592 Palma il Giovane 001.jpg
Jesus healing the paralytic in The Pool by Palma il Giovane, 1592

One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the Gospel accounts is that he delivered benefits freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment for his healing miracles, unlike some high priests of his time who charged those who were healed. [111] In Matthew 10:8 he advised his disciples to heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those who have leprosy, and drive out demons without payment and stated: "Freely you have received; freely give". [111]

Christians in general believe that Jesus' miracles were actual historical events and that his miraculous works were an important part of his life, attesting to his divinity and the Hypostatic union, i.e., the dual natures of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis. [112] Christians believe that while Jesus' experiences of hunger, weariness, and death were evidences of his humanity, the miracles were evidences of his deity. [113] [114] [115]

Christian authors also view the miracles of Jesus not merely as acts of power and omnipotence, but as works of love and mercy: they were performed to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity. [112] Authors Ken and Jim Stocker state that "every single miracle Jesus performed was an act of love". [116] And each miracle involves specific teachings. [117] [118]

Since according to the Gospel of John [20:30] it was impossible to narrate all the miracles performed by Jesus, the Catholic Encyclopedia states that the miracles presented in the Gospels were selected for a twofold reason: first for the manifestation of God's glory, and then for their evidential value. Jesus referred to his "works" as evidences of his mission and his divinity, and in John 5:36 he declared that his miracles have greater evidential value than the testimony of John the Baptist. [112]

Self-identification

Jesus identifies himself as a Jew to the Samaritan woman at the well, [119] as evidenced by the plural we and the saying "salvation is from the Jews"—a saying that is in accordance with the Jewish concept of salvation, and is a possible reference to Isaiah 49:6. [120] When the woman says she is awaiting the messiah Jesus replies that he is the one she is awaiting. [121] During the Feast of Dedication Jesus says "I and the Father are one," [122] which prompts the Jewish leaders to attempt to stone him for blasphemy (claiming to be God). [123] Seven "I am" sayings are attributed to Jesus: he is the bread of life that makes one no longer hunger or thirst; [124] the light of the world that makes one no longer walk in darkness but have the light of life; [125] the gate through which one is saved; [126] the good shepherd that lays down his life for his sheep; [127] the resurrection and the life that gives one eternal life; [128] the way, the truth, and the life through which one goes to God the Father; [129] and the true vine of God's vineyard. [130]

Mannerism

In the Synoptics Jesus and his disciples do not wash their hands before eating a meal, contrary to handwashing in Judaism. [131] [132] [133] Jesus' disciples also do not practice ta'anit, contrary to John the Baptist's disciples. [134] [135] [136] Jesus' disciples even pick and eat grain on the Sabbath, contrary to the Pharisees. [137] [138] [139] None of this behavior is found in the Gospel of John.

Crucifixion and atonement

The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the canonical gospels to the Pauline epistles. [140]

Johannine "agency christology" combines the concept that Jesus is the Son of his Father with the idea that he has come into the world as his Father's agent, commissioned and sent by the Father to represent the Father and to accomplish his Father's work. Implied in each Synoptic portrayal of Jesus is the doctrine that the salvation Jesus gives is inseparable from Jesus himself and his divine identity. Sonship and agency come together in the Synoptic gospels only in the Parable of the Vineyard ( Matthew 21:37 ; Mark 12:6 ; Luke 20:13 ). [141] The submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an agent of God or servant of God, for the sake of eventual victory. [4] [142] This builds upon the salvific theme of the Gospel of John which begins in John 1:36 with John the Baptist's proclamation: "The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world". [143] [144] Further reinforcement of the concept is provided in Revelation 21:14 where the "lamb slain but standing" is the only one worthy of handling the scroll (i.e., the book) containing the names of those who are to be saved. [145]

A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan". [146] In this view, as in Acts 2:23, the cross is not viewed as a scandal, for the crucifixion of Jesus "at the hands of the lawless" is viewed as the fulfilment of the plan of God. [146] [147]

Paul's Christology has a specific focus on the death and resurrection of Jesus. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6:12 may be viewed as his abbreviation of the message of the gospels. [148] For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus was not an isolated event in history, but a cosmic event with significant eschatological consequences, as in 1 Corinthians 2:8. [148] In the Pauline view, Jesus, obedient to the point of death (Philippians 2:8) died "at the right time" (Romans 4:25) based on the plan of God. [148] For Paul the "power of the cross" is not separable from the resurrection of Jesus. [148]

John Calvin supported the "agent of God" Christology and argued that in his trial in Pilate's Court Jesus could have successfully argued for his innocence, but instead submitted to crucifixion in obedience to the Father. [149] [150] This Christological theme continued into the 20th century, both in the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the crucifixion of Jesus was "pre-eternally" determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam. [151] In the Western Church, Karl Rahner elaborated on the analogy that the blood of the Lamb of God (and the water from the side of Jesus) shed at the crucifixion had a cleansing nature, similar to baptismal water. [152]

Mormons believe that the crucifixion was the culmination of Christ's atonement, which began in the Garden of Gethsemane. [153]

Resurrection, Ascension, and Second Coming

Depictions of the Resurrection of Jesus are central to Christian art (Resurrection of Christ by Raphael, 1499-1502) Rafael - ressureicaocristo01.jpg
Depictions of the Resurrection of Jesus are central to Christian art ( Resurrection of Christ by Raphael, 1499-1502)

The New Testament teaches that the resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith. [1 Cor 15:12-20] [1 Pet 1:3] Christians, through faith in the working of God [Col 2:12] are spiritually resurrected with Jesus, and are redeemed so that they may walk in a new way of life. [Rom 6:4]

In the teachings of the apostolic Church, the resurrection was seen as heralding a new era. Forming a theology of the resurrection fell to Apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as Hebrews 6:1 states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption. [154] Paul explained the importance of the resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience in 1 Corinthians 15:20-22 :

But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.

If the cross stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the Resurrection: unless the one died the death of all, the all would have little to celebrate in the resurrection of the one. [155] Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection [156] for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his resurrection. [Rom. 1:4] [156] Paul's views went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid, given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit. [157] At the same time, Paul believed that the newly resurrected body would be a heavenly body—immortal, glorified, powerful and pneumatic, in contrast to an earthly body which is mortal, dishonored, weak and psychic. [158]

The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50−115), [159] Polycarp (69−155), and Justin Martyr (100−165). Following the conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy. [160]

Other denominations

Views on the nature of Jesus vary by denomination. For example, many denominations are nontrinitarian.

Jehovah's Witnesses hold that Jesus is the archangel Michael.

See also

Related Research Articles

Christology Study of Jesus Christ in Christian theology

In Christianity, Christology, translated literally from Greek as "the study of Christ", is a branch of theology that concerns Jesus. Different denominations have different opinions on questions like whether Jesus was human, divine, or both, and as a messiah what his role would be in the freeing of the Jewish people from foreign rulers or in the prophesied Kingdom of God, and in the salvation from what would otherwise be the consequences of sin.

Gospel of Mark Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb. There is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. It portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, and a miracle worker. Jesus is also the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that even most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy, which foretold the fate of the messiah as suffering servant. The gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, and an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection.

Gospel of Matthew Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how Israel's Messiah, rejected and executed in Israel, pronounces judgement on Israel and its leaders and becomes the salvation of the gentiles. The gospel reflects the struggles and conflicts between the evangelist's community and the other Jews, particularly with its sharp criticism of the scribes and Pharisees: prior to the Crucifixion they are referred to as Israelites, the honorific title of God's chosen people; after it, they are called simply Ioudaioi ("Jews"), a sign that through their rejection of the Christ the "Kingdom of Heaven" has been taken away from them and given instead to the church.

Gospel of John Book of the New Testament

The Gospel of John, the fourth of the gospels, gives a highly schematic account of the ministry of Jesus, with seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus and seven "I am" discourses culminating in Thomas's proclamation of the risen Jesus as "my Lord and my God", followed by a conclusion setting out its purpose: "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name." Like the three other gospels it is anonymous, although it identifies an unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved" as the source of its traditions.

Resurrection of Jesus Christian belief that God raised Jesus after his crucifixion

The resurrection of Jesus, or anastasis is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus after his crucifixion as first of the dead, starting his exalted life as Christ and Lord. In Christian theology, the death and resurrection of Jesus are the most important events, a foundation of the Christian faith, and commemorated by Easter. For Christians, His resurrection is the guarantee that all the Christian dead will be resurrected at Christ's second coming. For the Christian tradition, the bodily resurrection was the restoration to life of a transformed body powered by spirit, as described by Paul and the Gospels, that led to the establishment of Christianity.

Nativity of Jesus Birth of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus, nativity of Christ, birth of Christ or birth of Jesus is described in the Biblical gospels of Luke and Matthew. The two accounts agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, his mother Mary was betrothed to a man named Joseph, who was descended from King David and was not his biological father, and that his birth was caused by divine intervention.

Transfiguration of Jesus Episode in the life of Jesus

The transfiguration of Jesus is a story told in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, and the Second Epistle of Peter also refers to it. It has also been hypothesized that the first chapter of the Gospel of John alludes to it John 1:14).

The religious perspectives on Jesus vary among world religions. Jesus' teachings and the retelling of his life story have significantly influenced the course of human history, and have directly or indirectly affected the lives of billions of people, even non-Christians. He is the most influential person to have ever lived, finding a significant place in numerous cultural contexts.

Historical Jesus is the reconstruction of the life and teachings of Jesus by critical historical methods, in contrast to Christological definitions and other Christian accounts of Jesus. It also considers the historical and cultural contexts in which Jesus lived.

Sayings of Jesus on the cross Seven sayings spoken by Jesus before dying on the cross

The Sayings of Jesus on the cross are seven expressions biblically attributed to Jesus during his crucifixion. Traditionally, the brief sayings have been called "words". They are gathered from the four Canonical Gospels. Three of the sayings appear only in the Gospel of Luke and two only in the Gospel of John. One other saying appears both in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark, and another is only directly quoted in John but alluded to in Matthew and Mark. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus cries out to God. In Luke, he forgives his killers, reassures the penitent thief, and commends his spirit to the Father. In John, he speaks to his mother, says he thirsts, and declares the end of his earthly life.

Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Designations for Jesus used in the New Testament

Two names and a variety of titles are used to refer to Jesus in the New Testament. In Christianity, the two names Jesus and Emmanuel that refer to Jesus in the New Testament have salvific attributes. After the crucifixion of Jesus the early Church did not simply repeat his messages, but focused on him, proclaimed him, and tried to understand and explain his message. One element of the process of understanding and proclaiming Jesus was the attribution of titles to him. Some of the titles that were gradually used in the early Church and then appeared in the New Testament were adopted from the Jewish context of the age, while others were selected to refer to, and underscore the message, mission and teachings of Jesus. In time, some of these titles gathered significant Christological significance.

Chronology of Jesus Timeline of the life of Jesus

A chronology of Jesus aims to establish a timeline for the events of the life of Jesus. Scholars have correlated Jewish and Greco-Roman documents and astronomical calendars with the New Testament accounts to estimate dates for the major events in Jesus's life.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament.

Life of Jesus in the New Testament life of Jesus as told in the New Testament

The Life of Jesus in the New Testament is primarily outlined in the four canonical gospels, which includes his genealogy and nativity, public ministry, passion, resurrection and ascension. Other parts of the New Testament – such as the Pauline epistles which were likely written within 20–30 years of each other, and which include references to key episodes in Jesus' life, such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles, (1:1–11) which includes more references to the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels - also expound upon the life of Jesus. In addition to these biblical texts, there are extra-biblical texts that Christians believe make reference to certain events in the life of Jesus, such as Josephus on Jesus and Tacitus on Christ.

Baptism of Jesus event that marks the beginning of Jesus public ministry

The baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist is a major event in the life of Jesus is described in three of the gospels: Matthew, Mark and Luke. It is considered to have taken place at Al-Maghtas, located in Jordan.

Parables of Jesus Short stories used by Jesus of Nazareth to illustrate moral points and the kingdom of God

The parables of Jesus are found in the Synoptic Gospels and some of the non-canonical gospels. They form approximately one third of his recorded teachings. Christians place great emphasis on these parables; which they generally regard as the words of Jesus.

New Testament places associated with Jesus

The New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus refers to a number of locations in the Holy Land and a Flight into Egypt. In these accounts the principal locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities also taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria.

Ministry of Jesus the ministry of jesus

In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan by John The Baptist, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. A chronology of Jesus typically has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around AD 27–29 and the end in the range AD 30–36.

Crucifixion of Jesus Jesus crucifixion as described in the four canonical gospels

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, and is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although there is no consensus among historians on the exact details.

Eternal life (Christianity) concept of Christianity

Eternal life traditionally refers to continued life after death, as outlined in Christian eschatology. The Apostles' Creed testifies: "I believe... the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting." In this view, eternal life commences after the second coming of Jesus and the resurrection of the dead, although in the New Testament's Johannine literature there are references to eternal life commencing in the earthly life of the believer, possibly indicating an inaugurated eschatology.

References

  1. The Lamb of God by Sergei Bulgakov 2008 ISBN   0-8028-2779-9 page 263
  2. Oxford Companion to the Bible p.649
  3. The Christology of Anselm of Canterbury by Dániel Deme 2004 ISBN   0-7546-3779-4 pages 199-200
  4. 1 2 Cullmann, Oscar (1959). The Christology of the New Testament. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 79. ISBN   0-664-24351-7.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Systematic Theology, Volume 2 by Wolfhart Pannenberg 2004 0567084663 ISBN pages 297-303
  6. Acts 2:24 , Romans 10:9 , 1Cor 15:15 , Acts 2:31-32 , 3:15 , 3:26 , 4:10 , 5:30 , 10:40-41 , 13:30 , 13:34 , 13:37 , 17:30-31 , 1Cor 6:14 , 2Cor 4:14 , Gal 1:1 , Eph 1:20 , Col 2:12 , 1Thess 1:10 , Heb 13:20 , 1Pet 1:3 , 1:21
  7. Mark 16:19 , Luke 22:69 , Acts 2:33 , 5:31 , 7:55-56 , Romans 8:34 , Eph 1:20 , Col 3:1 , Hebrews 1:3 , 1:13 , 10:12 , 12:2 , 1Peter 3:22
  8. Acts 1:9-11
  9. Jackson, Gregory Lee, Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison 1993 ISBN   978-0-615-16635-3 Part One: "Areas of Agreement", pages 11-17
  10. The Orthodox Church: An Introduction to Its History, Doctrine by John Anthony McGuckin 2010 pages 6-7
  11. Basic Christian doctrine by John H. Leith 1993 ISBN   0-664-25192-7 pages 1-2
  12. Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19); Thomas Aquinas, Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses? Archived 2006-09-06 at the Wayback Machine ; c.f. Catechism of the Catholic Church, §116; R.C. Sproul, Knowing Scripture pp. 45–61; Greg Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (art. 6); Scott Foutz, Martin Luther and Scripture
  13. "Who is Jesus? What Do Christians Believe?" Johns Hopkins University. Graduate Christian Fellowship. Archived 2013-03-04 at the Wayback Machine 1 May 2013
  14. cf. John 14:1-3 , Acts 1:10-11 , Luke 21:27 , Revelation 1:7
  15. 1 2 Essays in New Testament interpretation by Charles Francis Digby Moule 1982 ISBN   0-521-23783-1 page 63
  16. The Melody of Faith: Theology in an Orthodox Key by Vigen Guroian 2010 ISBN   0-8028-6496-1 page 28
  17. 1 2 Scripture in tradition by John Breck 2001 ISBN   0-88141-226-0 page 12
  18. 1 2 The Bible Knowledge Commentary by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN   0-88207-812-7 page 100
  19. 1 2 3 The words and works of Jesus Christ by J. Dwight Pentecost 2000 ISBN   978-0-310-30940-6 page 212
  20. Hunter, Sylvester. Outlines of dogmatic theology, Volume 2. 2010 ISBN   1-146-98633-5 p. 443
  21. 1 2 Houlden, Leslie. Jesus: the Complete Guide, 2006. ISBN   0-8264-8011-X p. 426
  22. Catechism of the Catholic Church §606–618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529; John 14:2–3
  23. Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; Romans 5:12–21 ; 1Cor. 15:21–22 .
  24. Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN   0-664-25752-6 page xvi and 109
  25. 1 2 Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, 1962. ISBN   0-8054-1613-7
  26. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity by Larry W. Hurtado 2005 ISBN   0-8028-3167-2 page 288
  27. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity by Larry W. Hurtado 2005 ISBN   0-8028-3167-2 page 99
  28. 1 2 3 Catholic Encyclopedia: Son of God
  29. One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel by John Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 ISBN   3-11-018151-7 pages 240-241
  30. Dwight Pentecost The words and works of Jesus Christ 2000 ISBN   0-310-30940-9 page 234
  31. 1 2 The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN   0-8028-3785-9 page 571-572
  32. "John 1:1". Biblia.com. Faithlife.com. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  33. 1 2 Creation and Christology by Masanobu Endo 2002 ISBN   3-16-147789-8 page 233
  34. 1 2 Editors, Erwin Fahlbusch (1999), The encyclopedia of Christianity, Leiden, Netherland: Brill, p. 463, ISBN   0-8028-2413-7 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  35. 1 2 Rausch, Thomas P. (2003), Who is Jesus? : an introduction to Christology, Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, p. 149, ISBN   0-8146-5078-3
  36. McGrath, Alister E. (2007), Christian theology : an introduction, Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, p. 282, ISBN   978-1-4051-5360-7
  37. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol XIV p207, translated edition by H.R. Percival. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/ephesus.html
  38. The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, trans H. R. Percival, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, (repr. Grand Rapids MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1955), XIV, pp. 192-242
  39. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1988. ISBN   0-8028-3785-9
  40. Espín, Orlando O. and James B. Nickoloff.An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies, 2007. ISBN   0-8146-5856-3, p. 238
  41. Mills, Watson E. and Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer dictionary of the Bible, 1998. ISBN   0-86554-373-9. p. 712
  42. Ryrie, Charles C. Basic Theology:, 1999. ISBN   0-8024-2734-0. p. 275
  43. Daille, Jean. An exposition of the epistle of Saint Paul to the Philippians, 1995. ISBN   0-8028-2511-7. pp. 194-195
  44. Bethune-Baker, James Franklin. An introduction to the early history of Christian doctrine, 2005. ISBN   1-4021-5770-3. p. 334
  45. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church, 2010. ISBN   1-4400-4446-5. pp. 65-66
  46. Grillmeier, John Bowden. Christ in Christian Tradition: From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon. Aloys, 1975. ISBN   0-664-22301-X. pp. 15-19
  47. Helyer, Larry R. The Witness of Jesus, Paul and John: An Exploration in Biblical Theology, 2008. ISBN   0-8308-2888-5 p. 282
  48. Rahner, Karl. Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi, 2004. ISBN   0-86012-006-6. pp. 474 and 1434
  49. Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons. ISBN   978-1-57918-355-4. pp. 613-614
  50. Matthew 1:6 Matthew 1:6
  51. Luke 3:31
  52. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, chapter XIII
  53. Green, McKnight & Marshall 1992, p. 442.
  54. Barr, James (1970). "Which language did Jesus speak". Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester. 53 (1): 9–29. doi:10.7227/BJRL.53.1.2.
  55. Porter, Stanley E. (1997). Handbook to exegesis of the New Testament. Brill. pp. 110–12. ISBN   978-90-04-09921-0.
  56. Dunn 2003, pp. 313–15.
  57. Allen C. Myers, ed. (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72. ISBN   0-8028-2402-1. It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Israel in the first century AD. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem (Matt. 26:73).
  58. "Aramaic language". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  59. Matthew 14:46
  60. Luke 8:43-44
  61. Robin M. Jensen "Jesus in Christian art", Chapter 29 of The Blackwell Companion to Jesus edited by Delbert Burkett 2010 ISBN   1-4051-9362-X page 477-502
  62. The likeness of the king: a prehistory of portraiture in late medieval France by Stephen Perkinson 2009 ISBN   0-226-65879-1 page 30
  63. Colin Kidd (2006). The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600–2000. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-79324-7.
  64. 1 2 McGrath, Alister E. Christianity: an introduction, 2006 ISBN   978-1-4051-0901-7. pp. 16-22
  65. 1 2 Köstenberger, Andreas J., L. Scott Kellum. The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament, 2009. ISBN   978-0-8054-4365-3. p. 114
  66. 1 2 3 Maier, Paul L. "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Vardaman, Jerry and Edwin M. Yamauchi.Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies, 1989. ISBN   0-931464-50-1. pp. 113-129
  67. Barnett, Paul. Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times, 2002. ISBN   0-8308-2699-8. pp. 19-21
  68. Sanders, E.P. (1993). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin. pp. 11, 249. ISBN   978-0140144994.
  69. Morris, Leon. The Gospel according to Matthew. ISBN   0-85111-338-9. p. 71
  70. Redford, Douglas. The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels, 2007 ISBN   0-7847-1900-4. pp. 117-130
  71. Ladd, George Eldon. A theology of the New Testament. p. 324
  72. Redford, Douglas. The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels, 2007. ISBN   0-7847-1900-4. pp. 143-160
  73. Cox, Steven L., Kendell H Easley. Harmony of the Gospels, 2007 ISBN   0-8054-9444-8. pp. 97-110
  74. Redford, Douglas. The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels, 2007. ISBN   0-7847-1900-4. pp. 165-180
  75. Kingsbury, Jack Dean. The Christology of Mark's Gospel, 1983 ISBN   0-8006-2337-1. pp. 91-95
  76. Barton, Stephen C. The Cambridge companion to the Gospels. ISBN   0-521-00261-3. pp. 132-133
  77. Cox, Steven L., Kendell H Easley. Harmony of the Gospels, 2007 ISBN   0-8054-9444-8. pp. 121-135
  78. Redford, Douglas. The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels, 2007 ISBN   0-7847-1900-4. pp. 189-207
  79. Cox, Steven L., Kendell H. Easley. Harmony of the Gospels, 2007 ISBN   0-8054-9444-8. p. 137
  80. Redford, Douglas. The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels, 2007. ISBN   0-7847-1900-4. pp. 211-229
  81. Mills, Watson E. and Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer dictionary of the Bible, 1998. ISBN   0-86554-373-9, p. 929
  82. Cox, Steven L., Kendell H Easley. Harmony of the Gospels, 2007 ISBN   0-8054-9444-8. p. 155-170
  83. Turner, David L. Matthew, 2008. ISBN   0-8010-2684-9. p.613
  84. 1 2 Osborn, Eric Francis. The Emergence of Christian Theology. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN   978-0521430784 p.98
  85. Blomberg, Craig L. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey. B & H Academic, 2009. ISBN   0-8054-4482-3. pp. 441-442
  86. Köstenberger, Andreas J. The missions of Jesus and the disciples according to the Fourth Gospel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1998. ISBN   0-8028-4255-0 pages 108-109
  87. Talbert, Charles H. Matthew. Baker Academic, 2010. ISBN   0-8010-3192-3 p. 149
  88. O'Day, Gail R., Susan Hylen. John (Westminster Bible Companion) Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. ISBN   978-0-664-25260-1, Chapter 15: The Farewell Discourse, pages 142-168
  89. 1 2 3 Howick, E. Keith. The Sermons of Jesus the Messiah. WindRiver Publishing, 2003. ISBN   978-1-886249-02-8 pp. 7-9
  90. Köstenberger, Andreas J.L. Scott Kellum, Charles L. Quarles. The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament. B&H Academic, 2009. ISBN   978-0-8054-4365-3. pp. 194-196
  91. Keener, Craig S. The Gospel of Matthew. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2009. ISBN   978-0-8028-6498-7. pp. 37-38
  92. France, R.T. The Gospel of Matthew (New International Commentary on the New Testament). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007. ISBN   978-0-8028-2501-8. p.9
  93. Vaught, Carl G. The Sermon on the Mount: a Theological Investigation. Baylor University Press; 2nd edition, 2001. ISBN   978-0-918954-76-3. pp. xi-xiv
  94. "Beatitudes." F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN   978-0192802903
  95. Hastings, James. A Dictionary Of The Bible. Oxford University Press, USA; 3rd Revised edition, 2005. ISBN   1-4102-1730-2 pp.15-19
  96. Jegen, Carol Frances. Jesus the Peacemaker. Sheed & Ward, 1986. ISBN   0-934134-36-7. pp. 68-71
  97. Majerník Ján, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt. The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke. Sheed & Ward, 2005. ISBN   1-931018-31-6, pp.63-68
  98. Toussaint, Stanley D. Behold the King: A Study of Matthew. Kregel Academic & Professional, 2005. ISBN   0-8254-3845-4. pp.215-216
  99. Jensen, Richard A. Preaching Matthew's Gospel. CSS Publishing Company, 1998. ISBN   978-0-7880-1221-1. pp. 25 & 158
  100. Chouinard, Larry. Matthew (The College Press NIV Commentary). College Press Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN   0-89900-628-0. p.321
  101. Lockyer, Herbert. All the Parables of the Bible. Zondervan, 1988. ISBN   978-0-310-28111-5. p.174
  102. Pentecost, J. Dwight. The parables of Jesus: Lessons in Life from the Master Teacher. Zondervan, 1998. ISBN   0-8254-3458-0. p.10
  103. 1 2 Lisco, Friedrich Gustav, and Patrick Fairbairn. The parables of Jesus Explained and Illustrated Volume 29. Nabu Press, 2010. ISBN   978-1149508398. pp.9-11
  104. Oxenden, Ashton. The parables of our Lord. William Macintosh Publishers, London, 1864. ASIN: B008RW5N2S. p.6
  105. 1 2 Barclay, William. The Parables of Jesus. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. ISBN   0-664-25828-X p.12.
  106. The emergence of Christian theology by Eric Francis Osborn 1993 ISBN   0-521-43078-X page 100
  107. Marthaler, Berard L. (1993). The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology. Twenty-Third Publications; 3rd Revised edition. p.  220. ISBN   0-89622-537-2.
  108. Lockyer, Herbert (1988). All the Parables of the Bible. Zondervan. p. 235. ISBN   978-0-310-28111-5.
  109. Perkins, Pheme (1988). Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press. p.  54. ISBN   0-8091-2939-6.
  110. 1 2 Blomberg, Craig L. (2009). Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey. B & H Academic. p. 197. ISBN   978-0-8054-4482-7.
  111. 1 2 3 Catholic Encyclopedia on Miracles
  112. Lockyer, Herbert. All the Parables of the Bible. Zondervan, 1988. ISBN   978-0-310-28111-5. p.25
  113. Brande, William Thomas, George William Cox. A dictionary of science, literature, & art. London, 1867, also Published by Old Classics on Kindle, 2009, page 655
  114. Ramm, Bernard L. An Evangelical Christology: Ecumenic and Historic. Regent College Publishing, 1993. ISBN   1-57383-008-9. p.45
  115. Stocker, Ken. Jim Stocker. Facts, Faith, and the FAQs. Xulon Press, 2006. ISBN   978-1600347535. p.139
  116. Maguire, Robert. The Miracles of Christ. Ulan Press, 2012. ASIN: B009QMIYOW. p.133
  117. Wiersbe, Warren W. Classic Sermons on the Miracles of Jesus. Kregel Academic & Professional, 1995. ISBN   0-8254-3999-X. p.132
  118. BibleHub John 4:22
  119. BibleHub Isaiah 49:6
  120. BibleHub John 4:26
  121. BibleHub John 10:30
  122. BibleHub John 10:33
  123. BibleHub John 6:35
  124. BibleHub John 8:12
  125. BibleHub John 10:9
  126. BibleHub John 10:11
  127. BibleHub John 11:25
  128. BibleHub John 14:6
  129. BibleHub John 15:1
  130. Luke 11:38
  131. Matthew 15:2
  132. Mark 7:2
  133. Matthew 9:14
  134. Luke 5:33
  135. Mark 2:18
  136. Matthew 12:1
  137. Mark 2:23
  138. Luke 6:1
  139. Powell, Mark Allan (ed.) and David R. Bauer (ed.). Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. ISBN   0-664-25752-6. p.106
  140. Bauckhman, Richard. "The Johannine Jesus and the Synoptic Jesus". 2 May 2013
  141. Sadananda, Rathnakara Sadananda (2004). The Johannine exegesis of God: An Exploration into the Johannine Understanding Of God. Walter De Gruyter Inc. p. 281. ISBN   3-11-018248-3.
  142. Pollard, T. E. (2005). Johannine Christology and the Early Church. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN   0-521-01868-4.
  143. Hengel, Martin (2004). Studies in Early Christology. T&T Clark. p. 371. ISBN   0-567-04280-4.
  144. De Haan, M. R. (1998). Studies in Revelation. Kregel Classics. p. 103. ISBN   978-0825424854.
  145. 1 2 Matera, Frank J. (1999). New Testament Christology. Kregel Classics. p.  67. ISBN   0-664-25694-5.
  146. The speeches in Acts: their content, context, and concerns by Marion L. Soards 1994 ISBN   0-664-25221-4 page 34
  147. 1 2 3 4 Schwarz, Hans (1998). Christology. pp. 132–134. ISBN   0-8028-4463-4.
  148. Edmondson, Edmondson (2004). Calvin's Christology. Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN   0-521-54154-9.
  149. The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures by Hughes Oliphant Old 2002 ISBN   0-8028-4775-7 page 125
  150. Bulgakov, Sergei; Jakim, Boris (2008). The Lamb of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN   978-0-8028-2779-1.
  151. Rahner, Karl (2004). Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi. Burns & Oates. p. 74. ISBN   0-86012-006-6.
  152. "churchofjesuschrist.org - Gethsemane".
  153. The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN   0-89622-537-2 page 361
  154. Dunn, James D. G. Theology of Paul the Apostle. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003. ISBN   978-0802844231. p. 235
  155. 1 2 Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN   0-19-530013-0
  156. Reichelt, Karl Ludvig and Sverre Holth. Meditation and Piety in the Far East, 2004. ISBN   0-227-17235-3 p.30
  157. 1 Corinthians 15:42-49
  158. Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
  159. The Resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN   0-88141-149-3 page 72