List of popes

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Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St. Peter's Basilica (their names in Latin and the year of their burial) Tafel paepste.jpg
Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St. Peter's Basilica (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)

This chronological list of popes of the Catholic Church corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Roman Supreme Pontiffs), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio no longer identifies popes by regnal number, stating that it is impossible to decide which pope represented the legitimate succession at various times. [1] The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope. [2]

Contents

The term pope (Latin : papa, lit. 'father') is used in several churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex , Pontifex Maximus , and Servus servorum Dei . Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification. [3]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Christopher was considered a legitimate pope for a long time but was removed due to how he obtained the papacy. Pope-elect Stephen was listed as Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was removed. The decisions of the Council of Pisa (1409) were reversed in 1963 in a reinterpretation of the Western Schism, extending Gregory XII's pontificate to 1415 and classifying rival claimants Alexander V and John XXIII as antipopes.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs.

Chronological list of popes

1st millennium

1st century

Popes of the 1st century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
130–33 / 64–68St Peter
PETRVS
AD 1 Bethsaida, Judaea, Roman Empire [birth 1] 29–32 / 62–67Born as Shimon Bar Yonah, a Jew from Judaea. A peregrinus , free provincial subject of the Roman Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Apostle of Jesus. According to Catholic tradition he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 16:18–19). Feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June. The Catholic Church recognizes him as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ, and therefore the first pope. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June. [4] St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is named after him.
264–68 / 76–79St Linus
LINVS
10 AD Volterrae, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 2] 54–58 / 66–69First Roman pope, being a Roman citizen born in Italia, the homeland of the ancient Romans. [birth 3] [5] Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June. Possibly mentioned in the New Testament (Second Epistle to Timothy 4:21). [6]
376–79 / 88–91St Anacletus
(Cletus)
ANACLETVS (CLETVS)
25 AD Athenae, Achaea, Roman Empire [birth 4] 51–54 / 63–66First Greek pope. A peregrinus , free provincial subject of the Roman Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus. [7]
426 April 88 –
23 November 99
(11 years, 211 days)
St Clement I
CLEMENS
c. 35 AD Roma, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 53 / 64 (†66) Roman citizen, born in the capital of the Roman Empire. Feast day 23 November. The earliest Apostolic Father, issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November. Possibly mentioned in the New Testament (Epistle to the Philippians 4:3). [8] He was martyred by being tied to an anchor and being thrown in the sea.
523 November 99 –
27 October 105
(5 years, 338 days)
St Evaristus
EVARISTVS
c. 30 AD Bethlehem, Iudaea, Roman Empire [birth 6] 69 / 75Hellenized Jew. A peregrinus , free provincial subject of the Roman Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Said to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.

2nd century

Popes of the 2nd century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
627 October 105 –
3 May 115
(9 years, 188 days)
St Alexander I
ALEXANDER
c. 75 AD Roma, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 30 / 40 Roman citizen, born in the capital of the Roman Empire. Inaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 March.
73 May 115 –
3 April 125
(9 years, 335 days)
St Sixtus I
SYXTVS
42 AD Roma, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 73 / 83A Roman of Greek descent, born in Italia, the homeland of the ancient Romans. Uncertain if he was a peregrinus (a free subject of the Roman Empire) or a Roman citizen. Feast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
83 April 125 –
5 January 136
(10 years, 277 days)
St Telesphorus
TELESPHORVS
c. 67 AD Terra Nova, Italia, Roman Empire58 / 69A Roman of Greek descent, born in Italia, the homeland of the ancient Romans. Uncertain if it was a peregrinus (a free subject of the Roman Empire) or a Roman citizen. Feast day of 5 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 22 February. Church Father St. Irenaeus called him a great martyr; the earliest attested martyrdom of pope after St. Peter.
95 January 136 –
11 January 140
(4 years, 6 days)
St Hyginus
HYGINVS
c. 74 AD Athens, Achaea, Roman Empire [birth 4] 58 / 62Greek. A peregrinus , free provincial subject of the Roman Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 11 January.
1011 January 140 –
11 July 155
(15 years, 181 days)
St Pius I
PIVS
c. 81 AD Aquileia, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 7] 59 / 74 Roman citizen, born in Italia, the homeland of the ancient Romans. Was brother of Hermas. Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
1111 July 155 –
20 April 166
(10 years, 283 days)
St Anicetus
ANICETVS
c. 92 AD Emesa, Syria, Roman Empire [birth 8] 63 / 74Hellenized Syrian; first Syrian pope. A peregrinus , free provincial subject of the Roman Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
1220 April 166 –
22 April 174
(8 years, 2 days)
St Soter
SOTERIVS
c. 119 AD Fundi, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 7] 46 / 55 Roman citizen, born in Italia, the homeland of the ancient Romans. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
1322 April 174 –
26 May 189
(15 years, 34 days)
St Eleutherius
ELEVTHERIVS
c. 130 AD Nicopolis, Epirus, Roman Empire [birth 9] 45 / 59Greek. A peregrinus , free provincial subject of the Roman Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 6 May.
1426 May 189 –
28 July 199
(10 years, 63 days)
St Victor I
VICTOR
c. 155 AD Africa, Roman Empire [birth 10] 34 / 44Roman Berber; first pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. Uncertain if it was a peregrinus (a free subject of the Roman Empire) or a Roman citizen. Known for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
1528 July 199 –
20 December 217
(18 years, 145 days)
St Zephyrinus
ZEPHYRINVS
c. 160 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 39 / 57 Roman citizen, born in the capital of the Roman Empire. Combated against the adoptionist heresies of the followers of Theodotus of Byzantium who were ruled by Theodotus and Asclepiodotus. Although not physically martyred (murdered), he is called a martyr for the suffering he endured.
c. 199 –
c. 200
(1 year, 0 days)
Natalius
NATALIVS
Roma, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] Roman citizen, born in the capital of the Roman Empire. In opposition to pope Zephyrinus. Later reconciled.

3rd century

Popes of the 3rd century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
1620 December 217 –
14 October 222
(4 years, 298 days)
St Callixtus I
CALLIXTVS
c. 155 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 62 / 67 Roman citizen of Greek descent ( Constitutio Antoniniana ). Martyred; feast day 14 October.
217 –
235
(18 years, 0 days)
St Hippolytus
HIPPOLYTVS
c. 170 AD Asia Minor, Roman Empire47 / 65 Roman citizen of Greek descent ( Constitutio Antoniniana ). In opposition to Callixtus I, Urban I and Pontian. Later reconciled with Pontian (see below).
1714 October 222 –
23 May 230
(7 years, 221 days)
St Urban I
VRBANVS
c. 175 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 47 / 55 Roman citizen. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
1821 August 230 –
28 September 235
(5 years, 38 days)
St Pontian
PONTIANVS
c. 175 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 55 / 60 Roman citizen. First to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his death on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history. [10] [11]
1921 November 235 –
3 January 236
(43 days)
St Anterus
ANTERVS
c. 180 AD Petelia, Italy, Roman Empire55 / 56 Roman citizen of Greek descent ( Constitutio Antoniniana ). Feast day 3 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
2010 January 236 –
20 January 250
(14 years, 10 days)
St Fabian
FABIANVS
c. 200 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 36 / 50 Roman citizen. Divided the communities of Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
216 March 251 –
25 June 253
(2 years, 111 days)
St Cornelius
CORNELIVS
c. 180 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 71 / 73 Roman citizen. Died as a martyr through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September.
March 251 –
258
(7 years, 0 days)
Novatian
NOVATIANVS
c. 200–20 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 31–51 / 38–58 Roman citizen. Founder of Novatianism. In opposition to Cornelius, Lucius I, Stephen I and Sixtus II.
2225 June 253 –
5 March 254
(253 days)
St Lucius I
LUCIVS
c. 200 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 48 / 49 Roman citizen. Feast day 5 March.
2312 March 254 –
2 August 257
(3 years, 143 days)
St Stephen I
STEPHANVS
c. 205 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire [birth 5] 54 / 57 Roman citizen of Greek descent ( Constitutio Antoniniana ). Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
2430 August 257 –
6 August 258
(341 days)
St Sixtus II
SYXTVS Secundus
c. 215 AD Athens, Achaea, Roman Empire [birth 4] 42 / 43 Roman citizen of Greek descent ( Constitutio Antoniniana ). Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
2522 July 259 –
26 December 268
(9 years, 157 days)
St Dionysius
DIONYSIVS
c. 200 AD Terra Nova, Italy, Roman Empire59 / 68 Roman citizen of Greek descent ( Constitutio Antoniniana ). Feast day 26 December.
265 January 269 –
30 December 274
(5 years, 359 days)
St Felix I
FELIX
c. 206 AD Rome, Italy Roman Empire [birth 5] 63 / 68 Roman citizen. Feast day 30 December.
274 January 275 –
7 December 283
(8 years, 337 days)
St Eutychian
EVTYCHIANVS
c. 240 AD Luna, Italy, Roman Empire (Now Luni, Italy)35 / 43 Roman citizen. Feast day 8 December.
2817 December 283 –
22 April 296
(12 years, 127 days)
St Caius
CAIVS
c. 245 AD Salona, Dalmatia, Roman Empire38 / 51 Roman citizen. Martyred by beheading (according to legend). Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
2930 June 296 –
26 April 304
(7 years, 301 days)
St Marcellinus
MARCELLINVS
c. 250 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire [birth 5] 46 / 54 Roman citizen. Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century

Popes of the 4th century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
3027 May 308 –
16 January 309
(234 days)
St Marcellus I
MARCELLVS
c.255 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire [birth 5] 53 / 54 Roman citizen. Feast day 16 January. Banished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
3118 April 309 –
17 August 310
(1 year, 121 days)
St Eusebius
EVSEBIVS
c.255 AD Sardinia, Roman Empire54 / 54 (†55) Roman citizen of Greek descent. Feast day 17 August. Banished by the emperor Maxentius, and died in exile.
322 July 311 –
10 January 314
(2 years, 192 days)
St Miltiades
(Melchiades)
MILTIADES
c.270 AD Africa, Roman Empire41 / 44 Roman citizen of Berber descent. Feast day 10 January. First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
3331 January 314 –
31 December 335
(21 years, 334 days)
St Sylvester I
SILVESTER
c.285 AD Fanum Sancti Angeli de Scala, Apulia et Calabria, Roman Empire29 / 50 Roman citizen. Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. Pope during the First Council of Nicaea (325), the first ecumenical council. Under him was built: the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St. Peter's Basilica. Stated to be the recipient of the Donation of Constantine , which was later shown to be a forgery.
3418 January 336 –
7 October 336
(263 days)
St Mark
MARCVS
c.290 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire46 / 46 Roman citizen. One of Mark's undertakings was to compile stories of the lives of martyrs and bishops before his time. There is some reason to believe he founded two churches in the area of Rome. One of them is still known to this day as the Church of San Marco, although it is greatly changed since his time. The other church was at the Catacomb of Balbina, a cemetery. Emperor Constantine gave gifts of land and furnishing for both buildings. Feast day 7 October.
356 February 337 –
12 April 352
(15 years, 66 days)
St Julius I
IVLIVS
c.280 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire57 / 72 Roman citizen. He was involved in the Arian controversy, supporting Athanasius of Alexandria.
3617 May 352 –
24 September 366
(14 years, 130 days)
Liberius
LIBERIVS
c.310 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire42 / 56 Roman citizen. Banished by the Arian-leaning Emperor Constantius II and later yielding to him. Earliest pope not canonized by the Latin Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August. [12]
355 –
22 November 365
(10 years, 0 days)
Felix II
FELIX Secundus
c.300 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire55 / 65 Roman citizen. In opposition to Pope Liberius. Installed by Arian-leaning Emperor Constantius II.
371 October 366 –
11 December 384
(18 years, 71 days)
St Damasus I
DAMASVS
c.305 AD Egitania, Lusitania or Rome, Italy, Roman Empire60 / 78 Roman citizen. The first pope from modern-day Portugal. Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Pope during the First Council of Constantinople (381), the second ecumenical council. Council of Rome (382). First pope to be the official head of the church after the Emperor Gratian abdicates the title of "Pontifex Maximus".
1 October 366 –
16 November 367
(1 year, 46 days)
Ursinus
VRSINVS
Rome, Italy, Roman Empire Roman citizen. In opposition to Damasus I. Banished to Gallia by Emperor Valentinian II after a war between two sects and died after 384.
3817 December 384 –
26 November 399
(14 years, 344 days)
St Siricius
SIRICIVS
c. 334 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire50 / 65 Roman citizen. His famous letters—the earliest surviving texts of papal decretals—focus particularly on religious discipline and include decisions on baptism, consecration, ordination, penance, and continence. Siricius' important decretal of 386 (written to Bishop Himerius of Tarragona), commanding celibacy for priests, was the first decree on this subject. [13]
3927 November 399 –
19 December 401
(2 years, 22 days)
St Anastasius I
ANASTASIVS
c. 340 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire59 / 61 Roman citizen. Instructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the Gospels.

5th century

Popes of the 5th century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
4021 December 401 –
12 March 417
(15 years, 81 days)
St Innocent I
INNOCENTIVS
c. 378 AD Albanum, Latium et Campania, Roman Empire41 / 57 Roman citizen. Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric I.
4118 March 417 –
26 December 418
(1 year, 283 days)
St Zosimus
ZOSIMVS
c. 370 AD Messurga, Lucania et Bruttii, Roman Empire47 / 48 Roman citizen of Greek descent.
27 December 418 –
3 April 419
(97 days)
Eulalius
EVLALIVS
c. 350–80 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire68–38 / 69–39 (†72–42) Roman citizen. In opposition to Pope Boniface I. Elected on the eve of the election of Boniface, first benefited from the support of the emperor Honorius, but lost it quickly. Exiled in Campania, and died in 423.
4228 December 418 –
4 September 422
(3 years, 250 days)
St Boniface I
BONIFACIVS
c. 377 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire43 / 47 Roman citizen.
4310 September 422 –
27 July 432
(9 years, 321 days)
St Celestine I
CAELESTINVS
c. 380 AD Campania, Roman Empire42 / 52 Roman citizen. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April. Pope during the Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches.
4431 July 432 –
18 August 440
(8 years, 18 days)
St Sixtus III
SYXTVS Tertius
c. 390 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire42 / 50 Roman citizen.
4529 September 440 –
10 November 461
(21 years, 42 days)
St Leo I
(Leo the Great)
LEO MAGNVS
c. 390 AD Etruria, Italia, Roman Empire50 / 71 Roman citizen. Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon (451) and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
4619 November 461 –
29 February 468
(6 years, 102 days)
St Hilary
HILARIVS
c. 400 AD Sardinia, Italy, Western Roman Empire 46 / 53 Roman citizen.
473 March 468 –
10 March 483
(15 years, 7 days)
St Simplicius
SIMPLICIVS
c. 430 AD Tibur, Italy, Western Roman Empire38 / 53 Roman citizen, later a subject of the Kingdom of Italy. Papacy during the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent overtaking of Rome and Italy in general by Odoacer.
4813 March 483 –
1 March 492
(8 years, 354 days)
St Felix III
FELIX Tertius
c. 440 AD Rome, Italy, Western Roman Empire43 / 52 Roman citizen, later a subject of the Kingdom of Italy. Sometimes called Felix II. Great-great-grandfather of pope Gregory I.
491 March 492 –
21 November 496
(4 years, 265 days)
St Gelasius I
GELASIVS
c. 410 AD Mons Ferratus, Quinquegentiani, Africa, Western Roman Empire82 / 86 Roman citizen of Berber descent, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy; the last pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. The first pope called the "Vicar of Christ". [14]
5024 November 496 –
19 November 498
(1 year, 360 days)
Anastasius II
ANASTASIVS Secundus
c. 445 AD Rome, Italy, Western Roman Empire51 / 53 Roman citizen of Greek descent, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy. Tried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism. Earliest pope not canonized by either the Latin Church or the Eastern Church.
5122 November 498 –
19 July 514
(15 years, 239 days)
St Symmachus
SYMMACHVS
c. 460 AD Sardinia, Italy, Western Roman Empire38 / 54 Roman citizen, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy.
22 November 498 –
Aug 506/8
(7 years, 252 days)
Laurence
LAVRENTIVS
c. 460 AD Rome, Italy, Western Roman Empire38 / 46 (†48) Roman citizen, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy. In opposition to Symmachus. Elected on the same day as Symachus, King Theodoric settled in favour of his adversary. Took control of Rome in 501 and remained pope in fact until he died in 506/08.

6th century

Popes of the 6th century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
5220 July 514 –
6 August 523
(9 years, 17 days)
St Hormisdas
HORMISDAS
c. 450 AD Frusino, Italy, Western Roman Empire64 / 73 Roman citizen, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy. Father of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
5313 August 523 –
18 May 526
(2 years, 278 days)
St John I
IOANNES
c. 470 AD Sena Iulia, Italy, Western Roman Empire53 / 56 Roman citizen, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy.
5412 July 526 –
22 September 530
(4 years, 72 days)
St Felix IV
FELIX Quartus
c. 490 AD Samnium, Kingdom of Odoacer 36 / 40Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy of Roman descent. Sometimes called Felix III. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
5522 September 530 –
17 October 532
(2 years, 25 days)
Boniface II
BONIFACIVS Secundus
c. 490 AD Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer40 / 42 Ostrogoth; Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy. First Germanic pope. Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from the Era of the Martyrs to Anno Domini.
22 September 530 –
14 October 530
(22 days)
Dioscore
DIOSCORVS
Alexandria, Aegyptus, Eastern Roman Empire (Eastern) Roman citizen of Greek descent. In opposition to Pope Boniface II. Candidate of the Byzantine party, elected by the majority of the cardinals and recognized by Constantinople, he died less than a month after his election.
562 January 533 –
8 May 535
(2 years, 126 days)
John II
IOANNES Secundus
c. 473 AD Rome, Western Roman Empire63 / 65 Roman citizen, later a subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy. First pope not to use his personal name, as it was associated with a Roman god, Mercury.
5713 May 535 –
22 April 536
(356 days)
St Agapetus I
AGAPETVS
c. 490 AD Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 45 / 46Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy of Roman descent. Feast days 22 April and 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
588 June 536 –
11 March 537
(276 days)
St Silverius
SILVERIVS
c. 480 AD Cicanum, Ostrogothic Kingdom 56 / 57Subject of Kingdom of Italy under Odoacer and later under Ostrogoths. Was of Roman descent. Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Hormisdas.
5929 March 537 –
7 June 555
(18 years, 70 days)
Vigilius
VIGILIVS
c. 500 AD Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer37 / 55Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Pope during the Second Council of Constantinople (553), the fifth ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
6016 April 556 –
4 March 561
(4 years, 322 days)
Pelagius I
PELAGIVS
c. 505 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom51 / 56Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Credited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
6117 July 561 –
13 July 574
(12 years, 361 days)
John III
IOANNES Tertius
c. 520 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom41 / 54Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Second Pope not to use his personal name.
622 June 575 –
30 July 579
(4 years, 58 days)
Benedict I
BENEDICTVS
c. 525 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom50 / 54Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
6326 November 579 –
7 February 590
(10 years, 73 days)
Pelagius II
PELAGIVS Secundus
c. 520 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom59 / 70Romanized Ostrogoth. Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Ordered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
643 September 590 –
12 March 604
(13 years, 191 days)
St Gregory I
(Gregory the Great)
GREGORIVS MAGNVS
c. 540 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire50 / 64Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Great-great-grandson of pope Felix III. The first formally to employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St. Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.

7th century

Popes of the 7th century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
6513 September 604 –
22 February 606
(1 year, 162 days)
Sabinian
SABINIANVS
c. 530 AD Blera, Eastern Roman Empire74 / 76Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. For the next two centuries the Roman popes were all controlled by the Byzantine Empire.
6619 February 607 –
12 November 607
(266 days)
Boniface III
BONIFACIVS Tertius
c. 540 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire67 / 67Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek descent.
6715 September 608 –
8 May 615
(6 years, 235 days)
St Boniface IV
BONIFACIVS Quartus
c. 550 AD Marsica, Eastern Roman Empire58 / 65Subject of the (Ostrogothic) Kingdom of Italy, later a (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. First pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
6813 November 615 –
8 November 618
(2 years, 360 days)
St Adeodatus I
ADEODATVS or DEVSDEDIT
c. 570 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire55 / 58 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Sometimes called Deusdedit. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called papal bulls.
6923 December 619 –
25 October 625
(5 years, 306 days)
Boniface V
BONIFACIVS Quintus
c. 575 AD Neapolis, Eastern Roman Empire44 / 50 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
7027 October 625 –
12 October 638
(12 years, 350 days)
Honorius I
HONORIVS
c. 585 AD Ceperanum, Campania, Eastern Roman Empire40 / 53 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Named a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople. (680)
7128 May 640 –
2 August 640
(66 days)
Severinus
SEVERINVS
c. 585 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire55 / 55 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
7224 December 640 –
12 October 642
(1 year, 292 days)
John IV
IOANNES Quartus
c. 587 AD Iadera, Dalmatia, Eastern Roman Empire40 / 42 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
7324 November 642 –
14 May 649
(6 years, 171 days)
Theodore I
THEODORVS
c. 610 AD Hierosolyma, Eastern Roman Empire32 / 39 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity. The last pope from Palestine. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but died before it could open.
745 July 649 –
12 November 655
(6 years, 130 days)
St Martin I
MARTINVS
c. 590 AD Near Tuder, Umbria, Eastern Roman Empire59 / 65 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Last pope recognized as a martyr. Feast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
7510 August 654 –
2 June 657
(2 years, 296 days)
St Eugene I
EVGENIVS
c. 615 AD Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire39 / 42 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
7630 July 657 –
27 January 672
(14 years, 181 days)
St Vitalian
VITALIANVS
c. 600 Signia, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire57 / 72 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
7711 April 672 –
17 June 676
(4 years, 67 days)
Adeodatus II
ADEODATVS Secundus
c. 621 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire51 / 55 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Sometimes called Adeodatus, without a number, in reference to Adeodatus I sometimes being called Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
782 November 676 –
11 April 678
(1 year, 160 days)
Donus
DONVS
c. 610 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire66 / 68 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity.
7927 June 678 –
10 January 681
(2 years, 197 days)
St Agatho
AGATHO
c. 577 Panormus, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire101 / 104 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February. Pope during the Third Council of Constantinople (680), the sixth ecumenical council accepted by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
8017 August 682 –
3 July 683
(320 days)
St Leo II
LEO Secundus
c. 611 Aydonum, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire71 / 72 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity. Feast day 3 July.
8126 June 684 –
8 May 685
(316 days)
St Benedict II
BENEDICTVS Secundus
c. 635 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire49 / 50 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Feast day 7 May.
8223 July 685 –
2 August 686
(1 year, 10 days)
John V
IOANNES Quintus
c. 635 Antiochia, Syria, Eastern Roman Empire50 / 51 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity.
8321 October 686 –
21 September 687
(335 days)
Conon
CONON
c. 630 Thracia, Eastern Roman Empire56 / 57 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity.
8415 December 687 –
8 September 701
(13 years, 267 days)
St Sergius I
SERGIVS
c. 650 Palermo, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire37 / 51 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was a Hellenized Syrian. Introduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass. [14]

8th century

Popes of the 8th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
8530 October 701 –
11 January 705
(3 years, 73 days)
John VI
IOANNES Sextus
Ioannesc. 650 Ephesus, Eastern Roman Empire46 / 50 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity. The only pope who came from Asia Minor.
861 March 705 –
18 October 707
(2 years, 231 days)
Byzantinischer Mosaizist um 705 002.jpg John VII
IOANNES Septimus
Ioannesc. 655 Rossanum, Calabria, Eastern Roman Empire55 / 57 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity. The second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
8715 January 708 –
4 February 708
(20 days)
Sisinnius
SISINNIVS
Sisinniusc. 650 Syria, Rashidun Caliphate 58 / 58Born as subject of the Rashidun Caliphate. Was Syrian.
8825 March 708 –
9 April 715
(7 years, 15 days)
Constantine
CONSTANTINVS
Constantinusc. 664 Syria, Umayyad Caliphate 44 / 51Born as subject of the Umayyad Caliphate. Was Syrian. Last pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001.
8919 May 715 –
11 February 731
(15 years, 268 days)
St Gregory II
GREGORIVS Secundus
Gregoriusc. 669 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(Eastern Roman Empire)
46 / 62 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Feast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
9018 March 731 –
28 November 741
(10 years, 255 days)
178-7866 IMG - Gregorius III AV.png St Gregory III
GREGORIVS Tertius
Gregoriusc. 669 Syria, Umayyad Caliphate 41 / 51Born as subject of the Umayyad Caliphate; the last pope from Syria. The third pope to come from a Muslim country. The third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Last pope to have been born outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
913 December 741 –
22 March 752
(10 years, 110 days)
Eta di papa Zaccaria, cappella del primicerius Teodoro, Madonna in trono con Theodoto e la moglie, 741-752 (09).jpg St Zachary
ZACHARIAS
Zachariasc. 679 Sancta Severina, Calabria, Eastern Roman Empire62 / 73 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Greek ethnicity. Feast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
22 March 752 –
25 March 752
(3 days)
(Never took office as pope)
Stephen
STEPHANUS
Stephanusc. 700 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire52 / 52 (Eastern) Roman citizen. Was of Roman ethnicity. Previously known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election, having never received episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
9226 March 752 –
26 April 757
(5 years, 31 days)
Stephen II
STEPHANVS Secundus
Stephanusc. 714 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire38 / 43 (Eastern) Roman citizen (was of Roman ethnicity), later the sovereign of the independent Papal States. Sometimes called Stephen III. The Donation of Pepin. Brother of Paul I.
9329 May 757 –
28 June 767
(10 years, 30 days)
St Paul I
PAVLVS
Paulusc. 700 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire57 / 67 (Eastern) Roman citizen (was of Roman ethnicity), later the sovereign of the independent Papal States. Brother of Stephen II.
947 August 768 –
24 January 772
(3 years, 170 days)
Stephen III
STEPHANVS Tertius
Stephanusc. 723 Syracuse, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire45 / 49 (Eastern) Roman citizen (was of Greek ethnicity), later the sovereign of the independent Papal States. Sometimes called Stephen IV. He summoned the Lateran Council (769).
951 February 772 –
26 December 795
(23 years, 328 days)
Adrian I
HADRIANVS
Hadrianusc. 700–12 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire72–60 / 95–83 (Eastern) Roman citizen (was of Roman ethnicity), later the sovereign of the independent Papal States. Pope during the Second Council of Nicaea (787), the seventh ecumenical council accepted by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
9626 December 795 –
12 June 816
(20 years, 169 days)
Leo III Mosaic.jpg St Leo III
LEO Tertius
Leoc. 750 Rome, Duchy of Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire45 / 66 (Eastern) Roman citizen (was of Roman ethnicity), later the sovereign of the independent Papal States. Crowned Charlemagne emperor on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the Holy Roman Empire, requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its ruler's legitimacy.

9th century

Popes of the 9th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
9722 June 816 –
24 January 817
(216 days)
Stephen IV
STEPHANVS Quartus
Stephanusc. 770 Rome, Papal States 46 / 47First pope born in Rome after breaking away from the Roman Empire. Sometimes called Stephen V.
9825 January 817 –
11 February 824
(7 years, 17 days)
Pope Paschalis I. in apsis mosaic of Santa Prassede in Rome.gif St Paschal I
PASCHALIS
Paschalisc. 775 Rome, Papal States42 / 49Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Son of Bonosus and Episcopa Theodora. Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
998 May 824 –
27 August 827
(3 years, 111 days)
Eugene II
EVGENIVS Secundus
Eugeniusc. 780 Rome, Papal States44 / 47Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
10031 August 827 –
10 October 827
(40 days)
Valentine
VALENTINVS
Valentinusc. 780 Rome, Papal States47 / 47Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
10120 December 827 –
25 January 844
(16 years, 36 days)
Gregory-IV (cropped).jpg Gregory IV
GREGORIVS Quartus
Gregoriusc. 790 Rome, Papal States37 / 54Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter's Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory I.
10225 January 844 –
27 January 847
(3 years, 2 days)
Sergius II
SERGIVS Secundus
Sergiusc. 790 Rome, Papal States54 / 57Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
10310 April 847 –
17 July 855
(8 years, 98 days)
Pope St. Leo IV.jpg St Leo IV
LEO Quartus
Leoc. 790 Rome, Papal States57 / 65Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States, was of Lombard ethnicity. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
10429 September 855 –
17 April 858
(2 years, 200 days)
Benedict III
BENEDICTVS Tertius
Benedictusc. 810 Rome, Papal States45 / 48Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
10524 April 858 –
13 November 867
(9 years, 203 days)
St Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
NICOLAVS MAGNVS
Nicolausc. 800 Rome, Papal States39 / 48Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Encouraged missionary activity.
10614 December 867 –
14 December 872
(5 years, 0 days)
Adrian II
HADRIANVS Secundus
Hadrianusc. 792 Rome, Papal States75 / 80Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Pope during the Council of Constantinople IV (869), the eighth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
10714 December 872 –
16 December 882
(10 years, 2 days)
John VIII
IOANNES Octavus
Ioannesc. 820 Rome, Papal States52 / 62Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. First pope to be assassinated.
10816 December 882 –
15 May 884
(1 year, 151 days)
Marinus I
MARINVS
Marinusc. 830 Gallese, Papal States52 / 54Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Erroneously also known as Martin II.
10917 May 884 –
15 September 885
(1 year, 121 days)
St Adrian III
HADRIANVS Tertius
Hadrianusc. 830 Rome, Papal States49 / 50Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Feast day 8 July. Adrian I was possibly his ancestor.
11014 September 885 –
4 September 891
(5 years, 355 days)
Stephen V
STEPHANVS Quintus
Stephanusc. 840 Rome, Papal States45 / 51Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Sometimes called Stephen VI.
1116 October 891 –
4 April 896
(4 years, 181 days)
Formosus
FORMOSVS
Formosusc. 805–16 Ostia, Papal States75–85 / 80–91Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. In early 897 posthumously executed following the Cadaver Synod. His body was reburied with full Christian honours in 897.
11211 April 896 –
26 April 896
(15 days)
Boniface VI
BONIFATIVS Sextus
Bonifatiusc. 806 Rome, Papal States90 / 90Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
11322 May 896 –
14 August 897
(1 year, 84 days)
Stephen VI
STEPHANVS
Stephanusc. 850 Rome, Papal States46 / 47Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Sometimes called Stephen VII. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
11414 August 897 –
Nov 897
(92 days)
Romanus
ROMANVS
Romanusc. 850 Gallese, Papal States47 / 47Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
115December 897 –
20 December 897
(19 days)
Theodore II
THEODORVS Secundus
Theodorusc. 840 Rome, Papal States57 / 57Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States, of Greek ethnicity.
11618 January 898 –
5 January 900
(1 year, 352 days)
John IX
IOANNES Nonus
Ioannesc. 840 Tivoli, Papal States58 / 60Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States, of Lombard ethnicity. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
1171 February 900 –
30 July 903
(3 years, 179 days)
Benedict IV
BENEDICTVS Quartus
Benedictusc. 840 Rome, Papal States60 / 63Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.

10th century

Popes of the 10th century
Pontiff
number
PontificateName: English
· Latin
Date and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
11830 July 903 –
Dec 903
(124 days)
Leo V
LEO Quintus
c. 845 Ardea, Papal States58 / 58 (†59)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Deposed and murdered.
October 903 –
January 904
(92 days)
Christopher
CHRISTOFORO
Rome, Papal StatesSubject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Leo V.
11929 January 904 –
14 April 911
(7 years, 75 days)
Sergius III
SERGIVS Tertius
c. 860 Rome, Papal States44 / 51Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. "Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
12014 April 911 –
June 913
(2 years, 48 days)
Anastasius III
ANASTASIVS Tertius
c. 865 Rome, Papal States46 / 48Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
1217 July 913 –
5 February 914
(213 days)
Lando
LANDO
c. 865 Sabina, Papal States48 / 49Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
122March 914 –
28 May 928
(14 years, 88 days)
John X
IOANNES Decimus
c. 860 Tossignano, Papal States54 / 68Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
12328 May 928 –
Dec 928
(187 days)
Leo VI
LEO Sextus
c. 880 Rome, Papal States48 / 48Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
1243 February 929 –
13 February 931
(2 years, 10 days)
Stephen VII
STEPHANVS Septimus
c. 880 Rome, Papal States49 / 51Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Sometimes called Stephen VIII.
12515 March 931 –
Dec 935
(4 years, 261 days)
John XI
IOANNES Undecimus
c. 910 Rome, Papal States21 / 25Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Probably, according to the Liber Pontificalis and Liutprand of Cremona, the son of Pope Sergius III, and not of Alberic I of Spoleto, who was Marozia's husband.
1263 January 936 –
13 July 939
(3 years, 191 days)
Leo VII
LEO Septimus
c. 885 Rome, Papal States41 / 44Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
12714 July 939 –
30 October 942
(3 years, 108 days)
Stephen VIII
STEPHANVS Octavus
c. 900 Rome, Papal States39 / 42Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Sometimes called Stephen IX.
12830 October 942 –
1 May 946
(3 years, 183 days)
Marinus II
MARINVS Secundus
c. 900 Rome, Papal States42 / 46Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Erroneously also known as Martin III.
12910 May 946 –
8 November 955
(9 years, 182 days)
Agapetus II
AGAPETVS Secundus
c. 905 Rome, Papal States41 / 50Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
13016 December 955 –
6 December 963
(8 years, 356 days)
John XII
IOANNES Duodecimus
c. 930–37 Rome, Papal States18–25 / 26–33Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Third pope not to use his personal name (Octavian). Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
6 December 963 –
26 February 964
(82 days)
Leo VIII
LEO Octavus
c. 915 Rome, Papal States48 / 49Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. His pontificate after the deposition of Benedict V is considered legitimate by the modern Catholic Church.
13026 February 964 –
14 May 964
(78 days)
John XII
IOANNES Duodecimus
c. 937 Rome, Papal States27-34 / 27-34Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Possibly murdered in 964.
13122 May 964 –
23 June 964
(32 days)
Benedict V
BENEDICTVS Quintus
c. 915 Rome, Papal States49 / 49 (†50)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Elected by the people of Rome, in opposition to Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo VIII as the sole pope.
13223 June 964 –
1 March 965
(251 days)
Leo VIII
LEO Octavus
c. 915 Rome, Papal States49 / 50Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. His pontificate from 963 to 964 is considered illegitimate by today's Catholic Church. An appointee of Emperor Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
1331 October 965 –
6 September 972
(6 years, 341 days)
John XIII
IOANNES Tertius Decimus
c. 930 Rome, Papal States35 / 42Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Chronicled after his death as "the Good".
13419 January 973 –
8 June 974
(1 year, 140 days)
Benedict VI
BENEDICTVS Sextus
c. 925 Rome, Papal States48 / 49Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States, was of Lombard ethnicity. Deposed and murdered.
July 974 –
July 974
(30 days)
Boniface VII
BONFATIUS Septinus
Rome, Papal StatesSubject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States, born Francone Ferucci. In opposition to Benedict VI and Benedict VII.
135October 974 –
10 July 983
(8 years, 282 days)
Benedict VII
BENEDICTVS Septimus
c. 930 Rome, Papal States44 / 53Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
136December 983 –
20 August 984
(263 days)
John XIV
IOANNES Quartus Decimus
c. 940 Pavia, Kingdom of Italy, Holy Roman Empire 43 / 44Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Fourth pope not to use his personal name (Pietro Canepanova).
20 August 984 –
20 July 985
(334 days)
Boniface VII
BONFATIUS Septinus
Rome, Papal StatesSubject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to John XIV and John XV
13720 August 985 –
1 April 996
(10 years, 225 days)
John XV
IOANNES Quintus Decimus
c. 950 Rome, Papal States35 / 46Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. The first pope to formally canonize a saint.
1383 May 996 –
18 February 999
(2 years, 291 days)
Gregory V
GREGORIVS Quintus
c. 972 Stainach, Duchy of Carinthia, Holy Roman Empire24 / 27Born as a subject of the Duchy of Carinthia, the first official German pope and fifth not to use his personal name (Bruno). Henceforth, this decision became tradition among future popes.
April 997 –
February 998
(306 days)
John XVI
IOANNES Sextus Decimus
c. 941 Rossanum, Calabria, Italy, Eastern Roman Empire55 / 56 (†60)Born as an Eastern Roman citizen. In opposition to Gregory V
1392 April 999 –
12 May 1003
(4 years, 40 days)
Sylvester II
SILVESTER Secundus
c. 940–42 Belliac, France 52–54 / 56–58Born Gerbert, a subject of the Kingdom of France, who was the first French (Occitan) pope.

2nd millennium

11th century

Popes of the 11th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
14016 May 1003 –
6 November 1003
(174 days)
John XVII
IOANNES Septimus Decimus
Siccone Secchic. 955 Rome, Papal States48 / 48Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
14125 December 1003 –
18 July 1009
(5 years, 205 days)
John XVIII
IOANNES Duodevicesimus
Giovanni Fasanoc. 965 Rapagnano,
Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
43 / 49Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. First pope born after the Papal States became a state of the Holy Roman Empire in 962.
14231 July 1009 –
12 May 1012
(2 years, 286 days)
Sergius IV
SERGIVS Quartus
Pietro Martino Boccadiporco
O.S.B.
c. 970 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire39 / 42Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
12 June 1012 –
31 December 1012
(202 days)
Gregory VI
GREGORIVS Sextus
GregorioRome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireSubject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Benedict VIII
14318 May 1012 –
9 April 1024
(11 years, 327 days)
Benedict VIII
BENEDICTVS Octavus
Teofilatto di Tuscoloc. 980 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire32 / 44Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
14414 May 1024 –
6 October 1032
(8 years, 145 days)
John XIX
IOANNES Undevicesimus
Romano di Tuscoloc. 975 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire49 / 57Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Brother of Benedict VIII.
14521 October 1032 –
31 December 1044
(12 years, 71 days)
Benedict IX
BENEDICTVS Nonus
Teofilatto di TuscoloRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire20 / 32 (†43)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States; first term.
14613 January 1045 –
10 March 1045
(56 days)
Sylvester III
SILVESTER Tertius
Giovanni dei Crescenzi Ottavianic. 1000 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire45 / 45 (†63)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Validity of election questioned; considered antipope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
14710 March 1045 –
1 May 1045
(52 days)
Benedict IX
BENEDICTVS Nonus
Teofilatto di TuscoloRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire33 / 33 (†43)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Second term; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
1485 May 1045 –
20 December 1046
(1 year, 229 days)
Gregory VI
GREGORIVS Sextus
Giovanni Graziano Pierleoni c. 1000 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire45 / 46 (†48)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Deposed at the Council of Sutri.
14924 December 1046 –
9 October 1047
(289 days)
Clement II
CLEMENS Secundus
Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburgc. 967 Hornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire79 / 80Born as a subject of the Duchy of Saxony. Appointed by King Henry III at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry III as emperor.
1508 November 1047 –
17 July 1048
(252 days)
Benedict IX
BENEDICTVS Nonus
Teofilatto di Tuscolo1012 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire35 / 36 (†43)Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Third term; deposed and excommunicated.
15117 July 1048 –
9 August 1048
(23 days)
Damasus II
DAMASVS Secundus
Poppo de Curagnonic. 1000 Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire48 / 48Born as a subject of the Duchy of Bavaria.
15212 February 1049 –
19 April 1054
(5 years, 66 days)
Leon IX (crop).jpg St Leo IX
LEO Nonus
Bruno von Egisheim-Dagsburg 21 July 1002 Eguisheim, Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire47 / 51Born as a subject of the Duchy of Swabia. In 1054, the mutual excommunications of Leo IX's legate, cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965. [15]
15313 April 1055 –
28 July 1057
(2 years, 106 days)
Gebhard I Bischof von Eichstatt, als Victor II Papst.JPG Victor II
VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard II von Calw-Dollnstein-Hirschbergc. 1018 Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire37 / 39Born as a subject of the Duchy of Swabia.
1542 August 1057 –
29 March 1058
(239 days)
Stephen IX
STEPHANVS Nonus (Decimus)
Frederich
O.S.B.
c. 1020 Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire37 / 38Born as a subject of the Duchy of Lorraine. Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
4 April 1058 –
24 January 1059
(295 days)
Benedict X
BENEDICTVS Decimus
Giovanni Mincio di TuscoloRome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireSubject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Nicholas II.
1556 December 1058 –
27 July 1061
(2 years, 233 days)
Robertoilguiscardo.jpg Nicholas II
NICOLAVS Secundus
Gerald de Bourgognec. 980 Château de Chevron, County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire78 / 81Born as a subject of the County of Savoy, was from French ethnicity. In 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini .
30 September 1061
1072
(10 years, 185 days)
Honorius II
HONORIVS Secundus
Pietro Candalus1010 Verona, March of Verona, Holy Roman Empire61 / 72Born as a subject of the March of Verona, was of Italian ethnicity (born after the Placiti Cassinesi was written). In opposition to Pope Alexander II
156 30 September 1061
21 April 1073
(11 years, 203 days)
Alexander II
ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da Baggioc. 1018 Baggio, Free Commune of Milan, Holy Roman Empire46 / 58Citizen of the Free Commune of Milan. Authorized the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
157 22 April 1073
25 May 1085
(12 years, 33 days)
Gregorius (Vita Gregorii VII).jpg St Gregory VII
GREGORIVS Septimus
Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi di Soana
O.S.B.
c. 1015 Sovana, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire48 / 60Subject of the March of Tuscany, was from Lombard ethnicity. Initiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the papal title to the bishop of Rome. [4] Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
25 June 1080 –
8 September 1100
(20 years, 75 days)
Clement III - Antipope (cropped).jpg Clement III
CLEMENS Tertius
Guibert of Ravenna1029 Ravenna, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire51 / 71In opposition to Pope Gregory VII, Pope Victor III, Pope Urban II and Pope Paschal II.
158 24 May 1086
16 September 1087
(1 year, 115 days)
Victor III. - Desiderius of Montecassino.jpg Bl. Victor III
VICTOR Tertius
Dauferio Epifani Del Zotto
O.S.B.
c. 1026 Benevento, Duchy of Benevento 60 / 61Born as a subject of the Duchy of Benevento, was from Lombard ethnicity. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Called the Synod of Benevento (1087) condemning lay investiture.
159 12 March 1088
29 July 1099
(11 years, 139 days)
Urbano II in consacrazione de l'altare del monastero di Cluny (detail).png Bl. Urban II
VRBANVS Secundus
Odon de Lagery
O.S.B.
c. 1042 Châtillon-sur-Marne, County of Champagne, France46 / 57Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Preached and started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
160 13 August 1099
21 January 1118
(18 years, 161 days)
Pope Paschal-II 1107.jpg Paschal II
PASCHALIS Secundus
Rainero Ranieri
O.S.B.
c. 1050 Bleda, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire49 / 68Born as a subject of the March of Tuscany, was of Lombard ethnicity. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.
8 September 1100 –
January 1101
(115 days)
Theodoric
THEODORICVS
Teodoricoc. 1030 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire70 / 71Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States, was of Lombard ethnicity. In opposition to Pope Paschal II

12th century

Popes of the 12th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
January 1101 –
February 1102
(1 year, 31 days)
Adalbert
ADALBERTVS
Adalberto
O.S.B.
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireSubject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States, was of Lombard ethnicity. In opposition to Pope Paschal II
8 November 1105 –
11 April 1111
(5 years, 154 days)
Sylvester IV
SILVESTER Quartus
Maguinulf1050 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire49 / 55 (†56)Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States, was of German ethnicity. In opposition to Paschal II.
161 24 January 1118
29 January 1119
(1 year, 5 days)
Pope Paschal-II 1107.jpg Gelasius II
GELASIVS Secundus
Giovanni Caetani
O.S.B.
c. 1061 Gaeta, Duchy of Gaeta 57 / 58Born as a subject of the Duchy of Gaeta.

10 March 1118 –
20 April 1121
(3 years, 41 days)
Gregory VIII
GREGORIVS Octavus
Maurice Baurdainc. 1060 Limousin, Occitania, France58 / 61 (†77)Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France, was of Occitan ethnicity. In opposition to Gelasius II and Callixtus II.
162 2 February 1119
13 December 1124
(5 years, 315 days)
Calixtus II.jpg Callixtus II
CALLISTVS Secundus
Guyc. 1060 Quingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire 59 / 64Born as a subject of the County of Burgundy, was of French ethnicity. Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123.

16 December 1124
16 December 1124
(0 days)
Celestine II
COELESTINVS Secundus
Teobaldo Boccapecora1050 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire74 / 74 (†76)Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Honorius II.
163 21 December 1124
13 February 1130
(5 years, 54 days)
Honorius II
HONORIVS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi da Fiagnano
Can.Reg.
9 February 1060 Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire64 / 70Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno. Approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.
164 14 February 1130
24 September 1143
(13 years, 222 days)
B Innozenz II1 (cropped).jpg Innocent II
INNOCENTIVS Secundus
Gregorio Papareschi
Can.Reg.
c. 1082 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire48 / 61Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Canon regular of Lateran. Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139.

14 February 1130
25 January 1138
(7 years, 345 days)
Anacletus II
ANACLETUS Secundus
Pietro Pierleoni
O.S.B.
1090 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire40 / 48Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Innocent II.

23 March 1138 –
25 March 1138
(2 days)
Victor IV
VICTOR Quartus
Gregorio ContiRome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireSubject and later the claimant of throne the Papal States. In Opposition to Pope Innocent II
165 26 September 1143
8 March 1144
(164 days)
Pope Celestine, St William and an unidentified Prelate, East Window, York Minster.jpg Celestine II
COELESTINVS Secundus
Guido Guelfuccio de Castelloc. 1085 Città di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire58 / 59Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
166 12 March 1144
15 February 1145
(340 days)
Pope Lucius II (1493).jpg Lucius II
LUCIVS Secundus
Gherardo Caccianemici dall'Orso
Can.Reg.
c. 1079 Bologna, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire65 / 66Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca.
167 15 February 1145
8 July 1153
(8 years, 143 days)
Consecration par EUgene III (Cropped).jpg Bl. Eugene III
EVGENIVS Tertius
Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno
O.Cist. [16]
c. 1080 Montemagno, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman Empire44 / 73Citizen of the Republic of Pisa. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
168 12 July 1153
3 December 1154
(1 year, 144 days)
Paus Anastasius IV Anastasius quartus (titel op object) Liber Chronicarum (serietitel), RP-P-2016-49-67-1.jpg Anastasius IV
ANASTASIVS Quartus
Corrado Demitri della Suburra c. 1073 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire80 / 81Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
169 4 December 1154
1 September 1159
(4 years, 271 days)
Adrian IV, servus servorum dei (cropped).png Adrian IV
HADRIANVS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear
Can.Reg.
c. 1100 Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of England 54 / 59Born as a subject of the Kingdom of England. The only English (Anglo-Saxon) pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Canon Regular of St. Rufus Monastery.
170 7 September 1159
30 August 1181
(21 years, 357 days)
Becket bids farewell to the Pope - Becket Leaves (c.1220-1240), f. 1v - BL Loan MS 88 (cropped).jpg Alexander III
ALEXANDER Tertius
Rolando Bandinellic. 1100 Siena, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire59 / 81Born as a subject of the March of Tuscany. Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179.

7 September 1159
20 April 1164
(4 years, 226 days)
Victor IV
VICTOR Quartus
Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli1095 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire64 / 69Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Pope Alexander III.

28 April 1164 –
22 September 1168
(4 years, 147 days)
Paschal III
PASCALIS Tertius
Guido di Crema1110 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire54 / 58Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Alexander III.

30 September 1168 –
29 August 1178
(9 years, 333 days)
Callixtus III
CALLIXTVS Tertius
Giovanni di Struma
O.S.B.
1090 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire78 / 88Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Alexander III.

29 September 1179 –
January 1180
(124 days)
Innocent III
INNOCENTIVS Tertius
Lando di Sezze (or Lanzo)1120 Sezze, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire59 / 60 (†63)Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to Alexander III.
171 1 September 1181
25 November 1185
(4 years, 85 days)
Lucius-III.jpg Lucius III
LUCIVS Tertius
Ubaldo Allucignolic. 1097 Lucca, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire84 / 88Born as a subject of the March of Tuscany.
172 25 November 1185
20 October 1187
(1 year, 329 days)
Urban2 lat.jpg Urban III
VRBANVS Tertius
Uberto Crivellic. 1120 Cuggiono, Holy Roman Empire67 / 67Was of Italian ethnicity. In the 21st century, Cuggiono is a small Italian town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Milan.
173 21 October 1187
17 December 1187
(57 days)
Gregory VIII
GREGORIVS Octavus
Alberto de Morra
Can.Reg.
c. 1100 Benevento, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire87 / 87Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Canon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade.
174 19 December 1187
20 March 1191 [17]
(3 years, 91 days)
SpeculumGrandmontis (Pope Clement III).jpg Clement III
CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo Scolaric. 1130 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire57 / 61Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
175 30 March 1191
8 January 1198
(6 years, 284 days)
Coelestin III (cropped 2).png Celestine III
COELESTINVS Tertius
Giacinto Bobone Orsini c. 1106 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire85 / 92Motto: Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis("Going in Thy path")
Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.
176 8 January 1198
16 July 1216
(18 years, 190 days)
Innozenz3.jpg Innocent III
INNOCENTIVS Tertius
Lotario dei Conti di Segni 1161 Gavignano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire37 / 55Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities. [18] Endorsed the Franciscan Order.

13th century

Popes of the 13th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
177 18 July 1216
18 March 1227
(10 years, 243 days)
Vad-0321 025 Honorius III (cropped).jpg Honorius III
HONORIVS
Tertius
Cencio Savelli c. 1148–50 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire66–68 / 77–79Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Initiated the Fifth Crusade. Approved several religious and tertiary orders.
178 19 March 1227
22 August 1241
(14 years, 156 days)
Gregory IX (cropped).jpg Gregory IX
GREGORIVS Nonus
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S c. 1145–70 Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire57–82 / 71–96Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Initiated the inquisition in France and endorsed the Northern Crusades.
179 25 October 1241
10 November 1241
(16 days)
Celestine IV
COELESTINVS Quartus
Goffredo Castiglionic. 1180–87 Free Commune of Milan, Holy Roman Empire 54–61 / 54–61Born as a citizen of the Free Commune of Milan. Died before coronation.
180
Blason AdrienV.svg
25 June 1243
7 December 1254
(11 years, 165 days)
Innocent IV Council of Lyon etail.jpg Innocent IV
INNOCENTIVS Quartus
Sinibaldo Fieschi c. 1195 Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire 48 / 60Born as a citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Convened the First Council of Lyons (1245). Issued the bull Ad extirpanda that permitted the torture of heretics (1252).
181
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
12 December 1254
25 May 1261
(6 years, 164 days)
Alexander IV
ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di Jennec. 1199 Jenne, Papal States 55 / 62Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. First pope born after the Papal States ceased to be a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Established an Inquisition in France.
182
Coat of arms of Pope Urban IV.svg
29 August 1261
2 October 1264
(3 years, 34 days)
Urban IV
VRBANVS Quartus
Jacques Pantaléonc. 1195 Troyes, County of Champagne, France66 / 69Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Instituted the feast of Corpus Christi (1264).
183
C o a Clemente IV.svg
5 February 1265
29 November 1268
(3 years, 298 days)
Tour Ferrande - Clement IV.JPG Clement IV
CLEMENS
Quartus
Gui Faucoi23 November 1190 Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, France62 / 66Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France.
29 November 1268 –
1 September 1271
(2 years, 276 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Almost three-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184
C o a Gregorio X.svg
1 September 1271
10 January 1276
(4 years, 131 days)
NoccoloAndMaffeoPoloWithGregoryX (Gregory X).JPG Bl. Gregory X
GREGORIVS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S c. 1210 Free Commune of Piacenza, Holy Roman Empire 51 / 66Born as a citizen of the Free Commune of Piacenza, was of Italian ethnicity. Convened the Second Council of Lyons (1274), responsible for regulating all papal conclaves until the 20th century.
185
C o a Innocenzo V.svg
21 January 1276
22 June 1276
(153 days)
InnocenzoV.jpg Bl. Innocent V
INNOCENTIVS Quintus
Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P. c. 1224/5 County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire 52 / 52Born as a subject of the County of Savoy, was of French ethnicity. Member of the Dominican Order.
186
C o a Adriano V.svg
11 July 1276
18 August 1276
(38 days)
Adrian V
HADRIANVS Quintus
Ottobuono Fieschi c. 1216 Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire 60 / 60Born as a citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Annulled Gregory X's papal bull on the regulations of papal conclaves.
187
C o a Giovanni XXI.svg
8 September 1276
20 May 1277
(254 days)
John XXI
IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano)c. 1215 Lisbon, Portugal60 / 70Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Portugal. Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, the ordinal XX was skipped.
188
C o a Niccolo III.svg
25 November 1277
22 August 1280
(2 years, 271 days)
Scuola romana, affreschi del sancta sanctorum, 1280 ca., Niccolo III dona la chiesa ai ss. pietro e paolo 03 (cropped).jpg Nicholas III
NICOLAVS
Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini c. 1216 Rome, Papal States 61 / 64Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Planned the Sicilian Vespers.
189
C o a Martino IV.svg
22 February 1281
28 March 1285
(4 years, 34 days)
Louis9 Canonization (cropped).jpg Martin IV
MARTINVS Quartus
Simon de Brionc. 1210 Meinpicien, Touraine, France71 / 75Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France.
190
C o a Onorio IV.svg
2 April 1285
3 April 1287
(2 years, 1 day)
Honorius IV
HONORIVS Quartus
Giacomo Savelli c. 1210 Rome, Papal States 75 / 77Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States.
191
C o a Niccolo IV.svg
22 February 1288
4 April 1292
(4 years, 42 days)
Papa Niccolo IV, Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore a Roma.jpg Nicholas IV
NICOLAVS Quartus
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. 30 September 1227 Lisciano, Papal States 60 / 64Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Member of the Franciscan Order.
4 April 1292 –
5 July 1294
(2 years, 92 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
192
C o a Celestino V.svg
5 July 1294
13 December 1294
(161 days)
Celestine V Castel Nuovo Napoli n02.jpg St Celestine V
COELESTINVS Quintus
Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B. 1215 [19] Sant'Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily 79 / 79 (†81)Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Sicily. One of the few popes who abdicated voluntarily. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Founded the Celestines. Resigned from office and rumoured to have been murdered in prison by Boniface VIII.
193
Coat of arms of Bonifacius VIII.svg
24 December 1294
11 October 1303
(8 years, 291 days)
Giotto - Bonifatius VIII.jpg Boniface VIII
BONIFATIVS Octavus
Benedetto Caetani c. 1230–36 Anagni, Papal States 59–64 / 68–73Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Formalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued Unam Sanctam (1302) which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.

14th century

Popes of the 14th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
194
C o a Benedictus XI.svg
22 October 1303
7 July 1304
(259 days)
Coronation of Benedict XI.jpg Bl. Benedict XI
BENEDICTVS Undecimus
Niccolò Boccasini, O.P. c. 1240 Treviso, Papal States 63 / 64Motto: Illustra faciem Tuam super servum Tuum("Let Your Face shine upon Your servant")

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Member of the Dominican Order. Reverted Boniface VIII's Unam Sanctam .

195
C o a Clemens V.svg
5 June 1305
20 April 1314
(8 years, 319 days)
Sou d'or de Clement V frappe a Sorgues 1310.jpg Clement V
CLEMENS Quintus
Raymond Bertrand de Gouthc. 1264 Villandraut, Gascony, France41 / 50Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne (1311–1312). Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip IV of France.
20 April 1314 –
7 August 1316
(2 years, 79 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196
C o a Johannes XXII.svg
7 August 1316
4 December 1334
(18 years, 119 days)
Stato della chiesa, carlino di giovanni XXII, 1316-1334.JPG John XXII
IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèsec. 1244–49 Cahors, Quercy, France67–72 / 85–90Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on the beatific vision. Opposed the Franciscan understanding of the poverty of Christ and his apostles, famously leading William of Ockham to write against unlimited papal power

12 May 1328–
25 July 1330
(2 years, 74 days)
Antipope-Nicholas V.jpg Nicholas V
NICOLAVS Quintus
Pietro Rainalducci,
O.F.M.
1260 Corvaro, Papal States 68 / 70 (†73)Subject and later the claimant of the throne of the Papal States. In opposition to John XXII.
197
C o a Benedictus XII.svg
20 December 1334
25 April 1342
(7 years, 126 days)
Benoit XII Paolo de Siena 1341 crypte de St Pierre de Rome.jpg Benedict XII
BENEDICTVS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier, O.Cist. c. 1280–85 Saverdun, County of Foix, France49–54 / 57–62Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336). A careful pope who reformed monastic orders and opposed nepotism.
198
C o a Beaufort Popes.svg
7 May 1342
6 December 1352
(10 years, 213 days)
01 Clement VI (Fresque de la chapelle Saint-Martial du palais des papes).jpg Clement VI
CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger, O.S.B. c. 1291 Maumont, Limousin, France51 / 61Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who died of it of their sins.
199
C o a Inocentius VI.svg
18 December 1352
12 September 1362
(9 years, 268 days)
Innocent VI.JPG Innocent VI
INNOCENTIVS Sextus
Étienne Aubertc. 1282 Les Monts, Limousin, France70 / 80Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon. Through his exertions the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) was brought about.
200
C o a Urbanus V.svg
28 September 1362
19 December 1370
(8 years, 82 days)
Urbain V - Pinacoteque de Bologne (cropped).jpg Bl. Urban V
VRBANVS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B. c. 1309–10 Grizac, Languedoc, France52–53 / 60–61Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Reformed areas of education and sent missionary movements across Europe and Asia. His pontificate witnessed the Alexandrian and Savoyard crusades.
201
C o a Beaufort Popes.svg
30 December 1370
27 March 1378
(7 years, 87 days)
Duke of Anjou leading Pope Gregory XI to the palace at Avignon, while cardinals follow (cropped).png Gregory XI
GREGORIVS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de Beaufortc. 1329 Maumont, Limousin, France41 / 49Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome. The last French pope.
202
C o a Urbanus VI.svg
8 April 1378
15 October 1389
(11 years, 190 days)
Tomb of pope Urbanus VI detail.jpg Urban VI
VRBANVS Sextus
Bartolomeo Prignanoc. 1318 Naples, Kingdom of Naples60 / 71Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Western Schism. Last pontiff to be elected outside the College of Cardinals.

C o a Clemente VII (Avignone).svg
20 September 1378 –
16 September 1394
(15 years, 353 days)
GiacMaster Clement VII.jpg Clement VII
CLEMENS Septimus
Robert de Genève1342 Chateau d'Annecy, County of Savoy, H.R.E. 36 / 52Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. In opposition to Urban VI (1378–89) and Boniface IX (1389–1404)

C o a Benedetto XIII (Avignone).svg
28 September 1394 –
23 May 1423
(28 years, 237 days)
Antipope Benedictus XIII.jpg Benedict XIII
BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus
Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor25 November 1328 Illueca, Aragon 66 / 94Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Aragon. In opposition to Boniface IX (1389–1404), Innocent VII (1404–06), Gregory XII (1406–15), Martin V (1417–31) and Pisan Antipopes Alexander V (1409–10) and John XXIII (1410–15)
203
C o a Bonifacio IX.svg
2 November 1389
1 October 1404
(14 years, 334 days)
Nuremberg Chronicle f 232v (cropped).jpg Boniface IX
BONIFATIVS Nonus
Pietro Tomacelli Cybo c. 1348–50 Naples, Kingdom of Naplesc. 39-41 / c. 54-56Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Western Schism.

15th century

Popes of the 15th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
204
C o a Innocenzo VII.svg
17 October 1404
6 November 1406
(2 years, 20 days)
Nuremberg Chronicles f 235v 1 (Innocentius VII).jpg Innocent VII
INNOCENTIVS Septimus
Cosimo Gentile Migliorati1336–39 Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples65–68 / 67–71Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Reigned during the Western Schism.
205
C o a Gregorio XII.svg
30 November 1406
4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
Joos Van Wassenhove e Pedro Berruguete - San Gregorio - Galleria Nazionale delle Marche.jpg Gregory XII
GREGORIVS Duodecimus
Angelo Correr 1327 Venice, Republic of Venice [20] c. 79 / 88 (†90)Born as a citizen of the Republic of Venice. Reigned during the Western Schism. Abdicated.

C o a Alexander V (antipapa).svg
30 June 1409
3 May 1410
(307 days)
Nuremberg Chronicles f 235v 3 (Alexander V).jpg Alexander V
ALEXANDER Quintus
Pétros Philárgēs,
O.F.M.
1339 Neapoli, Candia, Republic of Venice 70 / 71Born as a citizen of the Republic of Venice. Was of Greek ethnicity. Western Schism. In opposition to Gregory XII. Considered a legitimate pope until 1963 and is numbered as such to this day.

C o a Giovanni XXIII (Pisa).svg
25 May 1410 –
30 May 1415
(5 years, 5 days)
Johannes XXIII. Gegenpapst 2.jpg John XXIII
IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius
Baldassarre Cossa1365 Procida, Naples 45 / 50 (†54)Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Western Schism. In opposition to Gregory XII. Convened Council of Constance. Deposed. Became dean of the College of Cardinals in 1417. Was considered a legitimate pope until 1958.
4 July 1415 –
11 November 1417
(2 years, 136 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. The Council of Constance called on all three papal claimants to abdicate, but only Gregory XII (Roman) did. John XXIII (Pisan) was deposed, Benedict XIII (Avignon) was excommunicated, and a new pope was elected.
206
C o a Martino V.svg
11 November 1417
20 February 1431
(13 years, 101 days)
Papa Martino V.jpg Martin V
MARTINVS Quintus
Oddone Colonna, O.F.S Jan/Feb 1369 Genazzano, Papal States48 / 62Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. His election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417). Convened the Council of Basel (1431). Initiated the Hussite Wars.

C o a Antipope Clement VIII.svg
10 [21] or 20 [22] June 1423 –
26 July 1429
(6 years, 36 days)
Palma Antipapa Clemens VIII.JPG Clement VIII
CLEMENS Octavus
Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón1369 Teruel, Aragon 54 / 60 (†77)Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Aragon. Western Schism. In opposition to Martin V.
1424 –
1429
Antipope Benedict XIV Bernard GarnierFranceBorn as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Two antipope claimants [23]
1430 –
1437
Antipope Benedict XIV Jean CarrierFranceBorn as a subject of the Kingdom of France. Two antipope claimants [24]
207
Coat of arms of Pope Eugene IV.svg
3 March 1431
23 February 1447
(15 years, 357 days)
PapstEugen.jpg Eugene IV
EVGENIVS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A. 1383 Venice, Republic of Venice47 / 63Born as a citizen of the Republic of Venice. Member of the Augustinian Order. Nephew of Gregory XII. Crowned Emperor Sigismund at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague. Issued the bull "Creator Omnium", rescinding any recognition of Portugal's right to conquer those islands, still pagan. He excommunicated anyone who enslaved newly converted Christians, the penalty to stand until the captives were restored to their liberty and possessions

Coat of Arms of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy as Antipope Felix V.svg
5 November 1439
7 April 1449
(9 years, 153 days)
Portrait of Antipope Felix V.jpg Felix V
FELIX Quintus
Amadeus4 September 1383 Chambéry, France 56 / 65 (†67)Born as a subject of the Kingdom of France. In opposition to Eugene IV [25] and Nicholas V. [26] Also ruled as count of Savoy.
208
C o a Nicolaus V.svg
6 March 1447
24 March 1455
(8 years, 18 days)
Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens.jpg Nicholas V
NICOLAVS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli13 November 1397 Sarzana, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire49 / 57Born as a citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Held the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Emperor Frederick III at Rome (1452). Issued the bull Dum Diversas allowing Portugal's right to conquer and subjugate Saracens and pagans (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana .
209
Coat of Arms of Pope Callixtus III.svg
8 April 1455
6 August 1458
(3 years, 120 days)
Pope Callixtus III Siena (cropped).jpg Callixtus III
CALLISTVS Tertius
Alfonso de Borja 31 December 1378 Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon76 / 79Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Valencia (and therefore subject to the monarch of the Crown of Aragon). The first Spanish (Valencian) pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated. Appointed two nephews as cardinals, one of whom became Pope Alexander VI.
210
C o a Pio II.svg
19 August 1458
15 August 1464
(5 years, 362 days)
Pintoricchio 012.jpg Pius II
PIVS Secundus
Enea Silvio Piccolomini 18 October 1405 Corsignano, Republic of Siena, Holy Roman Empire52 / 58Citizen of the Republic of Siena. Displayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
211
Coat of arms of Pope Paul II (flat).svg
30 August 1464
26 July 1471
(6 years, 330 days)
Pietrobarbo.jpg Paul II
PAVLVS Secundus
Pietro Barbo23 February 1417 Venice, Republic of Venice47 / 54Citizen of the Republic of Venice. The nephew of Eugene IV. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia). Approved the introduction of printing in the Papal States.
212
CoA della Rovere popes.svg
9 August 1471
12 August 1484
(13 years, 3 days)
Joos Van Wassenhove e Pedro Berruguete - Sixtus Papa IV, Louvre.jpg Sixtus IV
SYXTVS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M. 21 July 1414 Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire57 / 70Citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel and created the Vatican Archives. Authorized the Spanish Inquisition targeting converted Jewish Christians in Spain at the request of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Noted for his nepotism and involved in the Pazzi conspiracy.
213
C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg
29 August 1484
25 July 1492
(7 years, 331 days)
Niccolo di forzore spinelli, medaglia di innocenzo viii 01.JPG Innocent VIII
INNOCENTIVS Octavus
Giovanni Battista Cybo 1432 Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire51 / 59Citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Appointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484).
214
C o a Alessandro VI.svg
11 August 1492
18 August 1503
(11 years, 7 days)
Pope Alexander Vi.jpg Alexander VI
ALEXANDER Sextus
Roderic Llançol i de Borja 1 January 1431 Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon61 / 72Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Valencia (and therefore subject to the monarch of the Crown of Aragon). Spanish (Valencian); Nephew of Callixtus III; father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493). Considered one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses. As a result, his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate

16th century

Popes of the 16th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
215
C o a Pio II.svg
22 September 1503
18 October 1503
(26 days)
PiusIII.jpg Pius III
PIVS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini 29 May 1439 Siena, Republic of Siena, Holy Roman Empire64 / 64Born as a citizen of the Republic of Siena. Nephew of Pius II. Founded the Piccolomini Library in the Siena Cathedral.
216
CoA della Rovere popes.svg
31 October 1503
21 February 1513
(9 years, 113 days)
Pope Julius II.jpg Julius II
IVLIVS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M. 5 December 1443 Albisola, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire59 / 69Born as a citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Nicknamed the 'Warrior Pope' or the 'Fearsome Pope'. Nephew of Sixtus IV; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took control of all the Papal States for the first time. Became Pope in the context of the Italian Wars, a period in which the major powers of Europe fought for primacy in the Italian peninsula. Established the Vatican Museums and initiated the rebuilding of the St. Peter's Basilica. The same year he organized the famous Swiss Guard for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. The interests of Julius II lay also in the New World as he ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas, establishing the first bishoprics in the Americas and beginning the catholicization of Latin America. In 1508, he commissioned the Raphael Rooms and Michelangelo's paintings in the Sistine Chapel.

Julius II was described by Machiavelli in his works as the ideal prince. Pope Julius II allowed people seeking indulgences to donate money to the Church which would be used for the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica.

217
Medici popes.svg
9 March 1513
1 December 1521
(8 years, 267 days)
Raffael 040 (crop).jpg Leo X
LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici 11 December 1475 Florence, Republic of Florence, Holy Roman Empire37 / 45Citizen of the Republic of Florence. Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Closed the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences to those who donated to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica; excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal. Borrowed and spent money without circumspection and was a significant patron of the arts. Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo also reorganized the Roman University, and promoted the study of literature, poetry and antiquities. The last pope to not have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy.
218
C o a Adriano VI.svg
9 January 1522
14 September 1523
(1 year, 248 days)
Portrait of Pope Adrian VI (by Jan van Scorel).jpg Adrian VI
HADRIANVS Sextus
Aryaen Floriszoon Boeyens2 March 1459 Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (now Netherlands)62 / 64Motto: Patere et sustine("Respect and wait") [27]

Born as a subject of the Bishopric of Utrecht. The only Dutch pope; last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. Tutor of Emperor Charles V. Came to the papacy in the midst of one of its greatest crises, threatened not only by Lutheranism to the north but also by the advance of the Ottoman Turks to the east. He refused to compromise with Lutheranism theologically, demanding Luther's condemnation as a heretic. However, he is noted for having attempted to reform the Catholic Church administratively in response to the Protestant Reformation. Adrian's remarkable admission that the turmoil of the Church was the fault of the Roman Curia itself was read at the 1522–1523 Diet of Nuremberg.

His efforts at reform, however, proved fruitless, as they were resisted by most of his Renaissance ecclesiastical contemporaries, and he did not live long enough to see his efforts through to their conclusion.

219
Medici popes.svg
26 November 1523
25 September 1534
(10 years, 303 days)
Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian) - Pope Clement VII - Google Art Project.jpg Clement VII
CLEMENS Septimus
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici 26 May 1478 Florence, Republic of Florence, Holy Roman Empire45 / 56Motto: Candor illæsus("Unharmed candor") [28]

Citizen of the Republic of Florence. Cousin of Leo X. Rome sacked by imperial troops (1527). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII; crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530). Commissioned Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel (1533). Approved Copernicus' heliocentric universe theory (1533). However Copernicus made very few astronomical observations and based his new model squarely on his mathematical calculations. Natural philosophers of that time (professionals who began to be called scientists only in the 19th century) noted that if the earth rotated there would be observable Coriolis effects. Secondly, a revolving earth would imply a stellar parallax. Given that neither of these effects were observed at the time (would be observed decades later) , Corpenico's model still did not proved heliocentrism.

The niece of the pope was married to the future Henry II of France (1533). Recognized the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Capuchins).

220
C o a Paulo III.svg
13 October 1534
10 November 1549
(15 years, 28 days)
Portrait of Pope Paul III Farnese (by Titian) - National Museum of Capodimonte.jpg Paul III
PAVLVS Tertius
Alessandro Farnese 29 February 1468 Canino, Lazio, Papal States66 / 81Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Opened the Council of Trent (1545). His illegitimate son became the first duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of King Henry VIII of England. Appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St. Peter's Basilica (1546). Recognized the Order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
221
C o a Giulio III.svg
7 February 1550
29 March 1555
(5 years, 50 days)
Girolamo Sicciolante - Paus Julius III.jpg Julius III
IVLIVS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte10 September 1487 Rome, Lazio, Papal States62 / 67Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Established the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent. The Innocenzo Scandal.
222
C o a Marcello II.svg
9 April 1555
1 May 1555
(22 days)
Portrait of Pope Marcellus II Cervini (Vatican Museums - Musei Vaticani, Vatican).jpg Marcellus II
MARCELLVS Secundus
Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi6 May 1501 Montefano, Marche, Papal States53 / 53Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. The last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures. The Missa Papae Marcelli composed in his honour.
223
C o a Paulo IV.svg
23 May 1555
18 August 1559
(4 years, 87 days)
Pope Paul IV - Jacopino Conte (Manner), ca. 1560.jpg Paul IV
PAVLVS Quartus
Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R. 28 June 1476 Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples78 / 83Motto: Dominus mihi adjutor("The Lord is my helper") [29]

Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment modestly.

224
Medici popes.svg
26 December 1559
9 December 1565
(5 years, 348 days)
Portrait of Pope Pius IV, three-quarter-length, seated at a draped table (Circle of Scipione Pulzone).jpg Pius IV
PIVS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo Medici 31 March 1499 Milan, Duchy of Milan, Holy Roman Empire60 / 66Born as a subject of the Duchy of Milan. Reopened and closed the Council of Trent. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
225
C o a Pio V.svg
7 January 1566
1 May 1572
(6 years, 115 days)
El Greco 050.jpg St Pius V
PIVS Quintus
Antonio Ghislieri, O.P. 17 January 1504 Bosco, Piedmont, Duchy of Milan, Holy Roman Empire61 / 68Motto: Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas("O that my ways may be steadfast in keeping thy statutes")

Born as a subject of the Duchy of Milan. Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I of England (1570). Battle of Lepanto (1571); instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Issued the 1570 Roman Missal.

226
C o a Gregorio XIII.svg
13 May 1572
10 April 1585
(12 years, 332 days)
Pope Gregory XIII portrait.jpg Gregory XIII
GREGORIVS Tertius Decimus
Ugo Boncompagni 7 January 1502 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States70 / 83Motto: Aperuit et clausit("Opened and closed") [30]

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Reformed the calendar (1582); built the Gregorian Chapel in the Vatican. The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579). Strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.

227
C o a Sisto V.svg
24 April 1585
27 August 1590
(5 years, 125 days)
Sixtus V.PNG Sixtus V
SYXTVS Quintus
Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv. 13 December 1521 Grottammare, Marche, Papal States63 / 68Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to 70 in number; doubled the number of curial congregations.
228
C o a Urbano VII.svg
15 September 1590
27 September 1590
(12 days)
Papa Urbano VII (Pope Urban VII).jpg Urban VII
VRBANVS Septimus
Giovanni Battista Castagna4 August 1521 Rome, Lazio, Papal States69 / 69Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Supported by the Spanish. Shortest-reigning pope; died before coronation. Set the first known worldwide smoking ban, banning smoking in and near all churches.
229
C o a Gregorio XIV.svg
5 December 1590
16 October 1591
(315 days)
GregorioPPXVI.jpg Gregory XIV
GREGORIVS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò Sfondrati11 February 1535 Somma Lombardo, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan, Holy Roman Empire55 / 56Born as a subject of the Duchy of Milan. Modified the constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus V so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591). Made gambling on papal elections punishable by excommunication.
230
C o a Innocenzo IX.svg
29 October 1591
30 December 1591
(62 days)
Innocent9.jpg Innocent IX
INNOCENTIVS Nonus
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti20 July 1519 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States72 / 72Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Supported the cause of King Philip II of Spain and the Catholic League against King Henry IV of France in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
231
C o a Clemente VIII.svg
30 January 1592
3 March 1605
(13 years, 32 days)
Papst Clemens VIII Italian 17th century.jpg Clement VIII
CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito Aldobrandini 24 February 1536 Fano, Marche, Papal States55 / 69Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Initiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as The Long War (1595). Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace. [31]

17th century

Popes of the 17th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
232
Medici popes.svg
1 April 1605
27 April 1605
(26 days)
Leo XI 2.jpg Leo XI
LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici 2 June 1535 Florence, Duchy of Florence, Holy Roman Empire69 / 69Born as a subject of the Duchy of Florence. The great-nephew of Leo X. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
233
C o a Paulo V.svg
16 May 1605
28 January 1621
(15 years, 257 days)
Pope Paul V.jpg Paul V
PAVLVS Quintus
Camillo Borghese 17 September 1550 Rome, Lazio, Papal States52 / 68Motto: Absit nisi in te gloriari("May it be absent, except to glory in you") [32]

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Known for various building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605); restored the Aqua Traiana.

During his pontificate Galileo's scientific contributions caused difficulties for theologians and natural philosophers of the time, as they contradicted scientific and philosophical ideas based on those of Aristotle and Ptolemy and closely associated with the Catholic Church at that time.

Not all Catholic priests at the time were against Galileo's discoveries. Christoph Grienberger, one of the Jesuit scholars, was sympathetic to Galileo's theories, but was invited to defend the Aristotelian point of view by Claudio Acquaviva, the Jesuits' Father General.

Not all scientists at the time supported Galileo. Opposition from Tycho Brahe and others arose from the fact that, if heliocentrism were true, an annual stellar parallax should be observed, although no such evidence existed at the time. (Only in 1838 was Friedrich Bessel able to accurately observe it.) Galileo's arguments – based on sunspots and the action of tides – were flawed and were refuted and rejected by other scholars at the time.

234
C o a Gregorio XV.svg
9 February 1621
8 July 1623
(2 years, 149 days)
Pope Gregory XV.jpg Gregory XV
GREGORIVS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro Ludovisi 9 January 1554 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States67 / 69Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
235
C o a Urbanus VIII.svg
6 August 1623
29 July 1644
(20 years, 358 days)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII.jpg Urban VIII
VRBANVS Octavus
Maffeo Barberini 5 April 1568 Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire55 / 76Born as a subject of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Trial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bill that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
236
C o a Innocenzo X.svg
15 September 1644
7 January 1655
(10 years, 114 days)
Retrato del Papa Inocencio X. Roma, by Diego Velazquez.jpg Innocent X
INNOCENTIVS Decimus
Giovanni Battista Pamphilj 6 May 1574 Rome, Lazio, Papal States70 / 80Motto: Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram("Water on earth") [33]

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander VI. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.

237
C o a Alessandro VII.svg
7 April 1655
22 May 1667
(12 years, 45 days)
Portrait of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (by Giovanni Battista Gaulli - Baciccio).jpg Alexander VII
ALEXANDER Septimus
Fabio Chigi 13 February 1599 Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire56 / 68Born as a subject of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Great-nephew of Paul V. Commissioned St. Peter's Square. Issued the constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum that set the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to that of Pius IX centuries later.
238
C o a Clemente IX.svg
20 June 1667
9 December 1669
(2 years, 172 days)
Portrait of Pope Clement IX, by Carlo Maratti (or Maratta) - Hermitage Museum.jpg Clement IX
CLEMENS Nonus
Giulio Rospigliosi 28 January 1600 Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire67 / 69Motto: Aliis non sibi Clemens("Clement to others, not to himself") [34]

Born as a subject of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Mediated in the peace of Aachen (1668).

239
C o a Clemente X.svg
29 April 1670
22 July 1676
(6 years, 84 days)
Giovanni Battista Gaulli (Il Baciccio) - Pope Clement X (1590-1676) - 2017.422 - Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg Clement X
CLEMENS Decimus
Emilio Bonaventura Altieri 13 July 1590 Rome, Lazio, Papal States79 / 86Motto: Bonum auget malum minuit("He increases good and diminishes evil") [35]

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Canonized the first saint from the Americas: St. Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and added one of the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.

240
C o a Innocenzo XI.svg
21 September 1676
12 August 1689
(12 years, 325 days)
Jacob Ferdinand Voet - Portrait of Innocenzo XI Odescalchi (cropped).jpeg Bl. Innocent XI
INNOCENTIVS Undecimus
Benedetto Odescalchi 16 May 1611 Como, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan, Holy Roman Empire65 / 78Motto: Avarus non Implebitur("The covetous man is not satisfied") [36]

Born as a subject of the Duchy of Milan. Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Extended the Holy Name of Mary as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis. During his pontificate Isaac Newton published the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which placed heliocentrism on a firm theoretical foundation.

241
C o a Alessandro VIII.svg
6 October 1689
1 February 1691
(1 year, 118 days)
Portrait of Pope Alexander VIII - Roman School of 17th Century - (unframed).jpg Alexander VIII
ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito Ottoboni 22 April 1610 Venice, Republic of Venice79 / 80Citizen of the Republic of Venice. Condemned the so-called philosophical sin (1690).
242
C o a Innocenzo XII.svg
12 July 1691
27 September 1700
(9 years, 77 days)
Pope Innocent XII.PNG Innocent XII
INNOCENTIVS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S 13 March 1615 Spinazzola, Apulia, Kingdom of Naples76 / 85Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.

18th century

Popes of the 18th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
243
C o a Clemente XI.svg
23 November 1700
19 March 1721
(20 years, 116 days)
Ritratto di Clemente XI.jpg Clement XI
CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco Albani23 July 1649 Urbino, Marche, Papal States51 / 71Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. The Chinese Rites controversy. Patronized the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs and made the feast of the Immaculate Conception universal. The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue) in Florence. [14] [37]
244
C o a Innocenzo XIII.svg
8 May 1721
7 March 1724
(2 years, 304 days)
InnocientXIII.jpg Innocent XIII
INNOCENTIVS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo dei Conti 13 May 1655 Poli, Lazio, Papal States65 / 68Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China ordering that no new members should be received into the order. Issued the papal bull Apostolici Ministerii (1724) to revive ecclesiastical discipline in Spain.
245
C o a Benedetto XIII.svg
29 May 1724
21 February 1730
(5 years, 268 days)
Benedetto XIII.jpg Servant of God Benedict XIII
BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus
Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P. 2 February 1649 Gravina in Puglia, Bari, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Naples. Member of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called Benedict XIV due to the antipope but reverted to XIII. Repealed the worldwide tobacco smoking ban set by Urban VII and Urban VIII. During his pontificate James Bradley discovered the stellar aberration, proving the relative motion of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun.
246
C o a Clemente XII.svg
12 July 1730
6 February 1740
(9 years, 209 days)
Agostino Masucci - Portrait of Pope Clement XII, seated.jpg Clement XII
CLEMENS Duodecimus
Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S 7 April 1652 Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87Motto: Dabis discernere inter malum et bonum("You shall deign to distinguish between good and evil") [38]

Born as a subject of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In eminenti apostolatus (1738).

247
C o a Benedetto XIV.svg
17 August 1740
3 May 1758
(17 years, 259 days)
Benoit XIV.jpg Benedict XIV
BENEDICTVS Quartus Decimus
Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini31 March 1675 Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83Motto: Curabuntur omnes("All will be healed") [39]

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas; founded academies of art, religion and science. Authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue.

248
C o a Clemente XIII.svg
6 July 1758
2 February 1769
(10 years, 211 days)
Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-1779) - Portret van paus Clemens XIII (1758) - Bologna Pinacoteca Nazionale - 26-04-2012 9-53-03.jpg Clement XIII
CLEMENS Tertius Decimus
Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico7 March 1693 Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75Citizen of the Republic of Venice. Provided the famous fig leaves on nude male statues in the Vatican. Defended the Society of Jesus in "Apostolicum pascendi" (1765). During his pontificate (or at the end of his predecessor's pontificate), the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books, although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained.
249
C o a Clemente XIV.svg
19 May 1769
22 September 1774
(5 years, 126 days)
Clement XIV.jpg Clement XIV
CLEMENS Quartus Decimus
Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, O.F.M. Conv. 31 October 1705 Sant'
Arcangelo di Romagna
, Papal States
63 / 68Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Society of Jesus in the brief "Dominus ac Redemptor" (1773).
250
C o a Pio VI.svg
15 February 1775
29 August 1799
(24 years, 195 days)
Pompeo Batoni - Ritratto di Papa Pio VI (National Gallery of Ireland).jpg Pius VI
PIVS Sextus
Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi 25 December 1717 Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States57 / 81Motto: Floret in domo domini("It blossoms in the house of God") [40]

Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Condemned the French Revolution; expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death. The last pope to be a patron of Renaissance art.

During his pontificate, the astronomer William Herschel, studying the movement of stars, was the first to realize that the Solar System is moving in space, and determined the approximate direction of movement. Also discovered that the Milky Way (which in the late 18th century was believed to be the entire Universe) is flat, disk-shaped and with the Sun at its center (assertion discovered to be wrong decades later, because today it is known that the Sun is not located in the Galactic Center).

29 August 1799 –
14 March 1800
(197 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Six-month period without a valid pope elected. This was due to unique logistical problems (the old pope died a prisoner and the conclave was in Venice) and a deadlock among cardinals voting.

19th century

Popes of the 19th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
251
C o a Pio VII.svg
14 March 1800
20 August 1823
(23 years, 159 days)
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg Servant of God Pius VII
PIVS Septimus
Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, O.S.B. 14 August 1742 Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States57 / 81Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as emperor of the French. Expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
252
C o a Leone XII.svg
28 September 1823
10 February 1829
(5 years, 135 days)
Pope Leo XII.PNG Leo XII
LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga22 August 1760 Genga, Marche, Papal States63 / 68Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia (1824). Condemned the Bible societies.
253
C o a Pio VIII.svg
31 March 1829
30 November 1830
(1 year, 244 days)
Clemente Alberi - Ritratto di papa Pio VIII (c. 1830).jpg Pius VIII
PIVS Octavus
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni20 November 1761 Cingoli, Marche, Papal States67 / 69Subject and later the sovereign of the Papal States. Accepted Louis Philippe I as king of the French. Condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations in the brief Litteris altero (1830).
254
C o a Gregorio XVI.svg
2 February 1831
1 June 1846
(15 years, 119 days)
Gregory XVI.jpg Gregory XVI
GREGORIVS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B. Cam. 18 September 1765 Belluno, Veneto, Republic of Venice65 / 80Citizen of the Republic of Venice. Member of the Camaldolese; last non-bishop to be elected to the papacy. Politically opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States. Regarding scientific thinking, all traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the church disappeared in 1835 when the uncensored versions of Dialogue and De Revolutionibus were finally dropped from the Index.
255
Pio Nono.svg
16 June 1846
7 February 1878
(31 years, 236 days)
Popepiusix.jpg Bl. Pius IX
PIVS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, O.F.S. 13 May 1792 Senigallia, Marche, Papal States54 / 85Subject and later the last sovereign of the Papal States, becoming an Italian citizen. Opened the First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and defined papal infallibility. Issued the controversial Syllabus of Errors. Longest-serving pope since Peter (c. AD 30–64).

During his pontificate the Augustinian friar Gregor Mendel published the Experiments on Plant Hybridization and Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. At time no high-level Church pronouncement has ever attacked head-on the theory of evolution as applied to non-human species [41]

Even before the development of modern scientific method, Catholic theology had allowed for biblical text to be read as allegorical, rather than literal, where it appeared to contradict that which could be established by science or reason. Thus Catholicism has been able to refine its understanding of scripture in light of scientific discovery. [42] [43]

256
C o a Leone XIII.svg
20 February 1878
20 July 1903
(25 years, 150 days)
Papa Leone XIII (1898).jpg Leo XIII
LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, O.F.S. 2 March 1810 Carpineto Romano, Lazio, French Empire 67 / 93Motto: Lumen in coelo("Light in Heaven")
Born as a French citizen, of Italian ethnicity, later became a subject of the Papal States and finally an Italian citizen. Issued the encyclical Rerum novarum ; supported Christian democracy against Communism. Had the third-longest reign after Pius IX, and John Paul II. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars; first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix.

First Pope to be filmed by a motion picture camera and the first pope with voice recorded.

20th century

Popes of the 20th century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
257
Coat of arms of Pope Pius X.svg
4 August 1903
20 August 1914
(11 years, 16 days)
His Holiness Pope St. Pius X - edited.jpg St Pius X
PIVS Decimus
Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto2 June 1835 Riese, Treviso, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 68 / 79Motto: Instaurare Omnia in Christo("Restore all things in Christ")

Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, later became an Italian citizen. Encouraged and expanded reception of the Eucharist. Combatted Modernism; issued the oath against it. Advocated the Gregorian Chant and reformed the Roman Breviary.

258
CoA Benedetto XV.svg
3 September 1914
22 January 1922
(7 years, 141 days)
Benedictus XV, by Nicola Perscheid, 1915 (retouched).jpg Benedict XV
BENEDICTVS Quintus Decimus
Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista Della Chiesa21 November 1854 Pegli, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia 59 / 67Motto: In te, Domine, speravi: non confundar in aeternum.("In thee, o Lord, have I trusted: let me not be confounded for evermore.")

Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Sardinia, later became an Italian citizen. Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. Issued the 1917 Code of Canon Law; supported the missionaries in Maximum illud . Remembered by Benedict XVI as a "prophet of peace".

259
C o a Pio XI.svg
6 February 1922
10 February 1939
(17 years, 4 days)
Pius XI, by Nicola Perscheid (retouched).jpg Pius XI
PIVS Undecimus
Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti31 May 1857 Desio, Milan, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia64 / 81Motto: Pax Christi in Regno Christi("The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ")

Born as a subject of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, later became an Italian citizen. Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) establishing Vatican City as a sovereign state. Inaugurated Vatican Radio (1931). Re-founded the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (1936). Created the feast of Christ the King. Opposed Communism and Nazism.

260
Pius 12 coa.svg
2 March 1939
9 October 1958
(19 years, 221 days)
Pius XII with tabard, by Michael Pitcairn, 1951.png Ven. Pius XII
PIVS Duodecimus
Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli2 March 1876 Rome, Italy 63 / 82Motto: Opus Justitiae Pax("The work of justice [shall be] peace")

Italian citizen. Invoked papal infallibility in the encyclical Munificentissimus Deus ; defined the dogma of the Assumption. Eliminated the Italian majority of cardinals. Credited with intervening for peace during World War II; controversial for his reactions to the Holocaust. Published the Humani generis , the first encyclical to specifically refer to evolution and took up a neutral position, concentrating on human evolution:

"The Church does not forbid that ... research and discussions, on the part of men experienced in both fields, take place with regard to the doctrine of evolution, in as far as it inquires into the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter. [44] "

261
C o a John XXIII.svg
28 October 1958
3 June 1963
(4 years, 218 days)
Ioannes XXIII, by De Agostini, 1958-1963.jpg St John XXIII
IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli25 November 1881 Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Italy76 / 81Motto: Obedientia et Pax("Obedience and peace")

Italian citizen. Opened the Second Vatican Council; called "Good Pope John". Issued the encyclical Pacem in terris (1963) on peace and nuclear disarmament; intervened for peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).

262
Coat of Arms of Pope Paul VI.svg
21 June 1963
6 August 1978
(15 years, 46 days)
Paulus VI, by Fotografia Felici, 1969.jpg St Paul VI
PAVLVS Sextus
Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini26 September 1897 Concesio, Brescia, Italy65 / 80Motto: Cum Ipso in Monte("With Him on the mount")

Italian citizen. Last pope to be crowned. First pope since 1809 to travel outside Italy. Closed the Second Vatican Council. Issued the encyclical Humanae vitae (1968) condemning artificial contraception. Revised the Roman Missal (1969).

263
C o a John Paul I.svg
26 August 1978
28 September 1978
(33 days)
Ioannes Paulus I, by Fotografia Felici, 1978 (cropped).jpg Bl. John Paul I
IOANNES PAVLVS Primus
Albino Luciani17 October 1912 Forno di Canale, Belluno, Italy65 / 65Motto: Humilitas("Humility")

Italian citizen. Abolished the coronation and opted for the papal inauguration. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name; first with two names for two immediate predecessors. Last pope to use the sedia gestatoria.

264
John paul 2 coa.svg
16 October 1978
2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
Pope John Paul II smile.jpg St John Paul II
IOANNES PAVLVS Secundus
Karol Józef Wojtyła18 May 1920 Wadowice, Poland 58 / 84Motto: Totus Tuus ("Totally yours")

Polish citizen, first pope of Slavic origin. First non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522–1523). Travelled extensively, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. Second-longest reign after Pius IX. Founded World Youth Day (1984) and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (1994). Canonized more saints than all his predecessors. Youngest individual to start his papacy since Pius IX (1846).

3rd millennium

21st century

Popes of the 21st century
Pontiff
number
PontificatePortraitName: English
· Latin
Personal nameDate and Place of birthAge at start/
end of papacy
Notes
265
Coat of Arms of Benedictus XVI.svg
19 April 2005
28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
Benedicto XVI, 2011.jpg Benedict XVI
BENEDICTVS Sextus Decimus
Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger16 April 1927
Marktl, Bavaria, Germany
78 / 85 (†95)Motto: Cooperatores Veritatis("Cooperators of the truth")

German citizen. Oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. Authorized the creation of Anglican ordinariates (2009). First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294), [45] becoming pope emeritus. [46] Longest-lived pope on record. Died on 31 December 2022, in Vatican. [47]

266
Coat of arms of Franciscus.svg
13 March 2013
present
(11 years, 32 days)
Portrait of Pope Francis (2021).jpg Francis
FRANCISCVS
Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J. (1936-12-17) 17 December 1936 (age 87) Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina 76Motto: Miserando atque Eligendo("Lowly but chosen", literally 'by having mercy, by choosing him') [48]

Argentine citizen. First pope to be born outside Europe since Gregory III (731–741) and the first from the Americas; first pope from the Southern Hemisphere. First pope from a religious institute since Gregory XVI (1831–1846); first Jesuit pope. First to use a new and non-composed regnal name since Lando (913–914). First pope to visit and celebrate a mass on the Arabian Peninsula. [49]

Religious orders

51 popes and 6 antipopes (in italics) have been members of religious orders, including 12 members of third orders. They are listed by order as follows:

FamilyOrderNumberPercentagePopesTotalPercentage of all popes
Augustinians Order of Saint Augustine 1 Eugene IV 6
Canons Regular 4 Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Adrian IV
Premonstratense 1 Gregory VIII
Benedictines Order of Saint Benedict 22 Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, John XVI , Sylvester II, Sergius IV, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Adalbert , Gelasius II, Anacletus II , Callixtus III , Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, Pius VII 23
Camaldolese 1 Gregory XVI
Cistercians 2 Eugene III, Benedict XII 2
Dominicans 7 Innocent V, Benedict XI, Nicholas V, Pius V, Benedict XIII, Benedict XV 7
Franciscans Order of Friars Minor 5 Nicholas IV, Nicholas V , Alexander V , Sixtus IV, Julius II 17
Order of Friars Minor Conventual 2 Sixtus V, Clement XIV
Secular Franciscan Order 10 Gregory IX, Gregory X, Martin V, Innocent XII, Clement XII, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, Pius XI, John XXIII
Jesuits 1 Francis 1
Theatines 1 Paul IV 1
Total5757

Numbering of popes

Regnal numbers follow the usual convention for European monarchs. The first pope who chooses a unique name is not usually identified by an ordinal, John Paul I being the exception. Antipopes are treated as pretenders, and their numbers are reused by those considered to be legitimate popes. However, there are anomalies in the numbering of the popes. Several numbers were mistakenly increased in the Middle Ages because the records were misunderstood. Several antipopes were also kept in the sequence, either by mistake or because they were previously considered to be true popes. [50]

See also

Lists

Notes

  1. No longer inhabited; located in the present-day Golan Heights.
  2. Now Volterra, Italy.
  3. Roman citizenship was recognized to the rest of the Italians by the end of the Social War in 87 BC.
  4. 1 2 3 Now Athens, Greece.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Now Rome, Italy.
  6. Now Bethlehem, Palestine.
  7. 1 2 Now Aquileia, Italy.
  8. Now Homs, Syria.
  9. Nicopolis is now a Roman ruin near the city of Preveza, Greece.
  10. It is not clear when Pope Victor I was born, and where he was born, although some [9] suggest he was born in Leptis Magna, now a part of Libya.

Related Research Articles

An antipope is a person who claims to be Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church in opposition to the legitimately elected pope. Between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by factions within the Church itself and secular rulers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holy See</span> Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome

The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, Petrine See or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the pope in his role as the Bishop of Rome. It includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome, which has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the worldwide Catholic Church and sovereignty over the city-state known as the Vatican City. As the supreme body of government of the Catholic Church, the Holy See enjoys the status of a sovereign juridical entity under international law.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope</span> Visible head of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, Roman pontiff or sovereign pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, visible head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and has also served as the head of state or sovereign of the Papal States and later the Vatican City State since the eighth century. From a Catholic viewpoint, the primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, who gave Peter the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the Church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Gregory XII</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1406 to 1415

Pope Gregory XII, born Angelo Corraro, Corario, or Correr, was head of the Catholic Church from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415. Reigning during the Western Schism, he was opposed by the Avignon claimant Benedict XIII and the Pisan claimants Alexander V and John XXIII. Gregory XII wanted to unify the Church and voluntarily resigned in 1415 to end the schism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Sixtus I</span> Head of the Catholic Church from c. 115 to c. 124

Pope Sixtus I, also spelled Xystus, a Roman of Greek descent, was the bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death. He succeeded Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Telesphorus. His feast is celebrated on 6 April.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Gelasius II</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1118 to 1119

Pope Gelasius II, born Giovanni Caetani or Giovanni da Gaeta, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1118 to his death in 1119. A monk of Monte Cassino and chancellor of Pope Paschal II, Caetani was unanimously elected to succeed him. In doing so, he also inherited the conflict with Emperor Henry V over investiture. Gelasius spent a good part of his brief papacy in exile.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Papal States</span> Catholic state in Italy (756–1870)

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a conglomeration of territories on the Apennine Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope from 756 until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Unification of Italy, between 1859 and 1870.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Schism</span> Split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417

The Western Schism, also known as the Papal Schism, the Great Occidental Schism, or the Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which bishops residing in Rome and Avignon both claimed to be the true pope, and were joined by a third line of Pisan claimants in 1409. The schism was driven by personalities and political allegiances, with the Avignon Papacy being closely associated with the French monarchy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monsignor</span> Honorific form of address for certain Catholic clergy

Monsignor is a form of address or title for certain members of the clergy in the Catholic Church. Monsignor is the apocopic form of the Italian monsignore, meaning "my lord". "Monsignor" can be abbreviated as Mons. or Msgr. In some countries, the title "monsignor" is used as a form of address for bishops. However, in English-speaking countries, the title is unrelated to the episcopacy, though many priests with the title later become bishops.

A papal renunciation also called a papal abdication, occurs when the current pope of the Catholic Church voluntarily resigns his position. As a pope's time in office has conventionally lasted from his election until his death, a papal renunciation is an uncommon event. Before the 21st century, only five popes unambiguously resigned with historical certainty, all between the 10th and 15th centuries. Additionally, there are disputed claims of four popes having resigned, dating from the 3rd to the 11th centuries; a fifth disputed case may have involved an antipope.

Vicar of Christ is a term used in different ways and with different theological connotations throughout history. The original notion of a vicar is as an "earthly representative of Christ", but it's also used in the sense of "person acting as parish priest in place of a real person." The title is now used in Catholicism to refer to the bishops, and more specifically, was historically used to refer to the Bishop of Rome.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antipope Benedict XIII</span> Antipope from 1394 to 1423

Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor, known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman who, as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope by the Catholic Church.

<i>Annuario Pontificio</i> Catholic Holy See annual directory

The Annuario Pontificio is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church. It lists the popes in chronological order and all officials of the Holy See's departments. It also provides names and contact information for all cardinals and bishops, the dioceses, the departments of the Roman Curia, the Holy See's diplomatic missions abroad, the embassies accredited to the Holy See, the headquarters of religious institutes, certain academic institutions, and other similar information. The index includes, along with all the names in the body of the book, those of all priests who have been granted the title of "Monsignor".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the papacy</span> History of the office held by the pope as head of the Catholic Church

According to Roman Catholicism, the history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Catholic Church, spans from the time of Peter to the present day.

The Prefecture of the Papal Household is the office in charge of the Papal Household, a section of the Roman Curia that comprises the Papal Chapel and the Papal Family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diocese of Rome</span> Diocese of the Catholic Church in Rome, Italy

The Diocese of Rome, also called the Vicariate of Rome, is a Latin diocese of the Catholic Church under the direct jurisdiction of the Pope, who is Bishop of Rome and hence the supreme pontiff and head of the worldwide Catholic Church. As the Holy See, the papacy is a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations, and civil jurisdiction over the Vatican City State located geographically within Rome. The Diocese of Rome is the metropolitan diocese of the province of Rome, an ecclesiastical province in Italy. According to Catholic tradition, the first bishop of Rome was Saint Peter in the first century. The incumbent since 13 March 2013 is Pope Francis.

The numbering of "Popes John" does not occur in strict numerical order. Although there have been twenty-one legitimate popes named John, the numbering has reached XXIII because of two clerical errors that were introduced in the Middle Ages: first, antipope John XVI was kept in the numbering sequence instead of being removed; then, the number XX was skipped because Pope John XXI counted John XIV twice.

References

  1. Annuario Pontificio (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN   978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12
  2. "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 5 June 2001. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2008.