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Ubi periculum[ pronunciation? ] is a papal bull promulgated by Pope Gregory X during the Second Council of Lyon on 7 July 1274 that established the papal conclave format as the method for selecting a pope, specifically the confinement and isolation of the cardinals in conditions designed to speed them to reach a broad consensus. Its title, as is traditional for such documents, is taken from the opening words of the original Latin text, Ubi periculum maius intenditur, 'Where greater danger lies'. Its adoption was supported by the hundreds of bishops at that council over the objections of the cardinals. The regulations were formulated in response to the tactics used against the cardinals by the magistrates of Viterbo during the protracted papal election of 1268–1271, which took almost three years to elect Gregory X. In requiring that the cardinals meet in isolation, Gregory was not innovating but implementing a practice that the cardinals had either adopted on their own initiative or had forced upon them by civil authorities. After later popes suspended the rules of Ubi periculum and several were elected in traditional elections rather than conclaves, Pope Boniface VIII incorporated Ubi periculum into canon law in 1298.
The goal of Ubi periculum was to limit dilatory tactics and distractions within papal elections, and outside intrusions which might impinge upon the freedom of the electors; it was certainly intended to produce faster outcomes, and, by making the rules more explicit and detailed, to reduce the chances of schism and disputed elections. The imposition of monastic-style modes of living inside the conclave may also have been intended to lift the minds of the electors out of the everyday business of governing the church, and focus their attention on the spiritual importance of their activity.
At five of the nine papal elections that were held between 1198 and 1271, inclusive, the participating cardinals had worked in isolation under physical constraints that they chose or had forced on them.In 1198 they sequestered themselves with the rationale that they needed "to be free and safe in their deliberations". In 1241, Rome was under siege and civic officials isolated the cardinals to force the prompt election of a pope who could negotiate with the city's attackers. For the three elections where the cardinals were sequestered in Rome, they used the same location, the Septizodium, as if the practice were becoming traditional. At the most recent, lengthy election in Viterbo, the local authorities had not held the cardinals incommunicado, but had restricted their movements and controlled their access to food. In other respects the procedures established by Ubi periculum appear to have derived from the election procedures of the Dominican constitution of 1228 as well as the communes of Venice (1229) and Piacenza (1233).
Gregory first required that procedures already established be maintained, citing specifically those of Alexander III, which meant that election requires the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals present.In Ubi periculum Gregory specified further that:
The first election following Ubi periculum observed its rules and took only one day, 20-21 January 1276, to elect Innocent V.The application of Ubi periculum, however, was suspended by his successor Pope Adrian V in consultation with the cardinals in order to make adjustments based on the conclave of January 1276, an effort that ended with Adrian's death just thirty-nine days after his election. His successor John XXI revoked Ubi periculum on 20 September 1276, announced he would issue a substitute set of regulations, but failed to do so before his death in May 1277. The elections–not proper conclaves–of 1277, 1280–1281, 1287–1288, and 1292–1294 were long and drawn out, lasting 7, 6, 11, and 27 months respectively. Pope Celestine V, a Benedictine monk who had not been a cardinal, reinstituted the rules of ubi periculum. Unlike most of his predecessors, he was free to act independently rather than court the support of the cardinals. He was elected in July 1294, reintroduced the rules in September, and abdicated in December. Pope Benedict XI, elected in 1303 at the second conclave to follow Celestine's withdrawal, documented how the conclave that elected him followed Ubi periculum precisely.
In 1311 Pope Clement V reaffirmed the rules of Ubi periculum in Ne Romani. He reiterated that the power of the College remained strictly limited during an interregnum and authorized local diocesan authorities in whose jurisdiction a conclave met to force the cardinals to adhere to conclave procedures.
Pope Celestine IV, born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year after a short reign of sixteen days.
Pope Gregory X, born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order. He was elected at the conclusion of a papal election that ran from 1268 to 1271, the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church.
Pope Nicholas III, born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.
The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, and each excommunicated one another. Driven by authoritative politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office.
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope. The Pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter and earthly head of the Catholic Church.
The papal election of 1268–71, following the death of Pope Clement IV, was the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church. This was due primarily to political infighting between the cardinals. The election of Teobaldo Visconti as Pope Gregory X was the first example of a papal election by "compromise", that is, by the appointment of a committee of six cardinals agreed to by the other remaining ten. The election occurred more than a year after the magistrates of Viterbo locked the cardinals in, reduced their rations to bread and water, and removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo.
The papal election of 1277, convened in Viterbo after the death of Pope John XXI, was the smallest papal election since the expansion of suffrage to cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons, with only seven cardinal electors. Because John XXI had revoked Ubi periculum, the papal bull of Pope Gregory X establishing the papal conclave, with his own bull Licet felicis recordationis, the cardinal electors were able to take their time. After six months of deliberation, the cardinals eventually elected their most senior member Giovanni Gaetano Orsini as Pope Nicholas III. From the end of the election until Nicholas III's first consistory on March 12, 1278, the number of living cardinals—seven—was the lowest in the history of the Roman Catholic Church.
Vicedomino de Vicedominis was an Italian cardinal.
The papal election of 1285, convened in Viterbo after the death of Pope Martin IV, elected Cardinal Giacomo Savelli, who took the name of Honorius IV. Because of the suspension of the Constitution Ubi periculum by Adrian V in 1276, this election was technically, perhaps, not a papal conclave. In fact, for the first time since the tedious Election of 1268–1271, the meetings were dominated neither by the Hohenstaufen nor Charles I of Naples. It may even be that the cardinals proceeded so swiftly to an election with the intention of forestalling any intervention from Naples.
The papal conclave of January 1276, was the first papal election held under the rules of constitution Ubi periculum issued by Pope Gregory X in 1274, which established papal conclaves. According to Ubi periculum Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area; they were not even accorded separate rooms. No cardinal was allowed to be attended by more than one servant unless ill. Food was to be supplied through a window; after three days of the meeting, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue. These provisions were regularly disregarded, at the discretion of the cardinals, particularly the requirement of being incommunicado.
Bertrand de Saint-Martin was a French cardinal.
The papal election of 1292–94, was the last papal election which did not take the form of a papal conclave. After the death of Pope Nicholas IV on 4 April 1292, the eleven surviving cardinals deliberated for more than two years before electing the third of six non-cardinals to be elected pope during the Late Middle Ages: Pietro da Morrone, who took the name Pope Celestine V.
The papal election of September 1276 is the only papal election to be the third election of the same year. The election was also the first non-conclave, since the establishment of the papal conclave after the papal election, 1268–1271.
The papal election of 1241 saw the election of Cardinal Goffredo da Castiglione as Pope Celestine IV. The election took place during the first of many protracted sede vacantes of the Middle Ages, and like many of them was characterized by disputes between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor. Specifically, the election took place during the war between Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and the Lombard League and deceased pontiff, Pope Gregory IX, with Italy divided between pro-Papal and pro-Imperial factions known as the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
The papal conclave of 1294 was convoked in Naples after the resignation of Pope Celestine V on 13 December 1294. Celestine V had only months earlier restored the election procedures set forth in the papal bull Ubi periculum of Pope Gregory X, which had been suspended by Pope Adrian V in July 1276. Every papal election since then has been a papal conclave. It was the first papal conclave held during the lifetime of the preceding pontiff, an event not repeated until the papal conclave of 2013 following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI.
The papal conclave of 1314–16, held in the apostolic palace of Carpentras and then the Dominican house in Lyon, was one of the longest conclaves in the history of the Roman Catholic Church and the first conclave of the Avignon Papacy. The length of the conclave was due to the division of the cardinals into three factions: Italian, Gascon, and French/Provençal.
The papal election of 1280–81 elected Simon de Brion, who took the name Pope Martin IV, as the successor to Pope Nicholas III.
Uberto Coconati, a Roman Catholic Cardinal, was born at Asti in the Piedmont region of Italy, a member of the family of the Counts of Cocconato, who were vassals of the Marchese di Monferrato. Thierry de Vaucouleurs calls him "Lombardus nomine, stirpe potens". Uberto had a brother named Manuel (Emmanuele). Two of his relatives became Bishop of Asti. He was not connected with the d'Elci of Siena.
Simone Paltanieri, son of Pesce Paltanieri, member of a distinguished family, was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.
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