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In 1983 the Catholic Church introduced the possibility of entrusting the pastoral care, of one or more parishes to a team of priests in solidum. This provision in the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which resembles ancient models of pastoral care in the Roman titular churches with their colleges of priests, was introduced to help resolve some of the difficulties facing many dioceses. These difficulties include shortages of priests, overpopulated urban parishes, depleted and scattered rural parishes, and decline in attendance at Mass. This model of pastoral care is viewed as a practical way of promoting pastoral co-responsibility, as well as fostering a greater sense of the presbyterium among the priests of a diocese.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.
Pastoral care is an ancient model of emotional, social and spiritual support that can be found in all cultures and traditions. The term is considered inclusive of distinctly non-religious forms of support as well as of those from religious communities.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
Canon 517 § 1 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, provides a generic norm for constituting a team of priests to look after one or more parishes; ubi adiuncta id requirant (when circumstances require it), which concedes flexibility to the diocesan bishop in organising the structures for pastoral care within his diocese: "When circumstances require it, the pastoral care of a parish or of different parishes together can be entrusted to several priests in solidum, with the requirement, however, that in exercising pastoral care one of them must be the moderator, namely, the one who is to direct the joint action and to answer for it to the bishop." However, the Codifying Commission responsible for drafting the canons on in solidum pastoral care expressed that it should be considered an "exceptional" provision.
A diocesan bishop, within various Christian traditions, is a bishop or archbishop in pastoral charge of a diocese or archdiocese.
Commentators acknowledge that there is confusion regarding the ecclesiastical office conferred upon the team of priests in solidum. The law entrusts the cura pastoralis (pastoral care) to each member of the team of priests equally. However, the team of priests is not a juridical person. The team is made up of single priests who assume pastoral care simultaneously or conjointly, and are obligated to the majority of duties proper to a parish priest.
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity. This includes any incorporated organizations including corporations, government agencies, and NGOs. Also known as artificial person, juridical entity, juridic person, juristic person, or legal person.
It is generally agreed that a single parochial office for the pastoral care of the entrusted parish or parishes is conferred upon all priests in the team. However, the modus procendi (way of proceeding) for exercising the office is only grasped when the juridical principle in solidum is understood. The legal term originates in the Roman law of Obligations; where entering into an in solidum agreement involved a high degree of risk. For if one creditor had received all that was due, or one debtor had paid all, there was no subsequent right of contribution by the others.
The law of obligations is one branch of private law under the civil law legal system and so-called "mixed" legal systems. It is the body of rules that organizes and regulates the rights and duties arising between individuals. The specific rights and duties are referred to as obligations, and this area of law deals with their creation, effects and extinction.
Diverse juridical methods were developed as a means of avoiding personal loss from entering into in solidum agreements. Amongst these was the forming of societates (societies) or partnerships which were created by mutual consent and characterised by a binding commitment to fraternitas (fraternity) and established prior to entering into in solidum agreements. The eminent canonist, Eugenio Corecco has suggested that in solidum in the context of parochial care, analogously reflects the diverse but still collective responsibility of all the members of the presbyterium of a particular Church.
Eugenio Corecco was a Swiss bishop of the diocese of Lugano. He was a notable 20th century canonist who wrote about the theology of canon law.
When establishing a team of priests in solidum, the diocesan bishop must outline the rights and specific duties of the moderator. The focal point of the moderator's authority within the team of priests is to guarantee that the faithful are assisted by their pastors from the spiritual riches of the Church, especially the word of God and the Sacraments.
The principal role of the moderator is directing the team's common action, holding responsibility for that common action before the diocesan bishop, and directing the exercise of faculties held by all of the team members.The moderator is also entrusted with the juridical representation of the parish or parishes. However, this does not automatically entitle him the administrator of parochial goods, and hence the necessity of a provision of particular law. His relationship to the parochial pastoral and finance councils should also be established in particular law.
The diocesan bishop needs to determine what particular qualities are required for this parochial office. It is strongly recommended that the bishop establish with the team, a division of pastoral tasks in a common plan, which should be outlined in each priest's decree of appointment. Questions surrounding the obligation of Residence and Community life also need to be clarified,as well consideration of the in solidum obligation to celebrate the missa pro populo.
Finally, the cessation from ecclesiastical office by any one member of the group in solidum does not render the parochial office vacant.
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, and who operates from a parish church. Historically, a parish often covered the same geographical area as a manor. Its association with the parish church remains paramount.
A vicar is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior. Linguistically, vicar is cognate with the English prefix "vice", similarly meaning "deputy". The title appears in a number of Christian ecclesiastical contexts, but also as an administrative title, or title modifier, in the Roman Empire. In addition, in the Holy Roman Empire a local representative of the emperor, perhaps an archduke, might be styled "vicar".
A curate is a person who is invested with the care or cure (cura) of souls of a parish. In this sense, "curate" correctly means a parish priest; but in English-speaking countries the term curate is commonly used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy.
A pastoral council is a consultative body in dioceses and parishes of the Roman Catholic Church that serves to advise the parish priest or bishop about pastoral issues. The council's main purpose is to investigate, reflect and reach conclusions about pastoral matters to recommend to the parish priest or bishop as appropriate.
Personal prelature is a canonical structure of the Catholic Church which comprises a prelate, clergy and laity who undertake specific pastoral activities. The first personal prelature is Opus Dei. Personal prelatures, similar to dioceses and military ordinariates, are under the governance of the Vatican's Congregation for Bishops. These three types of ecclesiastical structures are composed of lay people served by their own secular clergy and prelate. Unlike dioceses which cover territories, personal prelatures—like military ordinariates—take charge of persons as regards some objectives regardless of where they live.
An auxiliary bishop is a bishop assigned to assist the diocesan bishop in meeting the pastoral and administrative needs of the diocese. Auxiliary bishops can also be titular bishops of sees that no longer exist.
The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons. In the ecclesiological sense of the term, "hierarchy" strictly means the "holy ordering" of the Church, the Body of Christ, so to respect the diversity of gifts and ministries necessary for genuine unity.
A deanery is an ecclesiastical entity in the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Evangelical Church in Germany, and the Church of Norway. A deanery is either the jurisdiction or residence of a dean.
In English ecclesiastical law, the term incumbent refers to the holder of a Church of England parochial charge or benefice. The term "benefice" originally denoted a grant of land for life in return for services. In church law, the duties were spiritual ("spiritualities") and some form of assets to generate revenue were permanently linked to the duties to ensure the support of the office holder. Historically, once in possession of the benefice, the holder had lifelong tenure unless he failed to provide the required minimum of spiritual services or committed a moral offence. With the passing of the Pastoral Measure 1968 and subsequent legislation, this no longer applies, and many ancient benefices have been joined together into a single new one.
The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" commonly refers to the office of ordained clergy: the threefold order of bishops, priests and deacons. More accurately, Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, either individually or in lower/assisting offices such as lector, acolyte, sub-deacon, Eucharistic minister, cantor, musicians, parish secretary or assistant, warden, vestry member, etc. Ultimately, all baptized members of the church are considered to partake in the ministry of the Body of Christ. "...[I]t might be useful if Anglicans dropped the word minister when referring to the clergy...In our tradition, ordained persons are either bishops, priests, or deacons, and should be referred to as such."
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In the Roman Catholic Church, a parish is a stable community of the faithful within a particular church, whose pastoral care has been entrusted to a parish priest, under the authority of the diocesan bishop. It is the lowest ecclesiastical subdivision in the Catholic episcopal polity, and the primary constituent unit of a diocese. In the 1983 Code of Canon Law, parishes are constituted under cc. 515–552, entitled "Parishes, Pastors, and Parochial Vicars."
In the canon law of the Catholic Church, an oratory is a place which is set aside by permission of an ordinary for divine worship, for the convenience of some community or group of the faithful who assemble there, but to which other members of the faithful may have access with the consent of the competent superior. The word "oratory" comes from the Latin verb orare, to pray.
In the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, an administrator of ecclesiastical property is anyone charged with the care of church property.
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Precedence signifies the right to enjoy a prerogative of honor before other persons; for example, to have the most distinguished place in a procession, a ceremony, or an assembly, to have the right to express an opinion, cast a vote, or append a signature before others, to perform the most honorable offices.
A moderator of the curia, under the authority of the bishop of a diocese in the Catholic Church, coordinates the exercise of the administrative duties and oversees those who hold offices and minister in diocesan administration. He must be a priest. The office has been variously described as equivalent to a chief operating officer (COO). Although the office was first included in the 1983 Code of Canon Law, the concept is much older.
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Oscar Sarlinga is an Argentinian bishop, born in Buenos Aires city on May 20, 1963. He did his primary studies at Nuestra Señora de Luján School, in San Andrés de Giles, and secondaries in Fray Mamerto Esquiu School, in that same city. He has also a degree in French Language Studies at the Alliance Française of Buenos Aires, Italian Language and Literature from Dante Alighieri Academy and several other languages.