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The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use. These celebrations are a fixed annual date; or occur on a particular day of the week (examples are the Baptism of the Lord in January and the Feast of Christ the King in November); or relate to the date of Easter (examples are the celebrations of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary). National and diocesan liturgical calendars, including that of the diocese of Rome itself as well as the calendars of religious institutes and even of continents, add other saints and mysteries or transfer the celebration of a particular saint or mystery from the date assigned in the General Calendar to another date.
These liturgical calendars also indicate the degree or rank of each celebration: Memorial (which can be merely optional), Feast, or Solemnity. Among other differences, the Gloria is said or sung at the Mass of a Feast but not at that of a Memorial, and the Creed is added on Solemnities.
The last general revision of the General Roman Calendar was in 1969 and was authorized by the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis of Pope Paul VI. The motu proprio and the decree of promulgation were included in the book Calendarium Romanum, published in the same year by Libreria Editrice Vaticana.This contained also the official document Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, and the list of celebrations of the General Roman Calendar. Both these documents are also printed (in their present revised form) in the Roman Missal , after the General Instruction of the Roman Missal . The 1969 book also provided a detailed unofficial commentary on that year's revision of the calendar.
The contents of the General Roman Calendar and the names in English of the celebrations included in it are here indicated in the official English version of the Roman Missal.
The General Roman Calendar assigns celebrations of saints to only about half the days of the year, and contains only a fraction of the saints listed in the 776-page volume Roman Martyrology , which itself is not an exhaustive list of all the saints legitimately venerated in the Catholic Church. The Martyrology assigns several saints to each day of the year and gives a very brief description of each saint or group of saints.
While canonization involves the addition of the saint's name to the Roman Martyrology, it does not necessarily involve insertion of the saint's name also into the General Roman Calendar, which mentions only a very limited selection of canonized saints. There is a common misconception that certain saints, e.g., Saint Christopher, were "unsainted" in 1969 or that veneration of them was "suppressed". In fact, Saint Christopher is recognized as a saint of the Catholic Church, being listed as a martyr in the Roman Martyrology under 25 July.In 1969, Pope Paul VI issued the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis. In it, he recognized that, while the written Acts of Saint Christopher are merely legendary, attestations to veneration of the martyr date from ancient times. His change in the calendar of saints included "leaving the memorial of Saint Christopher to local calendars" because of the relatively late date of its insertion into the Roman calendar.
Many sources give calendars that mention one or more saints for each day of the year, usually selected from those listed in the Roman Martyrology. One example is "Saints by Day". They mention the saints of the General Roman Calendar, but they also give names of saints not included in the General Roman Calendar, especially on a day to which the General Roman Calendar assigns no celebration whatever of a saint.
The General Calendar is printed, for instance, in the Roman Missaland the Liturgy of the Hours. These are up to date when printed, but additional feasts may be added later. For that reason, if those celebrating the liturgy have not inserted into the books a note about the changes, they must consult the current annual publication, known as the "Ordo", for their country or religious congregation. These annual publications, like those that, disregarding the feasts that are obligatory in the actual church where the liturgy is celebrated, list only celebrations included in the General Calendar, are useful only for the current year, since they omit celebrations impeded because of falling on a Sunday or during periods such as Holy Week and the Octave of Easter.
The feast days of saints celebrated in one country are not necessarily celebrated everywhere. For example, a diocese or a country may celebrate the feast day of a saint of special importance there (e.g., St. Patrick in Ireland, Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton in the United States). Likewise, a particular religious institute may celebrate its founder or members of the institute, even if that saint is not listed on the universal calendar or is included in it only with a lower rank. The General Roman Calendar contains only those celebrations that are intended to be observed in the Roman Rite in every country of the world.
This distinction is in application of the decision of the Second Vatican Council: "Lest the feasts of the saints should take precedence over the feasts which commemorate the very mysteries of salvation, many of them should be left to be celebrated by a particular Church or nation or family of religious; only those should be extended to the universal Church which commemorate saints who are truly of universal importance."
In the liturgical books, the document General Roman Calendar (which lists not only fixed celebrations, but also some moveable ones) is printed immediately after the document Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar,which states that "throughout the course of the year the Church unfolds the entire mystery of Christ and observes the birthdays of the Saints". The birth of a saint to heaven is as a rule celebrated on a fixed day of the year (although sometimes they may be moved either to or from a Sunday), but the mysteries of Christ are often celebrated on dates that always vary from year to year. The Church's year combines two cycles of liturgical celebrations. One has been called the Proper of Time or Temporale, associated with the moveable date of Easter and the fixed date of Christmas. The other is associated with fixed calendar dates and has been called the Proper of Saints or Sanctorale. The General Roman Calendar includes celebrations that belong to the Proper of Time or Temporale and is not limited to those that make up the Proper of Saints or Sanctorale. An instance where two observances occur on the same date is called an occurrence.
The document on the liturgical year and the calendar includes among "liturgical days":
Under the title "The Cycle of the Year" the same document arranges under seven headings the Church's celebration of "the whole mystery of Christ, from the Incarnation to Pentecost Day and the days of waiting for the Advent of the Lord":
Some celebrations listed in the General Roman Calendar are transferred to another date, as explained below.
For the pastoral advantage of the people, it is permissible to observe on the Sundays in Ordinary Time those celebrations that fall during the week and have special appeal to the devotion of the faithful, provided the celebrations take precedence over these Sundays in the Table of Liturgical Days.
Solemnities that fall on certain Sundays or on days within Holy Week or the Octave of Easter are transferred to the next day that is free for them, and special rules govern the transfer of the Solemnities of Saint Joseph and of the Annunciation of the Lord.
Variations from the following list of celebrations in the General Calendar shall be indicated not here but, below, under the heading "National calendars".
Each institute of consecrated life (religious institute or secular institute) also has its own calendar, with variations from the General Calendar.
Includes the Discalced Augustinians and the Augustinian Recollects
According to the Calendar of the Benedictine Confederation (additional feasts may vary among congregations or even among monasteries within a congregation):
Besides the celebrations listed in the Common Franciscan Calendar, the Capuchin Proper Calendar is as follows:
Includes the Congregation of the Missions and the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul
Only variations from the General Roman Calendar for celebrations according to the Roman Rite are given here. The various Eastern Catholic Churches have completely different liturgical calendars, as do Latin Rite Catholics who use the Ambrosian and Mozarabic Rites.
According to the national calendar of Argentina, as requested by the Argentine Episcopal Conference (CEA) and approved by the Holy See:
See Liturgy Brisbane
The Episcopal Conferences of Austria, Germany, and Switzerland share one regional proper calendar, although each country remains free to insert additional celebrations (Austria, for example, has inscribed the optional memorial of Blessed Charles of Austria for its territory on 21 October).
From Das Stundenbuch Online
According to the national calendar of Canada, as requested by the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops (CCCB) and approved by the Holy See:
According to the national calendar of Chile, as requested by the Episcopal Conference of Chile (CECh) and approved by the Holy See:
From the website of the Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference
According to the national calendar of England,as requested by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales and approved by the Holy See:
From the website of the Catholic Church in Finland
According to the Calendrier propre à la France
According to the national calendar of Ireland,as drawn up by the Irish Catholic Bishops' Conference and approved by the Holy See:
The dioceses within Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia constitute one Episcopal Conference, and so share one regional proper calendar.
From the website of the Catholic Church in Norway
As by the Secretariado Nacional de Liturgia (National Secretariat of Liturgy):
According to the proper calendar of Puerto Rico, as requested by the Puerto Rican Episcopal Conference and approved by the Holy See:
According to the national calendar of Scotland, as requested by the Bishops' Conference of Scotland and approved by the Holy See:
From the website of the Diocese of Stockholm
According to the national calendar of the United States,as requested by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) and approved by the Holy See:
In addition to the national calendar of the United States, the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter contains a number of saints from the British Isles in its liturgical calendar;this calendar now supplants the former one used by Anglican Use Catholics in the United States: prior to 2015.
According to the national calendar of Wales,as requested by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales and approved by the Holy See:
The calendar for a diocese is typically based on a national calendar, such as those listed above, with a few additions. For instance, the anniversary of the dedication of the cathedral is celebrated as a Solemnity in the cathedral church and as a Feast in all the other churches of the diocese. The feast day of the principal Patron saint of the diocese is celebrated as a Feast throughout the diocese.
The calendar of a parish is based on the calendar of its diocese, but—in addition to the celebrations in the diocesan calendar—there are other celebrations, including the anniversary of the dedication of the parish church and the feast day of the principal Patron saint of the church, both of which are celebrated as Solemnities.
A solemnity is, in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Rite, a feast day of the highest rank celebrating a mystery of faith such as the Trinity, an event in the life of Jesus, his mother Mary, or another important saint. The observance begins with the vigil on the evening before the actual date of the feast. Unlike feast days of the rank of feast or those of the rank of memorial, solemnities replace the celebration of Sundays outside Advent, Lent, and Easter.
The calendar of saints is the traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typically a celebratory one", but instead "an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint".
In the Catholic Church, holy days of obligation are days on which the faithful are expected to attend Mass, and engage in rest from work and recreation, according to the Third Commandment.
The Society of Mary is an Anglican devotional society dedicated to and under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary. As its website states, it is a group of Anglican Christians "dedicated to the Glory of God and the Holy Incarnation of Christ under the invocation of Our Lady, Help of Christians." The Anglican Society of Mary is not to be confused with the two Roman Catholic religious orders of the same name commonly called the Marists and the Marianists.
This article lists the feast days of the General Roman Calendar as they were at the end of 1954. It is essentially the same calendar established by Pope Pius X (1903–1914) following his liturgical reforms, but it also incorporates changes that were made by Pope Pius XI (1922–1939), such as the institution of the Feast of Christ the King, and the changes made by Pope Pius XII (1939–1958) prior to 1955, chief among them the imposition of the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary upon the universal Church in 1944, the inscription of Pius X into the General Calendar following his 1954 canonization, and the institution of the Feast of the Queenship of Mary in October 1954.
The Church of England commemorates many of the same saints as those in the General Roman Calendar, mostly on the same days, but also commemorates various notable Christians who have not been canonised by Rome, with a particular though not exclusive emphasis on those of English origin. There are differences in the calendars of other churches of the Anglican Communion.
Prior to the revision of the Anglican Church of Canada's (ACC) Book of Common Prayer (BCP) in 1962, the national church followed the liturgical calendar of the 1918 Canadian Book of Common Prayer. Throughout most of the twentieth century, the situation in Canada resembled that which pertained in much of the Anglican Communion: There was uncertainty as to whether post-Reformation figures could or should be commemorated. In the words of the calendar's introduction, "New names have been added from the ancient calendars, and also from the history of the Anglican Communion, without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as saints of the Church." The 1962 revision added twenty-six post-Reformation individuals, as well as commemorations of the first General Synod and of "The Founders, Benefactors, and Missionaries of the Church in Canada." Of the calendar days, twenty-eight were highlighted as "red-letter days" — that is, days of required observation.
The calendar of saints and commemorations in the Church of the Province of Melanesia is a continually developing list. Both old and new, universal and local saints and worthies are celebrated.
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith. The usage of the term "saint" is similar to Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Episcopalians believe in the communion of saints in prayer and as such the Episcopal liturgical calendar accommodates feasts for saints.
The calendar of the Anglican Church of Australia follows Anglican tradition with the addition of significant people and events in the church in Australia.
The calendar of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa is published in An Anglican Prayer Book 1989.
This article lists the feast days of the General Roman Calendar as approved on 25 July 1960 by Pope John XXIII's motu proprioRubricarum instructum and promulgated by the Sacred Congregation of Rites the following day, 26 July 1960, by the decree Novum rubricarum. This 1960 calendar was incorporated into the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, continued use of which Pope Benedict XVI authorized in the circumstances indicated in his 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum.
The Tridentine Calendar is the calendar of saints to be honoured in the course of the liturgical year in the official liturgy of the Roman Rite as reformed by Pope Pius V, implementing a decision of the Council of Trent, which entrusted the task to the Pope.
Marian feast days are specific holy days of the liturgical year recognized by Christians as significant Marian days for the celebration of events in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary and her veneration. The number of Marian feasts celebrated, their names can vary among Christian denominations.
In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, days throughout the liturgical year are given varying ranks. These ranks determine which Mass takes precedence when two liturgical days coincide on the same day, as well as when a feast falls on a Sunday or certain other, higher-ranking days. In addition, higher-ranking liturgical days are also privileged by certain liturgical elements: for instance, the Mass of a solemnity will include recitation or singing of the Gloria in Excelsis and the Credo, while that of a feast will have the Gloria but not the Credo, whereas a memorial will have neither.
Mysterii Paschalis is an apostolic letter issued motu proprio by Pope Paul VI on 14 February 1969. It reorganized the liturgical year of the Roman Rite and revised the liturgical celebrations of Jesus Christ and the saints in the General Roman Calendar.
The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham in England and Wales is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church immediately subject to the Holy See within the territory of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, of which its ordinary is a member, and encompassing Scotland also. It was established on 15 January 2011 for groups of former Anglicans in England and Wales in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of Pope Benedict XVI.
The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church—a jurisdiction within the Church, the equivalent of a diocese, for priests and laypeople from an Anglican background, that enables them to retain elements of their Anglican patrimony after entering the Catholic Church. Its territory extends over the United States and Canada. Former Methodists and former members of communions of "Anglican heritage" such as the United Church of Canada are also included.
The calendar of saints of the Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil follows the tradition of The Episcopal Church (TEC), from whom it was a missionary district until 1965. TEC's calendar of saints, in turn, has its origins in the calendar of the Church of England and in the General Roman Calendar. As such, IEAB commemorates many of the figures present in the Roman Calendar, most of them on the same dates, but it also commemorates various notable Post-Reformation uncanonized Christians, especially those of Brazilian origin.
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