The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church(also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia) is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States designed to serve the Catholic Church. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and later supplementary volumes. It was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine".
The Catholic Encyclopedia was published by the Robert Appleton Company (RAC), a publishing company incorporated at New York in February 1905 for the express purpose of publishing the encyclopedia. The five members of the encyclopedia's Editorial Board also served as the directors of the company. In 1912, the company's name was changed to The Encyclopedia Press. Publication of the encyclopedia's volumes was the sole business conducted by the company during the project's lifetime.
The encyclopedia was designed to serve the Catholic Church, concentrating on information related to the Church and explaining matters from the Catholic point of view. It records the accomplishments of Catholics and others in nearly all intellectual and professional pursuits, including artists, educators, poets and scientists. While more limited in focus than other general encyclopedias, it was far broader in scope than previous efforts at comprehensive Catholic encyclopedias, which covered only internal Church affairs.
It offers in-depth portrayals of historical and philosophical ideas, persons and events, from a Catholic perspective, including issues that divide Catholicism from Protestantism and other faith communities. Since the encyclopedia was first published starting in 1907 and has never been updated (versus the New Catholic Encyclopedia ), many of its entries may be out of date either with respect to the wider culture or to the Catholic ecclesiastical world. In particular, it predates the creation of the Vatican City State (1929) and the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), which introduced changes to Catholic practice.
The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11, 1905, under the supervision of five editors:
The first edition was initially printed by Robert Appleton Company. The volumes came out sequentially, the first two in 1907 and the last three in 1912:
|Volume||Entries||Year first pub.||Chief editor|
|1||Aachen–Assize||1907||Charles George Herbermann|
The editors had their first editorial meeting at the office of The Messenger, on West 16th Street, New York City. The text received a nihil obstat from an official censor, Remy Lafort, on November 1, 1908, and an imprimatur from John Murphy Farley, Archbishop of New York. This review process was presumably accelerated by the reuse of older authorized publications. In addition to frequent informal conferences and constant communication by letters, the editors subsequently held 134 formal meetings to consider the plan, scope and progress of the work, culminating in publication on April 19, 1913. A first supplement was published in 1922; a second supplement in nine loose-leaf sections was published by The Gilmary Society between 1950 and 1958.
In 1912, a special completely illustrated, commemorative volume was awarded to those patrons who contributed to the start of the enterprise by buying multiple encyclopedia sets early on.
There was controversy over the presence of the Catholic Encyclopedia in public libraries in the United States with nativist protests that this violated the separation of church and state, including a successful appeal in Belleville, New Jersey.
The encyclopedia was later updated under the auspices of The Catholic University of America and the New Catholic Encyclopedia was first published in 1967, and then in 2002.
The Catholic Encyclopedia and Its Makers states that:
The work is entirely new, and not merely a translation or a compilation from other encyclopedic sources. The editors have insisted that the articles should contain the latest and most accurate information to be obtained from the standard works on each subject.
However, "from standard works" allows that some of the articles from European contributors such as Pierre Batiffol (French) and Johann Peter Kirsch (German) had previously been published in whole or in part in Europe and were translated and edited for the Encyclopedia.Those who wrote new articles in English include Anthony Maas and Herbert Thurston.
Under copyright law of the United States, all works published in the United States before 1928 are in the public domain. In 1993, Kevin Knight, a 26-year-old resident of Denver, Colorado, decided, during the visit of Pope John Paul II to that city for World Youth Day, to launch a project to publish the 1913 edition of the encyclopedia on the Internet. Knight founded the Web site New Advent to host the undertaking. Volunteers from the United States, Canada, France, and Brazil helped in the transcription of the original material. The site went online in 1995, and transcription work ended in 1997.
In 2007, Catholic Answers published a watermarked version derived from page scans. This version has since been replaced with a transcription of the Encyclopedia similar to that found at the New Advent site.The Catholic Answers transcription, however, is an exact transcription of the original text, whereas the New Advent version at times modernizes certain usages (e.g., using the titles of Old Testament books found in Protestant Bibles, such as "1 & 2 Chronicles" and "Obadiah", in place of the titles traditionally used in the Vulgate/Douay–Rheims, such as "1 & 2 Paralipomenon" and "Abdias") and Biblical citation formatting (i.e., the Catholic Answers version retains the original's usage of Roman numerals for chapter numbers [e.g., Genesis I,1], while the New Advent version uses Arabic numerals throughout [e.g., Genesis 1:1]).
Other scanned copies of the 1913 Encyclopedia are available on Google Books, at the Internet Archive, and at Wikimedia Commons. Wikisource also hosts a transcription project backed by the scans hosted at Commons.
The 1922 supplement to the Encyclopedia is also in the public domain and is available online. The New Catholic Encyclopedia also is available online at some libraries.
|Volume||Names||Year first pub.|| Wikisource |
|Internet Archive||Google Books||Chief editor|
|1||Aachen–Assize||1907||Wikisource 1||Internet Archive 1||Google Books 1||Charles George Herbermann|
|2||Assize–Brownr||Wikisource 2||Internet Archive 2||Google Books 2|
|3||Brow–Clancy||1908||Wikisource 3||Internet Archive 3||Google Books 3|
|4||Cland–Diocesan||Wikisource 4||Internet Archive 4||Google Books 4|
|5||Diocese–Fathers||1909||Wikisource 5||Internet Archive 5||Google Books 5|
|6||Fathers–Gregory||Wikisource 6||Internet Archive 6||Google Books 6|
|7||Gregory–Infallibility||1910||Wikisource7||Internet Archive 7||Google Books 7|
|8||Infamy–Lapparent||Wikisource 8||Internet Archive 8||Google Books 8|
|9||Laprade–Mass||Wikisource 9||Internet Archive 9||Google Books 9|
|10||Mass–Newman||1911||Wikisource 10||Internet Archive 10||Google Books 10|
|11||New Mexico–Philip||Wikisource 11||Internet Archive 11||Google Books 11|
|12||Philip–Revalidation||Wikisource 12||Internet Archive 12||Google Books 12|
|13||Revelation–Simon Stock||1912||Wikisource 13||Internet Archive 13||Google Books 13|
|14||Simony–Tournely||Wikisource 14||Internet Archive 14||Google Books 14|
|15||Tournon–Zwirner||Wikisource 15||Internet Archive 15||Google Books 15|
|16||Index||1914||Wikisource 16||Internet Archive 16||Google Books 16|
|17||Supplement I||1922||Wikisource 17||Internet Archive 17||Google Books 17|
|18||Supplement II||Google Books 18|
|19||Supplemental Year Books||Supplemental Year Books 1912–1922|
Johann Tetzel was a German Dominican friar and preacher. He was appointed Inquisitor for Poland and Saxony, later becoming the Grand Commissioner for indulgences in Germany. Tetzel was known for granting indulgences on behalf of the Catholic Church in exchange for money. Indulgences grant a remission of temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven. This largely contributed to Martin Luther writing his Ninety-five Theses. The main usage of the indulgences sold by Tetzel was to help fund and build the new St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some important archbishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the particular tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or (usually) ceremonial precedence.
Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a deceased person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name. Beati is the plural form, referring to those who have undergone the process of beatification; they possess the title of "Blessed" before their names and are often referred to in English as "a Blessed" or, plurally, "Blesseds".
Vicar of Christ is a term used in different ways and with different theological connotations throughout history. The original notion of a vicar is as an "earthly representative of Christ", but it's also used in the sense of "person acting as parish priest in place of a real person." The title is now used in Catholicism to refer to the bishops, and more specifically, was historically used to refer to the Bishop of Rome.
Testem benevolentiae nostrae is an apostolic letter written by Pope Leo XIII to Cardinal James Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore, dated January 22, 1899. In it, the pope addressed a heresy that he called Americanism and expressed his concern that the Catholic Church in the United States should guard against American values of liberalism and pluralism undermining the doctrine of the Church.
Catholic Truth Society (CTS) is a body that prints and publishes Catholic literature, including apologetics, prayerbooks, spiritual reading, and lives of saints. It is based in London, the United Kingdom.
Condé Benoist Pallen was an American Catholic editor and author. He was editor of Church Progress and the Catholic World from 1887 to 1897. He was managing editor of the Catholic Encyclopedia from 1904 to 1920. He wrote essays, poetry, and novels.
Hugh Tootell was an English Catholic historian. He is commonly known under his pseudonym Charles Dodd.
Macarius I of Antioch was Patriarch of Antioch in the 7th century, deposed in 681 for professing monothelitism.
The New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE) is a multi-volume reference work on Roman Catholic history and belief edited by the faculty of The Catholic University of America. The NCE was originally published by McGraw-Hill in 1967. A second edition, which gave up the articles more reminiscent of a general encyclopedia, was published in 2002.
François Vachon de Belmont was the fifth superior of the Montreal Sulpicians from 1700 to 1731. Vachon de Belmont was born in Burgundy, France to a wealthy family. He moved to Canada and personally funded the construction of La Montagne mission near Montreal.
New Advent is a website that provides online versions of various works connected with the Catholic Church.
Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour was the French Catholic Archbishop of Paris from 1848 to 1857.
Mar Adolph Medlycott was the first Bishop of the Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Thrissur. He was born at Chittagong on 15 May 1838. Medlycott spent his last days in Bangalore where he died on 4 May 1918. His remains were later reinterred, first in the Basilica of Our Lady of Dolours in 1945.
Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or nomination by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.
The Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Nyanza was a Roman Catholic mission territory in Eastern and Central Africa. It was an apostolic vicariate split out from the larger Vicariate of Nyanza in June 1894. It lost territory to the Apostolic Vicariate of Kivu in 1912, and was divided into the vicariates of Bukoba and Mwanza in 1929.
The 12-volume Universal Cyclopaedia was edited by Charles Kendall Adams, and was published by D. Appleton & Company in 1900. The name was changed to Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas in 1902, with editor.
Der Wahrheitsfreund or Der Wahrheits-Freund was the first German language Catholic newspaper in the United States, and one of many German-language newspapers in Cincinnati, Ohio during the nineteenth century. It was published by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati, and proceeds went to the St. Aloysius Orphan Society.
John Joseph Wynne (1859–1948) was an American Jesuit priest. A prolific writer and editor, he became a leader in Catholic intellectual life in the early 20th century. He played a major role in starting America, the Jesuit weekly magazine, and the Catholic Encyclopedia. Wynne was a historian, commentator, editor and educator who worked to promote Catholic scholarship and intellectual engagement with contemporary issues.