Wikimedia Commons

Last updated

Wikimedia Commons
Commons-logo-en.svg
Screenshot
Commons screenshot.png
Screenshot of the Wikimedia Commons main page
Type of site
Media repository
FoundedSeptember 7, 2004;18 years ago (2004-09-07)
Owner Wikimedia Foundation
Created by Wikimedia movement
URL commons.wikimedia.org
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional (required for uploading files)
Current statusOnline
Content license
Open

Wikimedia Commons (or simply Commons) is a media repository of open images, sounds, videos and other media. [1] It also contains JSON [2] files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

Contents

Files from Wikimedia Commons can be used across all of the Wikimedia projects [3] in all languages, including Wikipedia, Wikivoyage, Wikisource, Wikiquote, Wiktionary, Wikinews, Wikibooks, and Wikispecies, or downloaded for offsite use. As of July 2022, the repository contains over 87 million free-to-use media files, managed and editable by registered volunteers. [4]

History

Wikimedia logo mosaic created to commemorate the one-millionth file at Wikimedia Commons WikimediaMosaicCapture.png
Wikimedia logo mosaic created to commemorate the one-millionth file at Wikimedia Commons

The idea for the project came from Erik Möller in March 2004 [5] and was launched on September 7, 2004. [6] [7]

In 2012, the National Archives and Records Administration uploaded 100,000 digitised images from its collection. [8]

In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000. [9]

Since 2018 it is possible to upload 3D models to the site. One of the first models uploaded to Commons was a reconstruction of the Asad Al-Lat statue which was destroyed in Palmyra by the ISIL in 2015. [10]

In 2020, the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) started uploading its collections to Commons. [11] As of 2022, DPLA uploaded more than 2 million files. Similarly Europeana, the website aggregating European cultural heritage, shares its digitised images through Commons. [12]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, as part of a collaboration with Wikimedia, the World Health Organization (WHO) uploaded its "Mythbusters" infographics to Commons. [13]

Relation to sister projects

The aim of Wikimedia Commons is to provide a media file repository "that makes available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content to all, and that acts as a common repository for the various projects of the Wikimedia Foundation." The expression "educational" is to be understood according to its broad meaning of "providing knowledge; instructional or informative". [14]

Most Wikimedia projects still allow local uploads which are not visible to other projects or languages, but this option is meant to be used primarily for material (such as fair use content) which local project policies allow, but which would not be permitted according to the copyright policy of Commons. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, including licenses which restrict commercial use of materials or disallow derivative works. For this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. Licenses that are acceptable include the Creative Commons Attribution and Attribution/ShareAlike licenses, [15] other free content and free software licenses, and the public domain.

The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other available user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also been translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWiki's category system. In addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was originally proposed to also contain free text files, these continue to be hosted on a sister project, Wikisource.

Controversial content

The site has been criticized for hosting large amounts of amateur pornography, often uploaded by exhibitionists who exploit the site for personal gratification, and who are enabled by sympathetic administrators. [16] In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as "littered with dicks". [17]

In 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as "lolicon". After this was reported in the media, Jimmy Wales, founder of the Wikimedia Foundation which hosts Commons, used his administrator status to delete several images without discussion from the Commons community. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, including the ability to delete files. [18]

Utilities

Over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Daniel Kinzler wrote applications for finding appropriate categories for uploaded files ("CommonSense"), determining the usage of files across the Wikimedia projects ("CheckUsage"), locating images with missing copyright information ("UntaggedImages"), and relaying information about administrative actions such as deletions to the relevant wikis ("CommonsTicker").

Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as "Commonist" have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. At one time, in order to review free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users could participate in a now-defunct collaborative external review process ("FlickrLickr"), which resulted in more than 10,000 uploads to Commons.[ failed verification ][ dead link ]There exists a community-maintained Commons Mobile App which allows uploading of photos that document the world, especially notable objects findable in the map in the Nearby List in the app (displaying Wikidata items with coordinates). The app launched in 2012 as an official Wikimedia app and since May 2016, it uses the official Wikimedia Commons name and logo.

Structured Data on Commons

Structured data statements for a picture of some sugar cubes Screenshot of various structured data statements of a photograph of sugar cubes.png
Structured data statements for a picture of some sugar cubes

Structured Data on Commons (SDC) is a three-year software development project funded by the Sloan Foundation to provide the infrastructure for Wikimedia Commons volunteers to organize data about media files in a consistent manner. This data is structured more and is made machine-readable. The goals of the functionality are to make contributing to Commons easier by providing new ways to edit, curate, and write software for Commons, and to make general use of Commons easier by expanding capabilities in search and reuse. [19] [20]

Quality

Successful featured picture nominations per month (2004-2019) Featured picture nominations per month in Wikimedia Commons.svg
Successful featured picture nominations per month (2004–2019)

There are three mechanisms on the site for recognizing high-quality works. One is known as "Featured pictures", where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004. Another process known as "Quality images" began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to "Featured pictures". "Quality images" only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas "Featured pictures" additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA. A third image assessment project, known as "Valued images", began on June 1, 2008, with the purpose of recognizing "the most valued illustration of its kind", in contrast to the other two processes which assess images mainly on technical quality.

The three mentioned processes select a slight part (less than 0.1%) from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental and amateur files up to files of very poor quality. Generally, Commons is not a competition but a collection; a quality of the description and organization of files and their descriptive and informational benefits are often more relevant than technical or artistic perfection of the files. Files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files.

The site held its inaugural "Picture of the Year" competition, for 2006. All images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia movement members during two rounds of voting. The winning picture was a picture of the Aurora Borealis over snowlands, taken by an airman from the U.S. Air Force. The competition has since become an annual event.

Wikimedia Commons Pictures of the Year

The Commons Picture of the Year (POTY) is a competition that was first run in 2006. It aims to identify the best freely licensed images from those that during the year have been awarded Featured picture status. [21] [22]

Content figures

As of January 2015, there are well over 5.2M geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons. Mapping these shows significant variance in image numbers over the globe. Geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons 2015-01-07.png
As of January 2015, there are well over 5.2M geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons. Mapping these shows significant variance in image numbers over the globe.
Growth of Wikimedia Commons Commons Growth.svg
Growth of Wikimedia Commons

Source: commons:Commons:Milestones

Applications

See also

Related Research Articles

Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. It also includes the editing of books, journals and magazines to be posted on a screen.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MediaWiki</span> Free and open-source wiki software, used by Wikipedia

MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software. It is used on Wikipedia and almost all other Wikimedia websites, including Wiktionary, Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata; these sites define a large part of the requirement set for MediaWiki. It was developed for use on Wikipedia in 2002, and given the name "MediaWiki" in 2003. MediaWiki was originally developed by Magnus Manske and improved by Lee Daniel Crocker. Its development has since then been coordinated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wikisource</span> Wikimedia Foundation project, an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki

Wikisource is an online digital library of free-content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project ; multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aim is to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began on November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name.

DjVu is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs. It uses technologies such as image layer separation of text and background/images, progressive loading, arithmetic coding, and lossy compression for bitonal (monochrome) images. This allows high-quality, readable images to be stored in a minimum of space, so that they can be made available on the web.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wikispecies</span> Wiki-based online project for Linnaean taxonomy

Wiki species

<span class="mw-page-title-main">German Wikipedia</span> German language edition of Wikipedia

The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Danish Wikipedia</span> Wikipedia in Danish

The Danish Wikipedia started on 1 February 2002 and is the Danish language edition of Wikipedia. As of 5 October 2022, it has 285,429 articles. Its article depth is 59.27. Its major task is to help improve the education level of Danish individuals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metadata management</span>

Metadata management involves managing metadata about other data, whereby this "other data" is generally referred to as content data. The term is used most often in relation to digital media, but older forms of metadata are catalogs, dictionaries, and taxonomies. For example, the Dewey Decimal Classification is a metadata management system developed in 1876 for libraries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wikimedia movement</span> Global community of contributors to Wikimedia Foundation projects

According to the Wikimedia Foundation, the Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to the Wikimedia projects. This community directly builds and administers the projects. It is committed to using open standards and software.

Freesound is a collaborative repository of Creative Commons licensed audio samples, and non-profit organisation, with more than 500,000 sounds and effects, and 8 million registered users. Sounds are uploaded to the website by its users, and cover a wide range of subjects, from field recordings to synthesised sounds. Audio content in the repository can be tagged and browsed by folksonomic means as well as standard text-based search. Audio content in the repository is also analysed using the open-source audio analysis tool Essentia, which powers the similarity search functionality of the site. Freesound has a RESTful API through which third-party applications can access and retrieve audio content and its metadata.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Latvian Wikipedia</span> Latvian-language edition of Wikipedia

The Latvian Wikipedia is the Latvian-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It was created on 6 June 2003. With more than 116,000 articles, it is currently the 67th-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles and the second-largest Wikipedia in a Baltic language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Whirled</span> 2007 virtual community

Whirled is a virtual world website and video game created by Three Rings Design. Its Open Beta stage was announced at the Game Developers Conference in 2007. It makes use of Adobe Flash as an applet embedded into the website while also having pages of HTML and JavaScript in a sidebar to allow players to manage their friends list and browse various categories of user-generated content. The concept is comparable to the virtual worlds in the PlayStation 3 game Home and Second Life, while also incorporating aspects of feed-based social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. It pushes to make all content user-created, mainly with its approach to creative accessibility using Flash's affinity for 2D vector graphics and various web compatibilities to make it very simple for players to upload a wide variety of content using simple, conventional file formats. Some examples of this include uploading PNG files to create in-game objects, and MP3 files to create a music playlist for a player's room.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wikivoyage</span> Free travel guide that anyone can edit

Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a sister project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation (WMF). Wikivoyage has been called the "Wikipedia of travel guides".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wikitravel</span> Collaborative wiki travel website

Wikitravel is a web-based collaborative travel guide based on the wiki format and owned by Internet Brands. It was most active from 2003 through 2012, when most of its editing community left and brought their contributions to the nonprofit Wikivoyage guide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Radiopaedia</span> Collaborative wiki-based educational reference for the field of radiology

Radiopaedia is a wiki-based international collaborative educational web resource containing a radiology encyclopedia and imaging case repository. It is currently the largest freely available radiology related resource in the world with more than 41,000 patient cases and over 15,000 reference articles on radiology-related topics. The open edit nature of articles allows radiologists, radiology trainees, radiographers, sonographers, and other healthcare professionals interested in medical imaging to refine most content through time. An editorial board peer reviews all contributions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Portrait Gallery and Wikimedia Foundation copyright dispute</span> Legal dispute dealing with copyright law

In July 2009, lawyers representing the National Portrait Gallery of London (NPG) sent an email letter warning of possible legal action for alleged copyright infringement to Derrick Coetzee, an editor/administrator of the free content multimedia repository Wikimedia Commons, hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

The digital commons are a form of commons involving the distribution and communal ownership of informational resources and technology. Resources are typically designed to be used by the community by which they are created.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wiki Loves Monuments</span> Annual international photography contest

Wiki Loves Monuments (WLM) is an annual international photographic competition held during the month of September, organised worldwide by Wikipedia community members with the help of local Wikimedia affiliates across the globe. Participants take pictures of local historical monuments and heritage sites in their region, and upload them to Wikimedia Commons. The aim of event is to highlight the heritage sites of the participating countries with the goal to encourage people to capture pictures of these monuments, and to put them under a free licence which can then be re-used not only in Wikipedia but everywhere by everyone.

Licence laundering or license laundering occurs when a creative work under copyright is copied by another party, who then replaces the original licence with a different one. This party then illegitimately distributes the work with the new licence.

References

  1. Endres, Joe, "Wiki websites wealth of information". International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials : INFORM. Champaign, Illinois: May 2006. Vol. 17, Iss. 5; pg. 312, 1 pgs. Source type: Periodical ISSN   0897-8026 ProQuest document ID: 1044826021 Text Word Count 746 Document URL: Proquest URL ProQuest (subscription) retrieved August 6, 2007
  2. Yurik (November 2019). "Help:Tabular Data". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  3. "Embedding Commons' media in Wikimedia projects". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  4. Statistics page on Wikimedia Commons
  5. Möller, Erik (March 19, 2004). "[Wikipedia-l] Proposal: commons.wikimedia.org" . Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  6. "Main Page". Wikimedia Commons. September 7, 2004. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  7. "Wikimedia Commons: Über 100.000 freie Bilder, Töne und Filme" (in German). Golem.de. May 25, 2005. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  8. Schultz, Colin. "The National Archives Wants to Put Its Whole Collection on Wikimedia Commons". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  9. 1 2 ÄŒesky (July 15, 2013). "100,000,000th edit". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  10. "Wikipedia goes 3D allowing users to upload .stls for digital reference". 3D Printing Industry. February 22, 2018. Retrieved March 8, 2022.
  11. "DPLA cultural artifacts coming to Wikipedia through new collaboration with Wikimedia Foundation". Digital Public Library of America. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  12. "Europeana and Wikimedia partnership update". Europeana Pro. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  13. McNeil, Donald G. Jr. (October 22, 2020). "Wikipedia and W.H.O. Join to Combat Covid-19 Misinformation". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  14. "Commons:Project scope". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  15. "About The Licenses - Creative Commons". creativecommons.org. Retrieved October 22, 2021.
  16. "The Daily Dot – How Wikimedia Commons became a massive amateur porn hub". The Daily Dot . June 25, 2013.
  17. "The Epic Battle For Wikipedia's Autofellatio Page". BuzzFeed .
  18. "Wikimedia's Wales gives up some top-level controls". Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.
  19. "Submissions/Structured Commons: what changes are coming?". Wikimania.
  20. "Commons:Structured data". Wikimedia Commons.
  21. "Commons:Picture of the Year". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  22. Morris, Kevin (February 28, 2013). "Wikimedia's 12 best photos take you to the ends of the Earth". The Daily Dot. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  23. "EuroOffice Online Clipart – EuroOffice / English". May 28, 2018. Archived from the original on May 28, 2018.