Wikimedia Commons

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Wikimedia Commons
Commons-logo-en.svg
Screenshot
Commons screenshot.png
Screenshot of the Wikimedia Commons main page
Type of site
Media repository
Owner Wikimedia Foundation
Created by Wikimedia community
Website commons.wikimedia.org
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional (required for uploading files)
LaunchedSeptember 7, 2004;14 years ago (2004-09-07)
Current statusOnline
Content license
Free

Wikimedia Commons (or simply Commons) is an online repository of free-use images, sounds, other media [1] and JSON [2] files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

Free content work or artwork with few or no restrictions on how it may be used

Free content, libre content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, work of art, or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work.

Wikimedia Foundation American non-profit charitable organization

The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement. It owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sibling projects through non-profit means.

Contents

Files from Wikimedia Commons can be used across all Wikimedia projects [3] in all languages, including Wikipedia, Wikibooks, Wikivoyage, Wikispecies, Wikisource, and Wikinews, or downloaded for offsite use. As of 2018, the repository contains over 50 million free media files, managed and editable by registered volunteers. [4] In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000. [5]

Wikipedia Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit

Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with exclusively free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, and is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019. It is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free.

Wikibooks free resource library of books hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation and edited by volunteers

Wikibooks is a wiki-based Wikimedia project hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation for the creation of free content e-book textbooks and annotated texts that anyone can edit.

Wikivoyage free travel guide that anyone can edit

Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a sister project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikivoyage has been called the "Wikipedia of travel guides".

History

Wikimedia logo mosaic created to commemorate the one-millionth file at Wikimedia Commons WikimediaMosaicCapture.png
Wikimedia logo mosaic created to commemorate the one-millionth file at Wikimedia Commons

The project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 [6] and launched on September 7, 2004. [7] [8] A key motivation behind the setup of a central repository was the desire to reduce duplication of effort across the Wikimedia projects and languages, as the same file had to be uploaded to many different wikis separately before Commons was created.

Erik Möller German freelance journalist, software developer, author and former Deputy Director of the Wikimedia Foundation

Erik Möller is a German freelance journalist, software developer, author, and former deputy director of the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF), based in San Francisco. Möller additionally works as a web designer and previously managed his own web hosting service, myoo.de.

Policies

The aim of Wikimedia Commons is to provide a media file repository "that makes available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content to all, and that acts as a common repository for the various projects of the Wikimedia Foundation." The expression "educational" is to be understood according to its broad meaning of "providing knowledge; instructional or informative". [9]

Most Wikimedia projects still allow local uploads which are not visible to other projects or languages, but this option is meant to be used primarily for material (such as fair use content) which local project policies allow, but which would not be permitted according to the copyright policy of Commons. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, including licenses which restrict commercial use of materials or disallow derivative works. For this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. Licenses that are acceptable include the GNU Free Documentation License, Creative Commons Attribution and Attribution/ShareAlike licenses, [10] other free content and free software licenses, and the public domain.

Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the interests of copyright holders with the public interest in the wider distribution and use of creative works by allowing as a defense to copyright infringement claims certain limited uses that might otherwise be considered infringement.

Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others. This is usually only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves.

GNU Free Documentation License copyleft license primarily for free software documentation

The GNU Free Documentation License is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project. It is similar to the GNU General Public License, giving readers the rights to copy, redistribute, and modify a work and requires all copies and derivatives to be available under the same license. Copies may also be sold commercially, but, if produced in larger quantities, the original document or source code must be made available to the work's recipient.

The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other available user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also been translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWiki's category system. In addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was originally proposed to also contain free text files, these continue to be hosted on a sister project, Wikisource.

Wikisource Wikimedia project, an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki

Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project ; multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later.

Controversial content

The site has been criticized for hosting large amounts of amateur pornography, often uploaded by exhibitionists who exploit the site for personal gratification, and who are enabled by sympathetic administrators. [11] In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as "littered with dicks". [12]

In 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as "lolicon". After this was reported in the media, Jimmy Wales, founder of the Wikimedia Foundation which hosts Commons, used his administrator status to delete several images without discussion from the Commons community. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, including the ability to delete files. [13]

Utilities

Over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Daniel Kinzler wrote applications for finding appropriate categories for uploaded files ("CommonSense"), determining the usage of files across the Wikimedia projects ("CheckUsage"), locating images with missing copyright information ("UntaggedImages"), and relaying information about administrative actions such as deletions to the relevant wikis ("CommonsTicker").

Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as "Commonist" have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to review free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process ("FlickrLickr"), which has resulted in more than 10,000 uploads to Commons. [14] [ not in citation given ][ dead link ]

Quality

Successful featured picture nominations per month (2004-2017) Featured picture nominations per month in Wikimedia Commons.svg
Successful featured picture nominations per month (2004-2017)

The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works. One is known as "Featured pictures", where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004. Another process known as "Quality images" began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to "Featured pictures". "Quality images" only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas "Featured pictures" additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA. A third image assessment project, known as "Valued images", began on June 1, 2008 with the purpose of recognizing "the most valued illustration of its kind", in contrast to the other two processes which assess images mainly on technical quality.

The three mentioned processes select a slight part (less than 0.1%) from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental and amateur files up to files of very poor quality. Generally, Commons is not a competition but a collection; a quality of the description and organization of files and their descriptive and informational benefits are often more relevant than technical or artistic perfection of the files. Files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files.

The site held its inaugural "Picture of the Year" competition, for 2006. All images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia movement members during two rounds of voting. The winning picture was a picture of the Aurora Borealis over snowlands, taken by an airman from the U.S. Air Force. The competition has since become an annual event.

Content figures

As of January 2015, there are well over 5.2M geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons. Mapping these shows significant variance in image numbers over the globe. Geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons 2015-01-07.png
As of January 2015, there are well over 5.2M geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons. Mapping these shows significant variance in image numbers over the globe.
Growth of Wikimedia Commons Commons Growth.svg
Growth of Wikimedia Commons

Source: commons:Commons:Milestones

Applications

See also

Related Research Articles

MediaWiki Wiki software

MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki engine. It was developed for use on Wikipedia in 2002, and given the name "MediaWiki" in 2003. It remains in use on Wikipedia and almost all other Wikimedia websites, including Wiktionary, Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata; these sites continue to define a large part of the requirement set for MediaWiki. MediaWiki was originally developed by Magnus Manske and improved by Lee Daniel Crocker. Its development has since then been coordinated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

Wikispecies wiki-based online project for Linnaean taxonomy

Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0.

Flickr Image and video hosting website

Flickr is an image hosting service and video hosting service. It was created by Ludicorp in 2004. It has changed ownership several times and has been owned by SmugMug since April 2018.

German Wikipedia German language edition of Wikipedia

The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia.

Danish Wikipedia Wikipedia in Danish

The Danish Wikipedia started on 1 February 2002 and is the Danish language edition of Wikipedia. As of 24 April 2019, it has 248,411 articles. Its article depth is 66.44, a bit below the median value, but the best of Wikis in Scandinavia and Finland.

Metadata management

Metadata management involves managing metadata about other data, whereby this "other data" is generally referred to as content data. The term is used most often in relation to digital media, but older forms of metadata are catalogs, dictionaries, and taxonomies. For example, the Dewey Decimal Classification is a metadata management systems developed in 1876 for libraries.

Wikimedia movement social movement around Wikimedia including content publications, Wikimedia organizations, and independent editors

The Wikimedia movement, or simply Wikimedia, is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia Foundation projects. The movement was created around Wikipedia's community, and has since expanded to the other Wikimedia projects, including the commons projects Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata, and volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, and user groups.

Wikimapia is a privately owned internet company that provides an open-content collaborative mapping project. The project implements an interactive "clickable" web map with a geographically-referenced wiki system, with the aim to mark and describe all geographical objects in the world.

Latvian Wikipedia Latvian-language Wikipedia edition

The Latvian Wikipedia is the Latvian-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It was created on 6 June 2003. With about 92,000 articles, it is currently the 65th-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles and the second-largest Wikipedia in a Baltic language.

Veropedia

Veropedia was a free, advertising-supported Internet encyclopedia project launched in late October 2007. It was taken down in January 2009, pending creation of a new version.

Wikitravel Collaborative wiki travel website

Wikitravel is a web-based collaborative travel guide project based on the wiki model, launched by Evan Prodromou and Michele Ann Jenkins in 2003. The site is a multilingual effort that aims to cover all of the globe's destinations and also hosts a free media repository known as Wikitravel Shared. In 2006, Internet Brands bought the trademark and servers and later introduced advertising to the website. This move met opposition from users, with many German and Italian editors leaving in December 2006 for a newly established wiki, Wikivoyage.

National Portrait Gallery and Wikimedia Foundation copyright dispute

In July 2009, lawyers representing the National Portrait Gallery of London (NPG) sent an email letter warning of possible legal action for alleged copyright infringement to Derrick Coetzee, an editor/administrator of the free content multimedia repository Wikimedia Commons, hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

WikiTrust

WikiTrust is a software product, available as a Firefox Plugin, which aimed to assist editors in detecting vandalism and dubious edits, by highlighting the "untrustworthy" text with a yellow or orange background. As of September 2017, the server is offline, but the code is still available for download, and parts of the code are being updated.

Werelate.org wiki genealogy website

WeRelate.org is a wiki genealogy website, that provides genealogy tools and data. It bills itself as the world's largest freely licensed genealogy wiki, with almost 5 million wiki pages. Its information is free, and the site is non-commercial and nonsectarian. WeRelate had over 2.5 million person pages, over 930,000 family pages and 44,000 images in Jan 2014.

Outline of Wikipedia Overview of and topical guide to Wikipedia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wikipedia:

The digital commons are a form of commons involving the distribution and communal ownership of informational resources and technology. Resources are typically designed to be used by the community by which they are created. Examples of the digital commons include wikis, open-source software, and open-source licensing. The distinction between digital commons and other digital resources is that the community of people building them can intervene in the governing of their interaction processes and of their shared resources.

Pixabay.com is an international website for sharing photos, illustrations, vector graphics, and film footage under a proprietary license. As of November 2017, Pixabay offers over 1,188,454 free photos, illustrations, and vectors and videos.

Licence laundering or license laundering occurs when a creative work under copyright is copied by another party, who then replaces the original licence with a different one. This party then illegitimately distributes the work with the new licence.

References

  1. Endres, Joe, "Wiki websites wealth of information". International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials : INFORM. Champaign, Illinois: May 2006. Vol. 17, Iss. 5; pg. 312, 1 pgs. Source type: Periodical ISSN   0897-8026 ProQuest document ID: 1044826021 Text Word Count 746 Document URL: Proquest URL ProQuest (subscription) retrieved August 6, 2007
  2. Yurik (November 2019). "Help:Tabular Data". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  3. "Embedding Commons' media in Wikimedia projects". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  4. Statistics page on Wikimedia Commons
  5. 1 2 ÄŒesky (July 15, 2013). "100,000,000th edit". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  6. Möller, Erik (March 19, 2004). "[Wikipedia-l] Proposal: commons.wikimedia.org" . Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  7. "Main Page". Wikimedia Commons. September 7, 2004. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  8. "Wikimedia Commons: Über 100.000 freie Bilder, Töne und Filme" (in German). Golem.de. May 25, 2005. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  9. "Commons:Project scope". Wikimedia Commons editors. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  10. See Creative Commons licenses, of which "NonCommercial" and "NoDerivs" can not be used on Wikimedia Commons.
  11. "The Daily Dot – How Wikimedia Commons became a massive amateur porn hub".
  12. "The Epic Battle For Wikipedia's Autofellatio Page".
  13. "Wikimedia's Wales gives up some top-level controls | Internet & Media - CNET News".
  14. "FlickrLickr image upload count". tools.wikimedia.de. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  15. EuroOffice Online Clipart – EuroOffice / English