Wikimedia Commons

Last updated

Wikimedia Commons
Commons-logo-en.svg
Screenshot
Commons screenshot.png
Screenshot of the Wikimedia Commons main page
Type of site
Media repository
Owner Wikimedia Foundation
Created by Wikimedia movement
URL commons.wikimedia.org
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional (required for uploading files)
LaunchedSeptember 7, 2004;16 years ago (2004-09-07)
Current statusOnline
Content license
Free

Wikimedia Commons (or simply Commons) is a media repository of free-use images, sounds, other media, [1] and JSON [2] files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

Contents

Files from Wikimedia Commons can be used across all Wikimedia projects [3] in all languages, including Wikipedia, Wikivoyage, Wikisource, Wikiquote, Wiktionary, Wikinews, Wikibooks, and Wikispecies, or downloaded for offsite use. As of March 2021, the repository contains over 70 million free-to-use media files, managed and editable by registered volunteers. [4] In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000. [5]

History

Wikimedia logo mosaic created to commemorate the one-millionth file at Wikimedia Commons WikimediaMosaicCapture.png
Wikimedia logo mosaic created to commemorate the one-millionth file at Wikimedia Commons

The project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 [6] and launched on September 7, 2004. [7] [8] A key motivation behind the setup of a central repository was the desire to reduce duplication of effort across the Wikimedia projects and languages, as the same file had to be uploaded to many different wikis separately before Commons was created.

Policies

The aim of Wikimedia Commons is to provide a media file repository "that makes available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content to all, and that acts as a common repository for the various projects of the Wikimedia Foundation." The expression "educational" is to be understood according to its broad meaning of "providing knowledge; instructional or informative". [9]

Most Wikimedia projects still allow local uploads which are not visible to other projects or languages, but this option is meant to be used primarily for material (such as fair use content) which local project policies allow, but which would not be permitted according to the copyright policy of Commons. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, including licenses which restrict commercial use of materials or disallow derivative works. For this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. Licenses that are acceptable include the Creative Commons Attribution and Attribution/ShareAlike licenses, [10] other free content and free software licenses, and the public domain.

The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other available user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also been translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWiki's category system. In addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was originally proposed to also contain free text files, these continue to be hosted on a sister project, Wikisource.

Relation to sister projects

Prior to the launch of Commons, images and other files were stored locally on each language version of Wikipedia, usually only those files that were used in local articles. After running Commons, some language versions of Wikipedia have moved all their media content to Commons and no longer allow local file uploads by default. Some language versions have not yet completed this process. However, some language versions have less stringent licensing requirements (for example, allowing fair use files) and therefore retain locally stored files and allow others to be uploaded. This also applies to some other sister projects (Wikibooks, Wikinews, Wikisource, Wikiversity, Wiktionary).

The Commons project has become not only a repository for other projects, but also an independent autonomous project, which in many topics contains much more detailed content and categorization structure than other projects. However, it is very closely linked to other projects, especially Wikipedia, using Wikidata and their interproject links. Wikidata also helps to internationalize category labels, using infoboxes.

Controversial content

The site has been criticized for hosting large amounts of amateur pornography, often uploaded by exhibitionists who exploit the site for personal gratification, and who are enabled by sympathetic administrators. [11] In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as "littered with dicks". [12]

In 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as "lolicon". After this was reported in the media, Jimmy Wales, founder of the Wikimedia Foundation which hosts Commons, used his administrator status to delete several images without discussion from the Commons community. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, including the ability to delete files. [13]

Utilities

Over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Daniel Kinzler wrote applications for finding appropriate categories for uploaded files ("CommonSense"), determining the usage of files across the Wikimedia projects ("CheckUsage"), locating images with missing copyright information ("UntaggedImages"), and relaying information about administrative actions such as deletions to the relevant wikis ("CommonsTicker").

Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as "Commonist" have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. At one time, in order to review free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users could participate in a now-defunct collaborative external review process ("FlickrLickr"), which resulted in more than 10,000 uploads to Commons. [14] [ failed verification ][ dead link ]

There exists a community-maintained Commons Mobile App which allows uploading of photos that document the world, especially notable objects findable in the map in the Nearby List in the app (displaying Wikidata items with coordinates). The app launched in 2012 as an official Wikimedia app and since May 2016, it uses the official Wikimedia Commons name and logo.

Structured Data

Structured data statements for a picture of some sugar cubes Screenshot of various structured data statements of a photograph of sugar cubes.png
Structured data statements for a picture of some sugar cubes

Structured Data on Commons (SDC) is a three-year software development project funded by the Sloan Foundation to provide the infrastructure for Wikimedia Commons volunteers to organize data about media files in a consistent manner. This data is structured more, and is made machine-readable. The goals of the functionality are to make contributing to Commons easier by providing new ways to edit, curate, and write software for Commons, and to make general use of Commons easier by expanding capabilities in search and reuse. [15] [16]

Quality

Successful featured picture nominations per month (2004-2017) Featured picture nominations per month in Wikimedia Commons.svg
Successful featured picture nominations per month (2004-2017)

The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works. One is known as "Featured pictures", where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004. Another process known as "Quality images" began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to "Featured pictures". "Quality images" only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas "Featured pictures" additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA. A third image assessment project, known as "Valued images", began on June 1, 2008, with the purpose of recognizing "the most valued illustration of its kind", in contrast to the other two processes which assess images mainly on technical quality.

The three mentioned processes select a slight part (less than 0.1%) from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental and amateur files up to files of very poor quality. Generally, Commons is not a competition but a collection; a quality of the description and organization of files and their descriptive and informational benefits are often more relevant than technical or artistic perfection of the files. Files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files.

The site held its inaugural "Picture of the Year" competition, for 2006. All images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia movement members during two rounds of voting. The winning picture was a picture of the Aurora Borealis over snowlands, taken by an airman from the U.S. Air Force. The competition has since become an annual event.

Wikimedia Commons Pictures of the Year

The Commons Picture of the Year (POTY) is a competition that was first run in 2006. It aims to identify the best freely licensed images from those that during the year have been awarded Featured picture status. [17]

Content figures

As of January 2015, there are well over 5.2M geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons. Mapping these shows significant variance in image numbers over the globe. Geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons 2015-01-07.png
As of January 2015, there are well over 5.2M geolocated images in Wikimedia Commons. Mapping these shows significant variance in image numbers over the globe.
Growth of Wikimedia Commons Commons Growth.svg
Growth of Wikimedia Commons

Source: commons:Commons:Milestones

Applications

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Wikipedia Historical development of Wikipedia

Wikipedia began with its first edit on 15 January 2001, two days after the domain was registered by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Its technological and conceptual underpinnings predate this; the earliest known proposal for an online encyclopedia was made by Rick Gates in 1993, and the concept of a free-as-in-freedom online encyclopedia was proposed by Richard Stallman in December 2000.

MediaWiki free and open-source wiki software, used by Wikipedia

MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software. It was developed for use on Wikipedia in 2002, and given the name "MediaWiki" in 2003. It remains in use on Wikipedia and almost all other Wikimedia websites, including Wiktionary, Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata; these sites continue to define a large part of the requirement set for MediaWiki. MediaWiki was originally developed by Magnus Manske and improved by Lee Daniel Crocker. Its development has since then been coordinated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

Wikisource Wikimedia Foundation project, an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki

Wikisource is an online digital library of free-content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project ; multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aim is to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began on November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name.

Wikispecies Wiki-based online project for Linnaean taxonomy

Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0.

German Wikipedia German language edition of Wikipedia

The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia.

Danish Wikipedia Wikipedia in Danish

The Danish Wikipedia started on 1 February 2002 and is the Danish language edition of Wikipedia. As of 8 June 2021, it has 267,202 articles. Its article depth is 66.44, a bit below the median value, but the best of the Wikipedias in the Nordic countries. It major task is to help improve the education level of Danish individuals.

Metadata management

Metadata management involves managing metadata about other data, whereby this "other data" is generally referred to as content data. The term is used most often in relation to digital media, but older forms of metadata are catalogs, dictionaries, and taxonomies. For example, the Dewey Decimal Classification is a metadata management system developed in 1876 for libraries.

Wikimedia movement Global community of contributors to Wikimedia Foundation projects

The Wikimedia movement, or simply Wikimedia, is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia Foundation projects. The movement was created around Wikipedia's community, and has since expanded to the other Wikimedia projects, including the commons projects Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata, and volunteer software engineers and developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, and user groups.

Latvian Wikipedia Latvian-language edition of Wikipedia

The Latvian Wikipedia is the Latvian-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It was created on 6 June 2003. With more than 108,000 articles, it is currently the 68th-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles and the second-largest Wikipedia in a Baltic language.

Wikivoyage Free travel guide that anyone can edit

Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a sister project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation (WMF). Wikivoyage has been called the "Wikipedia of travel guides".

History of wikis History of wiki collaborative platforms

The history of wikis begins in 1994, when Ward Cunningham gave the name "WikiWikiWeb" to the knowledge base, which ran on his company's website at c2.com, and the wiki software that powered it. The "wiki went public" in March 1995—the date used in anniversary celebrations of the wiki's origins. c2.com is thus the first true wiki, or a website with pages and links that can be easily edited via the browser, with a reliable version history for each page. He chose "WikiWikiWeb" as the name based on his memories of the "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" at Honolulu International Airport, and because "wiki" is the Hawaiian word for "quick".

Wikitravel Collaborative wiki travel website

Wikitravel is a web-based collaborative travel guide based on the wiki model and owned by Internet Brands. It was most active from 2003 through 2012, when most of its editing community left and brought their contributions to the nonprofit Wikivoyage guide.

National Portrait Gallery and Wikimedia Foundation copyright dispute

In July 2009, lawyers representing the National Portrait Gallery of London (NPG) sent an email letter warning of possible legal action for alleged copyright infringement to Derrick Coetzee, an editor/administrator of the free content multimedia repository Wikimedia Commons, hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

Outline of Wikipedia Overview of and topical guide to Wikipedia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wikipedia:

Wikidata Collaboratively edited multilingual knowledge graph hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation

Wikidata is a collaboratively edited multilingual knowledge graph hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is a common source of open data that Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia, and anyone else, can use under the CC0 public domain license. Wikidata is a wiki powered by the software MediaWiki, and is also powered by the set of knowledge graph MediaWiki extensions known as Wikibase.

Volapük Wikipedia Volapük-language edition of Wikipedia

The Volapük Wikipedia is the Volapük-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It was created in February 2003, but launched in January 2004. As of January 2017, it was the 64th-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles, with about 127,000 articles, and the second-largest Wikipedia in a constructed language after the Esperanto Wikipedia.

Licence laundering or license laundering occurs when a creative work under copyright is copied by another party, who then replaces the original licence with a different one. This party then illegitimately distributes the work with the new licence.

References

  1. Endres, Joe, "Wiki websites wealth of information". International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials : INFORM. Champaign, Illinois: May 2006. Vol. 17, Iss. 5; pg. 312, 1 pgs. Source type: Periodical ISSN   0897-8026 ProQuest document ID: 1044826021 Text Word Count 746 Document URL: Proquest URL ProQuest (subscription) retrieved August 6, 2007
  2. Yurik (November 2019). "Help:Tabular Data". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  3. "Embedding Commons' media in Wikimedia projects". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  4. Statistics page on Wikimedia Commons
  5. 1 2 ÄŒesky (July 15, 2013). "100,000,000th edit". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  6. Möller, Erik (March 19, 2004). "[Wikipedia-l] Proposal: commons.wikimedia.org" . Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  7. "Main Page". Wikimedia Commons. September 7, 2004. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  8. "Wikimedia Commons: Über 100.000 freie Bilder, Töne und Filme" (in German). Golem.de. May 25, 2005. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  9. "Commons:Project scope". Wikimedia Commons editors. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  10. See Creative Commons licenses, of which "NonCommercial" and "NoDerivs" can not be used on Wikimedia Commons.
  11. "The Daily Dot – How Wikimedia Commons became a massive amateur porn hub".
  12. "The Epic Battle For Wikipedia's Autofellatio Page".
  13. "Wikimedia's Wales gives up some top-level controls | Internet & Media - CNET News". Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.
  14. "FlickrLickr image upload count". tools.wikimedia.de. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  15. https://wikimania2017.wikimedia.org/wiki/Submissions/Structured_Commons:_what_changes_are_coming%3F
  16. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Structured_data
  17. "Commons:Picture of the Year". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  18. EuroOffice Online Clipart – EuroOffice/English