Wiktionary

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Wiktionary
WiktionaryEn - DP Derivative.svg
English Wiktionary logo
Screenshot
English Wiktionary Main Page.png
Main Page of the English Wiktionary on January 14, 2019
Type of site
Online dictionary
Available in Multilingual (152 active) [1]
Owner Wikimedia Foundation
Created by Jimmy Wales and the Wikimedia community
URL wiktionary.org
Alexa rankIncrease Negative.svg 758 (Global, August 2020) [2]
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional
LaunchedDecember 12, 2002;17 years ago (2002-12-12)
Current statusactive

Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of terms (including words, phrases, proverbs, linguistic reconstructions, etc.) in all natural languages and in a number of artificial languages. These entries may contain definitions, images for illustrations, pronunciations, etymologies, inflections, usage examples, quotations, related terms, and translations of words into other languages, among other features. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki. Its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and dictionary. It is available in 171 languages and in Simple English. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation, and is written collaboratively by volunteers, dubbed "Wiktionarians". Its wiki software, MediaWiki, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries.

Contents

Because Wiktionary is not limited by print space considerations, most of Wiktionary's language editions provide definitions and translations of words from many languages, and some editions offer additional informations typically found in thesauri.

Wiktionary data is frequently used in various natural language processing tasks.

History and development

Wiktionary was brought online on December 12, 2002, [3] following a proposal by Daniel Alston and an idea by Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia. [4] On March 28, 2004, the first non-English Wiktionaries were initiated in French and Polish. Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started. Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary domain name (wiktionary.wikipedia.org) until May 1, 2004, when it switched to the current domain name. [lower-alpha 1] As of November 2016, Wiktionary features over 25.9 million entries across its editions. [5] The largest of the language editions is the English Wiktionary, with over 6.4 million entries, followed by the Malagasy Wiktionary with over 6.1 million bot-generated entries and the French Wiktionary with over 3.8 million. Forty-four Wiktionary language editions now contain over 100,000 entries each. [lower-alpha 2]

The use of bots to generate large numbers of articles is visible as "growth spurts" in this graph of article counts at the largest eight Wiktionary editions. (Data as of December 2009
) Wiktionary growth.png
The use of bots to generate large numbers of articles is visible as "growth spurts" in this graph of article counts at the largest eight Wiktionary editions. (Data as of December 2009)

Most of the entries and many of the definitions at the project's largest language editions were created by bots that found creative ways to generate entries or (rarely) automatically imported thousands of entries from previously published dictionaries. Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary [lower-alpha 3] created 163,000 of the entries there. [6]

Another of these bots, "ThirdPersBot," was responsible for the addition of a number of third-person conjugations that would not have received their own entries in standard dictionaries; for instance, it defined "smoulders" as the "third-person singular simple present form of smoulder." Of the 648,970 definitions the English Wiktionary provides for 501,171 English words, 217,850 are "form of" definitions of this kind. [7] This means its coverage of English is slightly smaller than that of major monolingual print dictionaries. The Oxford English Dictionary , for instance, has 615,000 headwords, while Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged has 475,000 entries (with many additional embedded headwords). Detailed statistics exist to show how many entries of various kinds exist.

The English Wiktionary does not rely on bots to the extent that some other editions do. The French and Vietnamese Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project (FVDP), which provides free content bilingual dictionaries to and from Vietnamese. [lower-alpha 4] These imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese edition's contents. Almost all non-Malagasy-language entries of the Malagasy Wiktionary were copied by bot from other Wiktionaries. Like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported approximately 20,000 entries from the Unihan database of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters. The French Wiktionary grew rapidly in 2006 thanks in a large part to bots copying many entries from old, freely licensed dictionaries, such as the eighth edition of the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française (1935, around 35,000 words), and using bots to add words from other Wiktionary editions with French translations. The Russian edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as "LXbot" added boilerplate entries (with headings, but without definitions) for words in English and German. [8]

As of December 2019, en.wiktionary has over 700,000 gloss definitions and over 1,100,000 total definitions (including different forms) for English entries alone, with a total of over 6,100,000 entries across all languages. [9]

Logos

Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions. Some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term "Wiktionary", based on the previous English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a MediaWiki developer. [10] Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, a four-phase contest to adopt a uniform logo was held at the Wikimedia Meta-Wiki from September to October 2006. [lower-alpha 5] Some communities adopted the winning entry by "Smurrayinchester", a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, and a number of the larger wikis ultimately kept their textual logos. [lower-alpha 5]

In April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by "AAEngelman" of an open hardbound dictionary won a head-to-head vote against the 2006 logo, but the process to refine and adopt the new logo then stalled. [11] In the following years, some wikis replaced their textual logos with one of the two newer logos. In 2012, 55 wikis that had been using the English Wiktionary logo received localized versions of the 2006 design by "Smurrayinchester". [lower-alpha 6] In July 2016, the English Wiktionary adopted a variant of this logo. [12] As of 4 July 2016, 135 wikis, representing 61% of Wiktionary's entries, use a logo based on the 2006 design by "Smurrayinchester", 33 wikis (36%) use a textual logo, and three wikis (3%) use the 2009 design by "AAEngelman". [13]

Accuracy

To ensure accuracy, the English Wiktionary has a policy requiring that terms be attested. [14] Terms in major languages such as English and Chinese must be verified by:

  1. clearly widespread use, or
  2. use in permanently recorded media, conveying meaning, in at least three independent instances spanning at least a year.

For less-documented languages such as Creek and extinct languages such as Latin, one use in a permanently recorded medium or one mention in a reference work is sufficient verification.

Multi-lingual

As of September2020, there are Wiktionary sites for 176 languages of which 152 are active and 24 are closed. [1] The active sites have 33,760,665 articles, and the closed sites have 339 articles. [15] There are 6,057,954 registered users of which 5,123 are recently active. [15]

The top ten wiktionary language projects by mainspace article count: [15]

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For a complete list with totals see Wikimedia Statistics: [16]

Critical reception

Critical reception of Wiktionary has been mixed. In 2006, Jill Lepore wrote in the article "Noah's Ark" for The New Yorker, [lower-alpha 7]

There's no show of hands at Wiktionary. There's not even an editorial staff. "Be your own lexicographer!", might be Wiktionary's motto. Who needs experts? Why pay good money for a dictionary written by lexicographers when we could cobble one together ourselves?

Wiktionary isn't so much republican or democratic as Maoist. And it's only as good as the copyright-expired books from which it pilfers.

Keir Graff's review for Booklist was less critical:

Is there a place for Wiktionary? Undoubtedly. The industry and enthusiasm of its many creators are proof that there's a market. And it's wonderful to have another strong source to use when searching the odd terms that pop up in today's fast-changing world and the online environment. But as with so many Web sources (including this column), it's best used by sophisticated users in conjunction with more reputable sources.[ citation needed ]

References in other publications are fleeting and part of larger discussions of Wikipedia, not progressing beyond a definition, although David Brooks in The Nashua Telegraph described it as "wild and woolly". [18] One of the impediments to independent coverage of Wiktionary is the continuing confusion that it is merely an extension of Wikipedia. [lower-alpha 8] In 2005, PC Magazine rated Wiktionary as one of the Internet's "Top 101 Web Sites", [19] although little information was given about the site.

The measure of correctness of the inflections for a subset of the Polish words in the English Wiktionary showed that this grammatical data is very stable. Only 131 out of 4,748 Polish words have had their inflection data corrected. [20]

Wiktionary data in natural language processing

Wiktionary has semi-structured data. [21] Wiktionary lexicographic data can be converted to machine-readable format in order to be used in natural language processing tasks. [22] [23] [24]

Wiktionary data mining is a complex task. There are the following difficulties: [25]

There are several parsers for different Wiktionary language editions: [26]

Examples of natural language processing tasks which have been solved with the help of Wiktionary data include:

See also

Notes

  1. Wiktionary's current URL is www.wiktionary.org.
  2. Wiktionary total article counts are here. Detailed statistics by word type are available here .
  3. The user list at the English Wiktionary identifies accounts that have been given "bot status".
  4. Hồ Ngọc Đức, Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project. Details at the Vietnamese Wiktionary.
  5. 1 2 "Wiktionary/logo", Meta-Wiki, Wikimedia Foundation.
  6. [Translators-l] 56 Wiktionaries got a localised logo
  7. The full article is not available on-line. [17]
  8. In this citation, the author refers to Wiktionary as part of the Wikipedia site: Adapted from an article by Naomi DeTullio (2006). "Wikis for Librarians" (PDF). NETLS News #142. Northeast Texas Library System. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF newsletter) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
  9. E.g. compare the entry structure and formatting rules in English Wiktionary and Russian Wiktionary.
  10. Quotations are extracted only from Russian Wiktionary. [35]
  11. If there are several IPA notations on a Wiktionary page – either for different languages or for pronunciation variants, then the first pronunciation was extracted. [41]
  12. The source code and the results of POS-tagging are available at https://code.google.com/p/wikily-supervised-pos-tagger

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Natural language processing Field of computer science and linguistics

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MediaWiki Wiki software

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Wikisource Wikimedia project, an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki

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Indonesian Wikipedia Indonesian version of Wikipedia

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Wikipedia Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit

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Rule-based machine translation is machine translation systems based on linguistic information about source and target languages basically retrieved from dictionaries and grammars covering the main semantic, morphological, and syntactic regularities of each language respectively. Having input sentences, an RBMT system generates them to output sentences on the basis of morphological, syntactic, and semantic analysis of both the source and the target languages involved in a concrete translation task.

Wikidata Free knowledge database project

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BabelNet multilingual semantic network and encyclopedic dictionary

BabelNet is a multilingual lexicalized semantic network and ontology developed at the NLP group of the Sapienza University of Rome. BabelNet was automatically created by linking Wikipedia to the most popular computational lexicon of the English language, WordNet. The integration is done using an automatic mapping and by filling in lexical gaps in resource-poor languages by using statistical machine translation. The result is an encyclopedic dictionary that provides concepts and named entities lexicalized in many languages and connected with large amounts of semantic relations. Additional lexicalizations and definitions are added by linking to free-license wordnets, OmegaWiki, the English Wiktionary, Wikidata, FrameNet, VerbNet and others. Similarly to WordNet, BabelNet groups words in different languages into sets of synonyms, called Babel synsets. For each Babel synset, BabelNet provides short definitions in many languages harvested from both WordNet and Wikipedia.

Translatewiki.net is a web-based translation platform powered by the Translate extension for MediaWiki. It can be used to translate various kinds of texts but is commonly used for creating localisations for software interfaces.

Volapük Wikipedia Volapük-language edition of Wikipedia

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UBY is a large-scale lexical-semantic resource for natural language processing (NLP) developed at the Ubiquitous Knowledge Processing Lab (UKP) in the department of Computer Science of the Technische Universität Darmstadt . UBY is based on the ISO standard Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) and combines information from several expert-constructed and collaboratively constructed resources for English and German.

References

Specific
  1. 1 2 Wikimedia's MediaWiki API:Sitematrix. Retrieved September2020 from Data:Wikipedia statistics/meta.tab
  2. "alexa.com Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  3. "Wikipedia mailing list archive discussion announcing the opening of the Wiktionary project" . Retrieved May 3, 2011.
  4. Wikipedia mailing list archive discussion from Larry Sanger giving the idea on Wiktionary – Retrieved May 3, 2011
  5. https://www.wiktionary.org/
  6. TheDaveBot Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , TheCheatBot Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , Websterbot Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , PastBot Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , NanshuBot Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  7. Detailed statistics as of July 1, 2013
  8. LXbot Archived May 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  9. Wiktionary statistics
  10. "Wiktionary talk:Wiktionary Logo", English Wiktionary, Wikimedia Foundation.
  11. "Wiktionary/logo/refresh/voting", Meta-Wiki, Wikimedia Foundation.
  12. phab:T139255
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