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Catholic canon law
A mission sui iuris , or in Latin missio sui iuris (plural missions sui iuris); also spelled mission(s) sui juris), also known as an independent mission, is a rare type of Roman Catholic missionary pseudo-diocesan jurisdiction, ranking below an apostolic prefecture and an apostolic vicariate, in an area with very few Catholics, often desolate or remote.
Sui iuris, also spelled as sui juris, is a Latin phrase that literally means "of one's own right". It is used in both civil law and canon law by the Catholic Church. The term church sui iuris is used in the Catholic Code of Canons of the Oriental Churches (CCEO) to denote the autonomous churches in Catholic communion:
A church sui iuris is "a community of the Christian faithful, which is joined together by a hierarchy according to the norm of law and which is expressly or tacitly recognized as sui iuris by the supreme authority of the Church" (CCEO.27). The term sui iuris is an innovation of the CCEO, and it denotes the relative autonomy of the oriental Catholic Churches. This canonical term, pregnant with many juridical nuances, indicates the God-given mission of the Oriental Catholic Churches to keep up their patrimonial autonomous nature. And the autonomy of these churches is relative in the sense that it is under the supreme authority of the Roman Pontiff.
Roman Catholic is a term sometimes used to differentiate members of the Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope in Rome from other Christians, especially those who also self-identify as "Catholic"; mainly Anglo-Catholics and Independent Catholics. It is also sometimes used to differentiate adherents to the Latin Church and/or the Roman rite from other Catholics, i.e. adherents of the Eastern Catholic Churches. As a term for the whole church it is not an official title used by the Holy See or bishops in full communion with the Pope as a designation for their faith or institution. It is instead a term that became common among non-Catholics, especially in English, which is now occasionally used by Roman Catholic officials.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
The clerical head is styled Ecclesiastical Superior; he can be a regular cleric, titular or diocesan bishop, archbishop or even a cardinal, but if of episcopal rank often resides elsewhere (notably, in another diocese or the Vatican) in chief of his primary office there.
It can either be exempt (i.e. directly subject to the Holy See, like Apostolic prefectures and Apostolic Vicariates), or suffragan of a Metropolitan Archbishop, hence part of his ecclesiastical province.
An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. In general, an ecclesiastical province consists of several dioceses, one of them being the archdiocese, headed by metropolitan bishop or archbishop who has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over all other bishops of the province.
As of March 2017, the only remaining cases — all of the Latin Church — were:
The Latin Church is the largest particular church of the Catholic Church, employing the Latin liturgical rites. It is one of 24 sui iuris churches, the 23 other forming the Eastern Catholic Churches. It is headed by the Bishop of Rome - the pope, traditionally called the Patriarch of the West - with headquarters in the Vatican City, enclaved within Rome, Italy. The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity, according to Catholic tradition, through its direct leadership under the Holy See.
In Asia :
In the Atlantic Ocean :
The Apostolic Prefecture of Falkland Islands is a Roman Catholic apostolic prefecture located in the Falkland Islands and covering the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, UK Southern Atlantic Ocean overseas possessions, off Argentina and Antarctica.
In the Caribbean :
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Detroit is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church covering the Michigan counties of Lapeer, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne. It is the metropolitan archdiocese for the Roman Catholic Ecclesiastical Province of Detroit, which includes all dioceses in the state of Michigan. In addition, in 2000 the archdiocese accepted pastoral responsibility for the Roman Catholic Church in the Cayman Islands, which consists of Saint Ignatius Parish on Grand Cayman.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nassau is an archdiocese of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church in the Caribbean. The archdiocese encompasses the islands of the former British dependency of the Bahamas. The archbishop is the metropolitan responsible for the suffragan diocese of Hamilton in Bermuda and the Mission sui iuris of Turks and Caicos, and is a member of the Antilles Episcopal Conference.
The Archdiocese of Newark is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in northeastern New Jersey, United States. Its ecclesiastic territory includes all of the Catholic parishes and schools in the New Jersey counties of Bergen, Union, Hudson and Essex.
In Oceania :
Those for which no province is named are exempt, i.e. directly under the Holy See.
by continent and (present/colonial) country
An apostolic vicariate is a territorial jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church under a titular bishop centered in missionary regions and countries where dioceses or parishes have not yet been established. It is essentially provisional, though it may last for a century or more. The hope is that the region will generate sufficient numbers of Catholics for the Church to create a diocese. In turn, the status of apostolic vicariate is often a promotion for a former apostolic prefecture, while either may have started out as a mission sui iuris.
An Apostolic administration in the Catholic Church is administrated by a prelate appointed by the Pope to serve as the ordinary for a specific area. The area is not yet a diocese or for a diocese, eparchy or similar permanent ordinariate that either has no bishop or, in very rare cases, has an incapacitated bishop.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Caroline Islands is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in the Federated States of Micronesia and in the Republic of Palau. It is a suffragan diocese of the Ecclesiastical Province of Agaña. The Diocese of Caroline Islands is led by a bishop who pastors the mother church, the Cathedral of the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
The Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of the Marshall Islands is a Latin rite apostolic prefecture, in the South Sea Republic of the Marshall Islands.
An apostolic prefect or prefect apostolic is a priest who heads what is known as an apostolic prefecture, a 'pre-diocesan' missionary jurisdiction where the Catholic Church is not yet sufficiently developed to have it made a diocese. Although it usually has an (embryonal) see, it is often not called after such city but rather after a natural or administrative geographical area.
The Diocese of Lund is a former Latin Catholic (arch)bishopric with see in Lund, southern Scandinavia. At the time of the Danish Reformation, it became a diocese in the Lutheran Church of Denmark, and since the signing of the treaty of Roskilde in 1658 it has been the southernmost diocese in the Lutheran Church of Sweden.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Samoa–Apia consists of the Independent State of Samoa.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kananga is the Metropolitan See for the Ecclesiastical province of Kananga in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Archdiocese of Kinshasa is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its ecclesiastic territory includes the capital city of Kinshasa and surrounding districts. The archdiocese is the metropolitan see for the Ecclesiastical Province of Kinshasa. The current archbishop is Fridolin Ambongo Besungu.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mbandaka-Bikoro is the Metropolitan See for the Latin Rite Ecclesiastical province of Mbandaka-Bikoro, in the western part of Democratic Republic of the Congo, yet depends on the missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bulawayo is the Metropolitan See for the Ecclesiastical province of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Antofagasta is a Latin rite Metropolitan archdiocese in northern Chile's Antofagasta Province.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lanzhou is a Latin Metropolitan Archdiocese of the Catholic church with an Ecclesiastical province in central PR China, yet depends on the missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.
The Apostolic Prefecture of Ulaanbaatar is a Roman Catholic Latin apostolic prefecture located in (Outer) Mongolia, with its territory consisting of the entire country.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bikoro was a Latin Church diocese in Congo (Zaire) from 1931 to 1975, named after its then headquarters/ episcopal see Bikoro, run by the Vincentians.
The Mission sui iuris of Kalumburu was a rather short-lived (1910–1980) Roman Catholic missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction in Australia.
The Apostolic Prefecture of Xinjiang-Urumqi is a pre-diocesan missionary Latin jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in northhwestern China's vast region Xinjiang, which is exempt, i.e. directly dependent on the Holy See and its missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, not part of any ecclesiastical province.