Deacon

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Saint Stephen, one of the first seven deacons in the Christian Church, holding a Gospel Book in a 1601 painting by Giacomo Cavedone. StStephen GiacomoCavedone.jpg
Saint Stephen, one of the first seven deacons in the Christian Church, holding a Gospel Book in a 1601 painting by Giacomo Cavedone.

A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican church, view the diaconate as part of the clerical state.

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and the savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, called the Old Testament in Christianity, and chronicled in the New Testament. It is the world's largest religion with about 2.4 billion followers.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.

Eastern Orthodox Church Christian Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 260 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods. Roughly half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.

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The title is also used for the president, chairperson, or head of a trades guild in Scotland; and likewise to two officers of a Masonic lodge.

Guild association of artisans or merchants

A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as a confraternities of tradesmen, normally operating in a single city and covering a single trade. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. They sometimes depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other ruler to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials, but were generally regulated by the city government. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating on the public would be fined or banned from the guild.

Scotland Country in Northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain, with a border with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. It is also commonly used as a term for a building in which such a unit meets. Every new lodge must be warranted or chartered by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published constitution of the jurisdiction. By exception the three surviving lodges that formed the world's first known grand lodge in London have the unique privilege to operate as time immemorial, i.e., without such warrant; only one other lodge operates without a warrant – the Grand Stewards' Lodge in London, although it is not also entitled to the "time immemorial" title. A Freemason is generally entitled to visit any lodge in any jurisdiction in amity with his own. In some jurisdictions this privilege is restricted to Master Masons. He is first usually required to check, and certify, the regularity of the relationship of the Lodge – and be able to satisfy that Lodge of his regularity of membership. Freemasons gather together as a Lodge to work the three basic Degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason.

Origin and development

The word deacon is derived from the Greek word diákonos (διάκονος), [1] which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning "servant", "waiting-man", "minister", or "messenger". [2]

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.

It is generally assumed that the office of deacon originated in the selection of seven men by the apostles, among them Stephen, to assist with the charitable work of the early church as recorded in Acts 6. [3] [4]

Saint Stephen 1st-century early Christian martyr and saint

Stephen, traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity, was according to the Acts of the Apostles a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who aroused the enmity of members of various synagogues by his teachings. Accused of blasphemy at his trial, he made a long speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him and was then stoned to death. His martyrdom was witnessed by Saul of Tarsus, a Pharisee who would later become a follower of Jesus and known as Paul the Apostle.

The title deaconess (διακόνισσα diakónissa) is not found in the Bible. However, one woman, Phoebe, is mentioned at Romans 16:1–2 as a deacon (διάκονος diákonos) of the church in Cenchreae. Nothing more specific is said about her duties or authority, although it is assumed she carried Paul's Letter to the Romans. The exact relationship between male and female deacons varies. In some traditions, the title "deaconess" was also sometimes given to the wife of a deacon.

Female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to the emperor Trajan dated c. 112.

Deaconess female non-ordained member of ministry

The ministry of a deaconess is, in modern times, a non-ordained ministry for women in some Protestant churches to provide pastoral care, especially for other women. The term is also applied to some women deacons in the early church. The word comes from a Greek word, diakonos (διάκονος), for "deacon", which means a servant or helper and occurs frequently in the Christian New Testament of the Bible. Deaconesses trace their roots from the time of Jesus Christ through to the 13th century in the West. They existed from the early through the middle Byzantine periods in Constantinople and Jerusalem; the office may also have existed in Western European churches. There is evidence to support the idea that the diaconate including women in the Byzantine Church of the early and middle Byzantine periods was recognized as one of the major orders of clergy.

Pliny the Younger Roman writer

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo, better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him.

Trajan Roman emperor from 98 to 117

Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.

“I believed it was necessary to find out from two female slaves (ex duabus ancillis) who were called deacons (ministrae), what was true—and to find out through torture (per tormenta)” [5]

This is the earliest Latin text that appears to refer to female deacons as a distinct category of Christian minister. [5]

A biblical description of the qualities required of a deacon, and of his household, can be found in 1 Timothy 3:1–13.

Among the more prominent deacons in history are Stephen, the first Christian martyr (the "protomartyr"); Philip, whose baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch is recounted in Acts 8:26–40; St. Phoebe, who is mentioned in the letter to the Romans; Saint Lawrence, an early Roman martyr; Saint Vincent of Saragossa, protomartyr of Spain; Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Franciscans; Saint Ephrem the Syrian; and Saint Romanos the Melodist, a prominent early hymnographer. Prominent historical figures who played major roles as deacons and went on to higher office include Athanasius of Alexandria, Thomas Becket, and Reginald Pole. On June 8, 536, a serving Roman deacon was raised to Pope, Silverius.

The diaconate has been retained as a separate vocation in Eastern Christianity, while in Western Christianity it was largely used in cathedrals and as a temporary step along the path toward priestly ordination. In the 20th century, the diaconate was restored as a vocational order in many Western churches, most notably in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and the United Methodist Church.

Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Anglicanism

In the Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches, the diaconate is one of the major orders — the others being bishop, presbyter (priest), and, historically, subdeacon. Deacons assist priests in their pastoral and administrative duties, but often report directly to the bishops of their diocese. They have a distinctive role in the liturgy of the Eastern and Western Churches.

Western Catholicism

In Poland, a Catholic deacon chants the Exsultet at the Easter Vigil. DeaconsingingExsultet2007.jpg
In Poland, a Catholic deacon chants the Exsultet at the Easter Vigil.

Beginning around the fifth century, there was a gradual decline in the diaconate as a permanent state of life in the Latin Church. [6] The development of a cursus honorum (sequence of offices) found men entering the clerical state through tonsure, then ordination to the minor orders of lector, porter, exorcist, acolyte before ordination to the major orders of sub-deacon and deacon, all stages on the path to priesthood. Only men destined for priesthood were permitted to be ordained deacons. As seminaries developed, following the Council of Trent, to contemporary times, the only men ordained as deacons were seminarians who were completing the last year or so of graduate theological training, so-called "transitional deacons."

Following the recommendations of the Second Vatican Council ( Lumen gentium 29), in 1967 Pope Paul VI issued the motu proprio Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, reviving the practice of ordaining to the diaconate men who were not candidates for priestly ordination. These men are known incorrectly as permanent deacons, in contrast to those continuing their formation, who were then called transitional deacons. There is no sacramental or canonical difference between the two, however, as there is only one order of deacons. [7]

Ornately embroidered dalmatic, the proper vestment of the deacon (shown from the back with an appareled amice) Dalmatiek.jpg
Ornately embroidered dalmatic, the proper vestment of the deacon (shown from the back with an appareled amice)

The period of formation to the permanent diaconate varies from diocese to diocese as determined by the local ordinary, but it usually entails a period of prayerful preparation and several years of study. Diaconal candidates receive instruction in philosophy, theology, study of the Bible, homiletics, sacramental studies, evangelization, ecclesiology, counseling, and pastoral care and ministry before ordination.

They may be assigned to work in a parish by the diocesan bishop, where they are under the supervision of the parish pastors, or in diocesan ministries. [8] Unlike most clerics, permanent deacons who also have a secular profession have no right to receive a salary for their ministry, [9] but many dioceses opt to remunerate them anyway. [10]

During the Mass, the deacon's responsibilities include assisting the priest, proclaiming the Gospel, announcing the General Intercessions, and distributing Communion. They may also preach the homily. [11] As clerics, deacons are required to pray the Liturgy of the Hours. Deacons, like priests and bishops, are ordinary ministers of the sacrament of Baptism and may witness at the sacrament of Holy Matrimony outside of Mass. Deacons may lead funeral rites outside Mass such as the final commendation at the gravesite or the reception of the body at a service in the funeral home, and may assist the priest at the Requiem Mass. They can also preside over various services such as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and they may give certain blessings. While in ancient history their tasks and competencies varied, today deacons cannot hear confession and give absolution, anoint the sick, or celebrate Mass.

Catholic deacon wearing a dalmatic Dalmatic.jpg
Catholic deacon wearing a dalmatic

The vestments most particularly associated with the Western Rite Catholic deacon are the alb, stole and dalmatic. Deacons, like priests and bishops, must wear their albs and stoles; deacons place the stole over their left shoulder and it hangs across to their right side, while priests and bishops wear it around their necks. The dalmatic, a vestment especially associated with the deacon, is worn during the celebration of the Mass and other liturgical functions; its use is more liberally applied than the corresponding vestment of the priest, the chasuble. At certain major celebrations, such as ordinations, the diocesan bishop wears a dalmatic under his chasuble, to signify that he enjoys the fullness of the three degrees of Holy Orders – deacon, priest, and bishop.

The diaconate is conferred on seminarians continuing to the priesthood no sooner than 23 years of age (canon 1031 of the Code of Canon Law). As a permanent state. the diaconate can be conferred on single men 25 or older, and on married men 35 or older, but an older age can be required by the episcopal conference. [12] If a married deacon is widowed, he must maintain the celibate state. Under some very rare circumstances, however, deacons who have been widowed can receive permission to remarry. This is most commonly done when the deacon is left as a single father. In some cases, a widowed deacon will seek priestly ordination, especially if his children are grown. [13]

A deacon is not styled "Father" as a priest would be, but as "Deacon", [14] abbreviated variously as "Dn." or "Dcn." This preferred method of address is stated in the 2005 document of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, National Directory for the Formation, Ministry and Life of Permanent Deacons in the United States. The proper address in written correspondence for all Deacons of the Latin (Roman Rite) Catholic Church in the United States is "Deacon Name", [15] although it is not uncommon to see "Rev. Mr." sometimes used. "Rev. Mr.", however, is more often used to indicate a transitional deacon (i.e., preparing for ordination to the priesthood) or one who belongs to a religious institute, while Rev. Deacon is used as the honorific for permanent deacons in many dioceses (e.g. Rev. Deacon John Smith, or Deacon John Smith). The decision as to whether deacons wear the Roman collar as street attire is left to the discretion of each bishop for his own diocese. Where clerical garb is approved by the bishop, the deacon can choose to wear or not wear the "collar".[ citation needed ]

Deacons, like seminarians, religious, and the two other orders, bishops and priests, pray the Liturgy of the Hours; however, deacons are usually only required to pray Morning and Evening Prayer.[ citation needed ]

Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism

Greek Orthodox deacon in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, wearing an orarion over his sticharion. On his head he wears the clerical kamilavka. Orthodox Deacon.jpg
Greek Orthodox deacon in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, wearing an orarion over his sticharion. On his head he wears the clerical kamilavka.

In addition to proclaiming the Gospel and assisting in the distribution of Holy Communion, the deacon censes the icons and people, calls the people to prayer, leads the litanies, and has a role in the dialogue of the Anaphora. In keeping with Eastern tradition, he is not permitted to perform any Sacred Mysteries (sacraments) on his own, except for Baptism in extremis (in danger of death), conditions under which anyone, including the laity, may baptize. When assisting at a normal baptism, it is often the deacon who goes down into the water with the one being baptized (Acts 8:38). In contrast to the Roman Catholic Church, deacons in the Eastern Churches may not preside at the celebration of marriages, as in Eastern theology the sacrament is conferred by the nuptial blessing of a priest.

Diaconal vestments are the sticharion (dalmatic), the orarion (deacon's stole), and the epimanikia (cuffs). The last are worn under his sticharion, not over it as does a priest or bishop. The deacon usually wears a simple orarion which is only draped over the left shoulder but, if elevated to the rank of archdeacon, he wears the "doubled-orarion", meaning it is passed over the left shoulder, under the right arm, and then crossed over the left shoulder (see photograph, right). In modern Greek practice, a deacon wears this doubled orarion from the time of his ordination. Also, in the Greek practice, he wears the clerical kamilavka (cylindrical head covering) with a rim at the top. In Slavic practice, a hierodeacon (monastic deacon) wears the simple black kamilavka of a monk (without the rim), but he removes the monastic veil (see klobuk) when he is vested; a married deacon would not wear a kamilavka unless it is given to him by the bishop as an ecclesiastical award; the honorary kamilavka is purple in colour, and may be awarded to either married or monastic clergy.

As far as street clothing is concerned, immediately following his ordination the deacon receives a blessing to wear the Exorasson (Arabic: Jib'be, Slavonic: Riassa), an outer cassock with wide sleeves, in addition to the Anterion (Slavonic: Podraznik), the inner cassock worn by all orders of clergy. In the Slavic practice, married clergy may wear any of a number of colours, but most often grey, while monastic clergy always wear black. In certain jurisdictions in North America and Western Europe, a Roman collar is often worn, although this is not a traditional or widespread practice.

A protodeacon (Greek: πρωτοδιάκονος: protodiakonos, "first deacon") is a distinction of honor awarded to senior deacons, usually serving on the staff of the diocesan bishop. An archdeacon is similar, but is among the monastic clergy. Protodeacons and archdeacons use a double-length orarion even if it is not the local tradition for all deacons to use it. In the Slavic tradition a deacon may be awarded the doubled-orarion even if he is not a protodeacon or archdeacon.

Painting of a Russian Orthodox deacon leading an ektenia (litany) Diakon.jpg
Painting of a Russian Orthodox deacon leading an ektenia (litany)

According to the practice of the Greek Orthodox Church of America, in keeping with the tradition of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the most common way to address a deacon is "Father". [16] Depending on local tradition, deacons are addressed as either "Father", "Father Deacon", "Deacon Father", or, if addressed by a bishop, simply as "Deacon".

The tradition of kissing the hands of ordained clergy extends to the diaconate as well. This practice is rooted in the Holy Eucharist and is in acknowledgement and respect of the eucharistic role members of the clergy play in preparing, handling and disbursing the sacrament during the Divine Liturgy, and in building and serving the church as the Body of Christ.

Anciently, the Eastern churches ordained women as deaconesses. This practice fell into desuetude in the second millennium, but has been revived in some Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches. Saint Nectarios of Aegina ordained a number of nuns as deaconesses in convents. Deaconesses would assist in anointing and baptising women, and in ministering to the spiritual needs of the women of the community. As churches discontinued ordaining women as deacons, these duties largely fell to the nuns and to the priests' wives.

Anglicanism

An Anglican priest vested as a deacon with an alb and a purple stole over his left shoulder Stoledeacon.jpg
An Anglican priest vested as a deacon with an alb and a purple stole over his left shoulder

In Anglican churches, deacons are permitted to marry freely before or after ordination, as are Anglican priests. Most deacons are "transitional", that is, preparing for the priesthood and they are usually ordained priests about a year after their diaconal ordination. However, there are some deacons who do not go on to receive priestly ordination, so-called "permanent deacons" or “vocational deacons”. Many provinces of the Anglican Communion ordain both women and men as deacons. Many of those provinces that ordain women to the priesthood previously allowed them to be ordained only to the diaconate. The effect of this was the creation of a large and overwhelmingly female diaconate for a time, as most men proceeded to be ordained priests after a short time as a deacon.

Certificate of ordination as a deacon in the Church of England given by Richard Terrick, the Bishop of London, to Gideon Bostwick. February 24, 1770 Church of England Ordination 1790.jpg
Certificate of ordination as a deacon in the Church of England given by Richard Terrick, the Bishop of London, to Gideon Bostwick. February 24, 1770

Anglican deacons may baptize and in some dioceses are granted licences to solemnize matrimony, usually under the instruction of their parish priest and bishop. Deacons are not able to preside at the Eucharist (but can lead worship with the distribution of already-consecrated communion elements where this is permitted), nor can they pronounce God's absolution of sin or pronounce the Trinitarian blessing. [17] In most cases, deacons minister alongside other clergy.

An Anglican deacon wears an identical choir dress to an Anglican priest: cassock, surplice, tippet and academic hood. However, liturgically, deacons usually wear a stole over their left shoulder and fastened on the right side of their waist. This is worn both over the surplice and the alb. A deacon might also wear a dalmatic.


Reformed churches

Church of Scotland

There are two distinct offices of deacon in the Church of Scotland. The best-known form of diaconate are trained and paid pastoral workers. The permanent diaconate was formerly exclusively female, and it was in 1988, the centenary year of the diaconate, that men were admitted to the office of deacon. The offices of deacon and minister are now both open to both women and men; deacons are now ordained (they were previously "commissioned").

The other office of deacon can be found in congregations formerly belonging to the pre-1900 Free Church of Scotland, with a "Deacons' Court" having responsibility for financial and administrative oversight of congregations. Only a few congregations still retain this constitutional model, with most having since adopted the Church of Scotland's "Model Constitution" (with a Kirk Session and Congregational Board) or "Unitary Congregation" (with just a Kirk Session). Most of the Free Church congregations united with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900 creating the United Free Church of Scotland, which itself united with the Church of Scotland in 1929.

The congregations of the post-1900 Free Church of Scotland which did not join the UF Church in 1900 continue to have Deacons.

Presbyterian churches

One of John Calvin's legacies was to restore the diaconate as a servant ministry. [18] Individual congregations of the various Presbyterian denominations, such as the Presbyterian Church (USA), Presbyterian Church in America and Orthodox Presbyterian Church, also elect deacons, along with elders. However, in some churches the property-functions of the diaconate and session of elders is commended to an independent board of trustees. [19]

Dutch Reformed churches

In many Dutch Reformed churches deacons are charged with ministries of mercy. As such, the deacons are also members of the local church council. A special feature of the Dutch Reformed churches is the fact that the diaconate of each local church is its own legal entity with its own financial means, separated from the church itself, and governed by the deacons.

Methodist churches

In Methodism, deacons began as a transitional order before ordination as elders (presbyters). In 1996, the United Methodist Church ended the transitional deacon and established a new Order of Deacons to be equal in status with the Order of Elders. Both men and women may be ordained as deacons. Deacons serve in a variety of specialized ministries including, but not limited to, Christian education, music, communications and ministries of justice and advocacy. Unlike United Methodist elders, deacons must find their own place of service. Nevertheless, the bishop does officially approve and appoint deacons to their selected ministry. [20] Deacons may assist the elder in the administration of Sacraments, but must receive special approval from a bishop before presiding over Baptism and Holy Communion. [21] United Methodist deacons are present in North America, Europe and Africa.

The Methodist Church of Great Britain also has a permanent diaconate—based on an understanding of the New Testament that deacons have an equal, but distinct ministry from presbyters. Deacons are called to a ministry of service and witness, and "to hold before them the needs and concerns of the world". [22] The original Wesleyan Deaconess Order was founded by Thomas Bowman Stephenson in 1890, following observation of new ministries in urban areas in the previous years. [23] The order continued as the Wesley Deaconess Order following Methodist Union in 1932, but, following the admission of women to "The Ministry" (as presbyteral ministry is commonly termed in the Methodist Church), a number of deaconesses transferred and recruitment for the WDO ceased from 1978. The 1986 Methodist Conference re-opened the order to both men and women and the first ordinations to the renewed order occurred during the 1990 Conference in Cardiff, which coincided with celebrations of 100 years of diaconal service in British Methodism; deaconesses had previously been ordained at their annual convocation. [23]

The Methodist Church of Southern Africa ordains deacons who constitute a diaconal order, similar to that in the British church. [24]

Other traditions

Deacons are also appointed or elected in other Protestant denominations, though this is less commonly seen as a step towards the clerical ministry. The role of deacon in these denominations varies greatly from denomination to denomination; often, there will be more emphasis on administrative duties than on pastoral or liturgical duties. In some denominations, deacons' duties are only financial management and practical aid and relief. Elders handle pastoral and other administrative duties.

Iglesia ni Cristo

Iglesia ni Cristo's deacons serve as worship service's strict etiquette checkers in male's seatings, deaconesses are their female counterparts. They also serve as offering collectors and other Church duties during worship services. Deacons are required to be married people of strong faith and good example. There is also a head deacon, who leads the congregation in prayer before the sermon and the prayer for voluntary offerings. They were also can be promoted to Bishops, if they are faithful to the rules.

Amish

The Amish have deacons, but they are elected by a council and receive no formal training.

Church of the Brethren

The Church of the Brethren also have deacons, as do other Brethren denominations. They are elected by the congregation to serve in ministries of compassion. They are elected for life in some congregations.

Baptists

Baptists traditionally recognize two ordained positions in the church: Elders (Pastors) and Deacons, as per 1 Timothy 3. Some Baptist churches in the Reformed tradition recognize elder and pastor as separate offices.

Baptists have traditionally followed the principle of the autonomy of the local church congregation, giving each church the ability to discern for themselves the interpretation of scripture. Thus, the views among Baptist churches as to who becomes a deacon and when, as well as what they do and how they go about doing it, vary greatly: some Baptist churches have the deacons decide many of the church affairs, while others have deacons in serving roles only.

The predominant view among Baptist churches (especially theologically conservative ones, including the majority of Southern Baptist and Independent Baptist churches) is that a deacon must be a male, and married (or a widower) and not divorced previously. If a deacon subsequently divorces, he must relinquish his office (but if his wife dies he may continue to serve). However, there are Baptist churches where women are allowed to be deacons or deaconesses (primarily in the United Kingdom and in the United States among African-American and theologically moderate churches). In the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches, deacons can be any adult male member of the congregation who is in good standing.

In some African American Missionary Baptist churches and in churches affiliated with the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. male and female deacons serve as one board. Other churches may have two separate boards of deacons and deaconesses. Most often the deacon or deacon candidate is a long-standing member of the church, being middle aged, but younger deacons may be selected from among members of a family that has had several generations in the same church. They are elected by quorum vote annually. Their roles are semi-pastoral in that they fill in for the pastor on occasion, or support the pastor vocally during his sermon. They may also lead a special prayer service, generally known as "The Deacon's Prayer." Their other roles are to accompany the pastor during Communion by handing out the remembrances of bread and wine (or grape juice) and to set a good example for others to follow. Their administrative duties sometimes include oversight of the treasury, Sunday school curriculum, transportation, and various outreach ministries.

See Baptist Distinctives for a more detailed treatment of Deacons in churches in other Associations, particularly the UK.

Uniting Church in Australia

In the Uniting Church in Australia, the diaconate is one of two offices of ordained ministry. The other is Minister of the Word.

Deacons in the Uniting Church are called to minister to those on the fringes of the church and be involved in ministry in the community. Deacons offer leadership in a ministry of service to the world. The primary focus of the ministry of Deacon is on care and compassion for the poor and oppressed and in seeking social justice for all people. They take both an active role in leadership in such actions themselves, but are also play a key role in encouraging other Uniting Church members in similar action.

Some examples of service that Deacons may take include: prison chaplaincy, acting as youth or community workers, in community service agencies, in schools and hospitals, or in mission placements in Australia or overseas. Although the primary responsibility for worship in congregations lies with the Ministers of the Word, Deacons have a liturgical role appropriate to their distinctive ministry, including ministries where their main leadership is within a congregation.

In the Uniting Church both ministers of the word and deacons are styled The Reverend.

The Uniting Church has recognised deacons since union, but it was not until the 6th Assembly in 1991 that the Uniting Church began ordaining deacons. This was partly because the historical, theological and sociological roles of deaconesses and deacons was being widely discussed in Churches throughout the world at the time that the Basis of Union was being drafted [25]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The office of Deacon is generally open to all 12- and 13-year-old male members of the church; all are encouraged to become Deacons. Duties include:

  1. Gather fast offerings.
  2. Pass the sacrament.
  3. Serve as the bishop's messenger.
  4. Care for the grounds and physical facilities of the church.
  5. Assist in service projects or welfare assignments as assigned by the bishop.
  6. Watch over the Church and act as standing ministers (see D&C 84:111).
  7. Be involved in missionary and reactivation efforts (see D&C 20:58–59).
  8. Assist teachers in all their duties as needed (see D&C 20:53, 57).

Church of Christ

In accordance with Church of Christ doctrine and practice, only males may serve as deacons (deaconesses are not recognized), and must meet Biblical qualifications (generally I Timothy 3:8-13 is the Biblical text used to determine if a male is qualified to serve as deacon). A deacon may also be qualified to serve as an elder (and, in fact, may move into that role after a period of time if his service as deacon is considered acceptable).

The role of the deacon varies, depending on the local congregation. Generally a deacon will have responsibility for a specific non-spiritual function (e.g. finance, building and grounds, benevolence); however, the deacons (like the rest of the congregation) are under the subjection of the elders, who have spiritual and administrative authority over the deacon's function.

In congregations which lack qualified elders (where, in their absence, the men of the congregation handle leadership duties), a deacon would have ruling authority, but not due to his position as a deacon.

New Apostolic Church

In the New Apostolic Church, the deacon ministry is a local ministry. A deacon mostly works in his home congregation to support the priests. If a priest is unavailable, a deacon will hold a divine service, without the act of communion (Only Priests and up can consecrate Holy Communion).

Jehovah's Witnesses

Deacons among Jehovah's Witnesses are referred to as ministerial servants, claiming it preferable to translate the descriptive Greek term used in the Bible rather than merely transliterate it as though it were a title. [26] Appointed ministerial servants aid elders in congregational duties. Like the elders, they are adult baptized males [27] and serve voluntarily. [28]

Deaconesses

The title "woman deacon" or "deaconess" appears in many documents from the early Church period, particularly in the East. Their duties were often different from that of male deacons; women deacons prepared adult women for baptism and they had a general apostolate to female Christians and catechumens (typically for the sake of modesty). [29] Women appear to have been ordained as deacons to serve the larger community until about the 6th century in the West. [30] Liturgies for the ordination of women deacons had similarities with as well as differences from those for male deacons. [31] Opinions on the sacramental nature of the ordination vary: some scholars argue that the ordination of women deacons would have been equally sacramental to that of male deacons, [32] while others say that women deacons of history were not sacramentally ordained in the full sense, as determined in the Catholic Church by Canons 1008 and 1009 of the Code of Canon Law. [33]

The Catholic Church presently does not recognise the validity of female ordinations, be it to the diaconate or any other clerical order. In August 2016, the Catholic Church established a Study Commission on the Women's Diaconate to study the history of female deacons and to study the possibility of ordaining women as deacons. [34] The Russian Orthodox Church had a female diaconate into the 20th century. The Holy Synod of the Orthodox Church of Greece restored a monastic female diaconate in 2004. [35]

Cognates

The Greek word diakonos (διάκονος) gave rise to the following terms from the history of Russia, not to be confused with each other: "dyak", "podyachy", "dyachok", in addition to "deacon" and "protodeacon".

Scots usage

In Scots, the title deacon is used for a head-workman, a master or chairman of a trade guild, or one who is adept, expert and proficient. The term deaconry refers to the office of a deacon or the trade guild under a deacon".

The most famous holder of this title was Deacon Brodie who was a cabinet-maker and president of the Incorporation of Wrights and Masons as well as being a Burgh councillor of Edinburgh, but at night led a double life as a burglar. He is thought to have inspired the story of The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde .

See also

Footnotes

  1. "deacon". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Bartleby. 2000. Archived from the original on 2009-01-25. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
  2. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1889). An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN   0-19-910206-6 . Retrieved 2007-10-18.
  3. PD-icon.svg Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Deacons". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
  4. Hopko, Thomas. "Holy Orders". Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
  5. 1 2 Madigan, Kevin (2011). Ordained Women in the Early Church. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 26. ISBN   0-8018-7932-9.
  6. "A Short History of the Permanent Diaconate". Archdiocese of Newark. Archived from the original on 2014-12-26. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
  7. Charles M. Wilson. "A few additional observations". Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
  8. "USCCB Diaconate FAQ – Section 5 "Is a Deacon ordained for the Parish or the Diocese?"". Archived from the original on 2008-02-24. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
  9. Canon 281 § 3.
  10. Details about the permanent diaconate in the United States are outlined in a 2005 document of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, National Directory for the Formation, Ministry and Life of Permanent Deacons in the United States. url=http://nccbuscc.org/deacon/DeaconDirectory.pdf%5B%5D
  11. "Divine Worship". www.usccb.org. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  12. "Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem (June 18, 1967) - Paul VI". www.vatican.va. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  13. (National Directory for the Formation, Ministry and Life of Permanent Deacons in the United States, 2005, p. 36)
  14. "Deacon Trinidad Soc", Church of Our Lady of Sorrows, bulletin, May 3, 2015, p. [1].
  15. The Official Catholic Directory 2013, A-30
  16. "Etiquette and Protocol". Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Archived from the original on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  17. "The Christian Faith: Ch 63- Ordination- (2) As a Sacrament". www.katapi.org.uk. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  18. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2013-10-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. "Book of Church Order (BCO) - Presbyterian Church in America: Administrative Committee". www.pcaac.org. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  20. "Deacons and Diaconal Ministers". General Board of Higher Education and Ministry – The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  21. The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, 2008, para. 328
  22. "Deacons and Presbyters". Methodist Diaconal Order. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27.
  23. 1 2 "History of the MDO". Methodist Diaconal Order. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  24. "The Order of Deacons". The Methodist Church of Southern Africa. Archived from the original on 2017-02-23.
  25. McCaughey, J.D. Commentary on the Basis of Union, Uniting Church Press: Melbourne, 1980.
  26. "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, June 15, 1962, pp. 383−84, "The religious words or titles 'bishop' and 'deacon' are simply words that have been more or less closely transliterated into the English language; that is, they are carried over much like the way they appear in the Greek instead of being translated. These two words are epískopos and diákonos. ...However, at an early time the apostate church made titles out of these designations and applied them to men who held positions...known as 'bishops' and 'deacons'. ...New World Translation as well as certain others, such as An American Translation, do not render epískopos and diákonos as titles but according to the meaning of the words, as 'overseers' or 'superintendents' and as 'assistants' or 'ministerial servants'." [emphasis retained from original]
  27. "Those 'Acquiring a Fine Standing'", Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1978, p. 1, "The Bible sets high standards for a ministerial servant. (1 Tim. 3:8–10, 12) Brothers recommended should clearly be meeting these. Becoming a ministerial servant is no routine thing; it is not as if almost every adult, baptized male should have the position as a sort of titleholder. Ministerial servants should be exemplary, spiritual men."
  28. "Congregations for Building Up in Love and Unity", Doing God's Will, 1986 Watch Tower, p. 12, "As in the first century, so today, qualified, mature, and experienced Christian men are designated as elders, or overseers [among Jehovah's Witnesses]. These supervise the congregation and look after its spiritual needs. They are assisted by other faithful men known as ministerial servants. These men receive no salary or other financial benefit but serve voluntarily, meeting their own expenses"
  29. John Wijngaards, The Tasks of Women Deacons url= "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2011-03-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) and Duane L.C.M. Galles, Women Deacons – Are they Possible? url= "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2008-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. Matthew Smythe, Deaconesses in Late Antique Gaul url= "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2011-03-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. Thurston, Herbert (1908). "Deaconesses". The Catholic Encyclopedia. IV. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  32. R. Gryson, The Ministry of Women in the Early Church (Collegeville 1976, p. 120); C.Vagaggini "L'Ordinazione delle diaconesse nella tradizione greca e bizantina", (Orientalia Christiana Periodica 40 (1974) 145–89; here p. 188); P. Hünermann, "Conclusions regarding the Female Diaconate" (Theological Studies 36 (1975) 325–33; here pp. 327–28); A Thiermeyer, "Der Diakonat der Frau" (Theologisch Quartalschrift 173 (1993) 226–36; here pp. 233–34); P. Hofrichter, "Diakonat und Frauen im kirchlichen Amt" (Heiliger Dienst 50 (1996) 140–58; esp. 152–54); A. Jensen, "Das Amt der Diakonin in der kirchlichen Tradition der ersten Jahrtausend" (Diakonat. Ein Amt für Frauen in der Kirche – Ein frauengerechtes Amt?, Ostfildern 1997, pp. 33–52; here p. 49); D. Ansorge, "Der Diakonat der Frau. Zum gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand" in T.Berger/A.Gerhards (ed.), Liturgie und Frauenfrage, St. Odilien 1990, 31–65; here pp. 46–47; Chr. Böttigheimer, "Der Diakonat der Frau" (Münchener Theologische Zeitschrift 47 (1996) 253–66; here pp. 261–62); K. Karidoyanes Fitzgerald (Women Deacons in the Orthodox Church, Brookline 1998, pp. 120–21); P. Zagano, Holy Saturday. An Argument for the Restoration of the Female Diaconate in the Catholic Church (New York 2000, pp. 98–102); D. Reininger, Diakonat der Frau in der einen Kirche (Ostfildern 1999, p. 126); G. Macy, W.T. Ditewig, P. Zagano Women Deacons: Past, Present, Future (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press 2010); and J. Wijngaards, Women Deacons in the Early Church. Historical Texts and Contemporary Debates (Herder & Herder, New York 2002).
  33. Aimé Georges Martimort, Deaconesses: An Historical Study (Ignatius Press, 1986, ISBN   0-89870-114-7)
  34. "Francis institutes commission to study female deacons, appointing gender-balanced membership". ncronline.org. 2 August 2016. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  35. url= "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2008-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Related Research Articles

A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

Holy orders sacraments of the Catholic Church

In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, and the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament. The Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination.

Clergy formal leaders within established religions

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman, clergywoman, and churchman. Less common terms are churchwoman and clergyperson, while cleric and clerk in holy orders both have a long history but are rarely used.

Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity.

Ordination religious process by which individuals are consecrated as clergy

Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorized to perform various religious rites and ceremonies. The process and ceremonies of ordination vary by religion and denomination. One who is in preparation for, or who is undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand. The liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordination.

Acolyte profession

An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone performing ceremonial duties such as lighting altar candles. In others, the term is used for one who has been inducted into a particular liturgical ministry, even when not performing those duties.

Ordination of women discussion of womens possibilities for priesthood

The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time. It remains a controversial issue in certain Christian denominations where "ordination" has for almost 2,000 years been limited only to men.

Stole (vestment) long narrow cloth band worn around the neck and falling from the shoulders as part of ecclesiastical dress

The stole is a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations. It consists of a band of colored cloth, formerly usually of silk, about seven and a half to nine feet long and three to four inches wide, whose ends may be straight or may broaden out. The center of the stole is worn around the back of the neck and the two ends hang down parallel to each other in front, either attached to each other or hanging loose. The stole is almost always decorated in some way, usually with a cross or some other significant religious design. It is often decorated with contrasting galloons and fringe is usually applied to the ends of the stole following Numbers 15:38-39. A piece of white linen or lace may be stitched onto the back of the collar as a sweat guard, which can be replaced more cheaply than the stole itself.

An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Catholic Church. An archdeacon is often responsible for administration within an archdeaconry, which is the principal subdivision of the diocese. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church has defined an archdeacon as "A cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese." The office has often been described metaphorically as that of oculus episcopi, the "bishop's eye".

Reader (liturgy) a person who can read aloud the bible during catholic liturgy

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Ordination of women in the Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland was one of the first national churches to accept the ordination of women. In Presbyterianism, ordination is understood to be an ordinance rather than a sacrament; ministers and elders are ordained; until recently deacons were "commissioned" but now they too are ordained to their office in the Church of Scotland.

Holy orders in the Catholic Church Sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church

The sacrament of holy orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon. In the phrase "holy orders", the word "holy" simply means "set apart for some purpose." The word "order" designates an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordination means legal incorporation into an order. In context, therefore, a group with a hierarchical structure that is set apart for ministry in the Church.

Anglican ministry

The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" commonly refers to the office of ordained clergy: the threefold order of bishops, priests and deacons. More accurately, Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, either individually or in lower/assisting offices such as lector, acolyte, sub-deacon, Eucharistic minister, cantor, musicians, parish secretary or assistant, warden, vestry member, etc. Ultimately, all baptized members of the church are considered to partake in the ministry of the Body of Christ. "...[I]t might be useful if Anglicans dropped the word minister when referring to the clergy...In our tradition, ordained persons are either bishops, priests, or deacons, and should be referred to as such."

Elder (Methodist)

An elder, in many Methodist Churches, is ordained minister that has the responsibilities to preach and teach, preside at the celebration of the sacraments, administer the Church through pastoral guidance, and lead the congregations under their care in service ministry to the world.

In Christianity, an elder is a person who is valued for wisdom and holds a position of responsibility and authority in a Christian group. In some Christian traditions an elder is an ordained person who usually serves a local church or churches and who has been ordained to a ministry of word, sacrament and order, filling the preaching and pastoral offices. In other Christian traditions, an elder may be a lay person charged with serving as an administrator in a local, or be ordained to such an office, also serving in the preaching or pastoral roles. There is technically a distinction between the idea of ordained elders and lay elders, often the two concepts are conflated in everyday conversation. Particularly in reference to age and experience, elders exist throughout world cultures, and the Christian sense of elder is partially related to this.

In the Methodist Church of Great Britain, deacons are members of a permanent order called the Methodist Diaconal Order (MDO). The MDO is therefore both a religious order and an Order of Ministry, or in other words, an order of Clerks Regular.

In the liturgical traditions the Catholic Church the term ordination refers to the means by which a person is included in one of the orders of bishops, priests or deacons. The teaching of the Catholic Church on ordination, as expressed in the Code of Canon Law, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, and the apostolic letter Ordinatio sacerdotalis, is that only a Catholic male validly receives ordination, and "that the Church has no authority whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women and that this judgment is to be definitively held by all the Church's faithful." As with priests and bishops, the church ordains only men as deacons. The church cannot ordain anyone who has undergone sex reassignment surgery, and may sanction or require therapy for priests who are transsexual, regarding these to be an indicator of mental instability.

Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies such as celebrating the sacraments. The process and ceremonies of ordination varies by denomination. One who is in preparation for, or who is undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand. The liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordinal.

The Study Commission on the Women's Diaconate was established in August 2016 by Pope Francis to review the theology and history of the office of deacon in the Roman Catholic Church and the question of whether women might be allowed to become deacons.

References

Church of Christ

Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

Lutheran Church