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Gospel [note 1] originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. [2] The four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John comprise the first four books of the New Testament of the Bible and were probably written between AD 66 and 110. [3] [4] [5] All four were anonymous (the modern names were added in the 2nd century), almost certainly none were by eyewitnesses, and all are the end-products of long oral and written transmission, [6] They are a subset of the genre of ancient biography but ancient biographies should not be confused with modern ones, [7] and often included propaganda and kerygma (preaching); [8] yet while there is no guarantee that the events which they describe are historically accurate, in the quest for the historical Jesus scholars believe that it is possible to differentiate Jesus' own views from those of his later followers. [9] [10] Scholars have a consensus on the general outline of Jesus' life found in the gospels. [note 2] and even certain other elements of the gospels that are not considered to be certain, are still considered "historically probable." [12] [13] [14] Many non-canonical gospels were also written, all later than the four, and like them advocating the particular theological views of their authors. [15] [16]


Canonical gospels

The Synoptic sources: the Gospel of Mark (the triple tradition), Q (the double tradition), and material unique to Matthew (the M source), Luke (the L source), and Mark Relationship between synoptic gospels-en.svg
The Synoptic sources: the Gospel of Mark (the triple tradition), Q (the double tradition), and material unique to Matthew (the M source), Luke (the L source), and Mark


The first page of the Gospel of Mark in Armenian, by Sargis Pitsak, 14th century. Sargis Pitsak.jpg
The first page of the Gospel of Mark in Armenian, by Sargis Pitsak, 14th century.

The four gospels share a story in which the earthly life of Jesus culminates in his death and resurrection, but differ in detail. [18] [19] John and the three synoptics in particular present significantly different pictures of Jesus's career. [20] John omits the baptism, the temptation, and the transfiguration, and lacks the Lord's Supper and stories of Jesus's ancestry, birth, and childhood. [20] The Synoptics give no indication that Jesus's career takes more than a single year while John clearly describes the passage of three, with the cleansing of the Temple at the beginning of his ministry while in the synoptics it happens at the end, and in the synoptics the Last Supper takes place as a Passover meal, while in John it happens on the day before Passover. [21]

Each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of Jesus and his divine role. [16] Mark never calls Jesus "God" or claims that Jesus existed prior to his earthly life, never mentions a virgin birth (the author apparently believes that Jesus had a normal human parentage and birth), and makes no attempt to trace Jesus's ancestry back to King David or Adam. [22] Crucially, Mark originally had no post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, [23] although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author may have known of the tradition. [24] Matthew reinterprets Mark, stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts and making subtle changes to the narrative in order to stress his divine nature – Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb, for example, becomes a radiant angel in Matthew. [25] [26] Similarly, the miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God (which was Mark's understanding of the Messiah), but in Matthew they demonstrate his divinity. [27] Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, and eliminated some passages entirely, notably most of chapters 6 and 7. [28] John, the most overtly theological, is the first to make Christological judgements outside the context of the narrative of Jesus's life. [16]

The synoptic gospels represent Jesus as an exorcist and healer who preached in parables about the coming Kingdom of God. He preached first in Galilee and later in Jerusalem, where he cleansed the temple. He states that he offers no sign as proof (Mark) or only the sign of Jonah (Matthew and Luke). [29] In Mark, apparently written with a Roman audience in mind, Jesus is a heroic man of action, given to powerful emotions, including agony. [30] In Matthew, apparently written for a Jewish audience, Jesus is repeatedly described as the fulfillment of Hebrew prophecy. [30] In Luke, apparently written for gentiles, Jesus is especially concerned with the poor. [30] Luke emphasizes the importance of prayer and the action of the Holy Spirit in Jesus's life and in the Christian community. [31] Jesus appears as a stoic supernatural being, unmoved even by his own crucifixion. [32] Like Matthew, Luke insists that salvation offered by Christ is for all, and not only for the Jews. [31] The Gospel of John is the only gospel to call Jesus God, and in contrast to Mark, where Jesus hides his identity as messiah, in John he openly proclaims it. [33] It represents Jesus as an incarnation of the eternal Word (Logos) who talked extensively about himself, records no parables spoken by him, and does not explicitly refer to a Second Coming. [30] Jesus preaches in Jerusalem, launching his ministry with the cleansing of the temple. It records his performance of several miracles as signs, most of them not found in the synoptics. The Gospel of John ends:(21:25) "And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen."

Composition and authorship

The Gospel of Mark probably dates from c. AD 66–70, [3] Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90, [34] and John AD 90–110. [5] Despite the traditional ascriptions all four are anonymous, and most scholars agree that none were written by eyewitnesses; [35] a few conservative scholars defend the traditional authorship, but for a variety of reasons the majority of scholars have abandoned this view or hold it only tenuously. [36] Like the rest of the New Testament, they were written in Greek. [37]

In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment, certainly within their own lifetimes, and in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, and as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings. [38] The stages of this process can be summarised as follows: [39]

Mark, the first gospel to be written, uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories (Mark 2:1–3:6), apocalyptic discourse (4:1–35), and collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the Gospel of Thomas and probably not the Q source used by Matthew and Luke. [41] The authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the Q document and additional material unique to each called the M source (Matthew) and the L source (Luke). [42] [note 3] Mark, Matthew and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because of the close similarities between them in terms of content, arrangement, and language. [43] The authors and editors of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark. [44] There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source (or gospel) that circulated within the Johannine community (the community that produced John and the three epistles associated with the name), later expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses. [45] [note 4]

All four also use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes. [46] Such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the Parousia (second coming) is made up almost entirely of quotations from scripture. [47] Matthew is full of quotations and allusions, [48] and although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive. [49] Their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the Septuagint – they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew. [50]

Genre and historical reliability

The consensus among modern scholars is that the gospels are a subset of the ancient genre of bios, or ancient biography. [7] Ancient biographies were concerned with providing examples for readers to emulate while preserving and promoting the subject's reputation and memory; the gospels were never simply biographical, they were propaganda and kerygma (preaching). [8] As such, they present the Christian message of the second half of the first century AD. [51] There is "substantial evidence" that "The Gospels attest to a lively interest among the first Christians in knowing about Jesus, in preserving, promoting and defending the memory." [8]

As Luke's attempt to link the birth of Jesus to the census of Quirinius demonstrates, there is no guarantee that the gospels are historically accurate. [9] Though, there is a consensus on the general outline of his life found in the gospels. [note 5] " and even certain other elements of Jesus' life as found in the gospels that are not considered to be certain, are still considered "historically probable." [53] [54] [55] The majority view among critical scholars is that the authors of Matthew and Luke have based their narratives on Mark's gospel, editing him to suit their own ends, and the contradictions and discrepancies between these three (the synoptic gospels) and John make it impossible to accept both as reliable. [56] In addition, the gospels we read today have been edited and corrupted over time, leading Origen to complain in the 3rd century that "the differences among manuscripts have become great, ... [because copyists] either neglect to check over what they have transcribed, or, in the process of checking, they make additions or deletions as they please"; [57] though, scholars are quick to note, that most of the textual differences are completely immaterial and insignificant and do not impact the theological meanings of the texts in any significant way. [58] For these reasons modern scholars are cautious of relying on the gospels uncritically, but nevertheless they do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and critical study can attempt to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the later authors. [59] [60]

Scholars usually agree that John is not without historical value: certain of its sayings are as old or older than their synoptic counterparts, its representation of the topography around Jerusalem is often superior to that of the synoptics, its testimony that Jesus was executed before, rather than on, Passover, might well be more accurate, and its presentation of Jesus in the garden and the prior meeting held by the Jewish authorities are possibly more historically plausible than their synoptic parallels. [61]

Textual history and canonisation

The oldest gospel text known is 52 , a fragment of John dating from the first half of the 2nd century. [62] The creation of a Christian canon was probably a response to the career of the heretic Marcion (c. 85–160), who established a canon of his own with just one gospel, the gospel of Luke, which he edited to fit his own theology. [63] The Muratorian canon, the earliest surviving list of books considered (by its own author at least) to form Christian scripture, included Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Irenaeus of Lyons went further, stating that there must be four gospels and only four because there were four corners of the Earth and thus the Church should have four pillars. [2] [64]

Non-canonical gospels

The Gospel of Thomas El Evangelio de Tomas-Gospel of Thomas- Codex II Manuscritos de Nag Hammadi-The Nag Hammadi manuscripts.png
The Gospel of Thomas

Epiphanius, Jerome and other early church fathers preserve in their writings citations from Jewish-Christian gospels. Most modern critical scholars consider that the extant citations suggest at least two and probably three distinct works, at least one of which (possibly two) closely parallels the Gospel of Matthew. [65]

The Gospel of Thomas is mostly wisdom without narrating Jesus's life. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church says that the original may date from c. 150. [66] It may represent a tradition independent from the canonical gospels, but that developed over a long time and was influenced by Matthew and Luke. [66] While it can be understood in Gnostic terms, it lacks the characteristic features of Gnostic doctrine. [66] It includes two unique parables, the parable of the empty jar and the parable of the assassin. [67] It had been lost but was discovered, in a Coptic version dating from c. 350, at Nag Hammadi in 1945–46, and three papyri, dated to c. 200, which contain fragments of a Greek text similar to but not identical with that in the Coptic language, have also been found. [66]

The Gospel of Peter was likely written in the first half of the 2nd century. [68] [69] It seems to be largely legendary, hostile toward Jews, and including docetic elements. [68] It is a narrative gospel and is notable for asserting that Herod, not Pontius Pilate, ordered the crucifixion of Jesus. It had been lost but was rediscovered in the 19th century. [68]

The Gospel of Judas is another controversial and ancient text that purports to tell the story of the gospel from the perspective of Judas, the disciple who is usually said to have betrayed Jesus. It paints an unusual picture of the relationship between Jesus and Judas, in that it appears to interpret Judas's act not as betrayal, but rather as an act of obedience to the instructions of Jesus. The text was recovered from a cave in Egypt by a thief and thereafter sold on the black market until it was finally discovered by a collector who, with the help of academics from Yale and Princeton, was able to verify its authenticity. The document itself does not claim to have been authored by Judas (it is, rather, a gospel about Judas), and is known to date to at least 180 AD. [70]

The Gospel of Mary was originally written in Greek during the 2nd century. It is often interpreted as a Gnostic text. It consists mainly of dialog between Mary Magdalene and the other disciples. It is typically not considered a gospel by scholars since it does not focus on the life of Jesus. [71]

The Gospel of Barnabas was a gospel which is claimed to be written by Barnabas, one of the apostles. The Gospel was presumably written between the 14th and the 16th century. It contradicts the ministry of Jesus in canonical New Testament, but has clear parallels with the Islamic faith, by mentioning Muhammad as Messenger of God. It also strongly denies Pauline doctrine, and Jesus testified himself as a prophet, not the son of God. [72]

Marcion of Sinope, c. 150, had a much shorter version of the gospel of Luke, differing substantially from what has now become the standard text of the gospel and far less oriented towards the Jewish scriptures. Marcion is said to have rejected all other gospels, including those of Matthew, Mark and especially John, which he allegedly rejected as having been forged by Irenaeus. Marcion's critics alleged that he had edited out the portions he did not like from the then canonical version, though Marcion is said to have argued that his text was the more genuinely original one.

A genre of "Infancy gospels" (Greek: protoevangelion) arose in the 2nd century, and includes the Gospel of James, which introduces the concept of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas (not to be confused with the unrelated Gospel of Thomas), both of which related many miraculous incidents from the life of Mary and the childhood of Jesus that are not included in the canonical gospels.

Another genre is that of the gospel harmony, in which the four canonical gospels are combined into a single narrative, either to present a consistent text or to produce a more accessible account of Jesus' life. The oldest known harmony, the Diatessaron , was compiled by Tatian around 175, and may have been intended to replace the separate gospels as an authoritative text. It was accepted for liturgical purposes for as much as two centuries in Syria, but eventually developed a reputation as being heretical and was suppressed. Subsequent harmonies were written with the more limited aim of being study guides or explanatory texts. They still use all the words and only the words of the four gospels, but the possibility of editorial error, and the loss of the individual viewpoints of the separate gospels, keeps the harmony from being canonical. [73]

See also


  1. ( /ˈɡɒspəl/ ) is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, meaning "good news". [1] This may be seen from analysis of euangélion (εὖ "good" + ἄγγελος ángelos "messenger" + -ιον -ion diminutive suffix). The Greek term was Latinized as evangelium in the Vulgate, and translated into Latin as bona annuntiatio. In Old English, it was translated as gōdspel (gōd "good" + spel "news"). The Old English term was retained as gospel in Middle English Bible translations and hence remains in use also in Modern English. The written accounts of the life and teaching of Jesus are also generally known as "Gospels".
  2. Amy-Jill Levine writes: "There is a consensus of sorts on a basic outline of Jesus' life. Most scholars agree that Jesus was baptized by John, debated with fellow Jews on how best to live according to God's will, engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, gathered male and female followers in Galilee, went to Jerusalem, and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate [11]
  3. The priority of Mark is accepted by most scholars, but there are important dissenting opinions: see the article Synoptic problem.
  4. The debate over the composition of John is too complex to be treated adequately in a single paragraph; for a more nuanced view see Aune's entry on the Gospel of John in the "Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature", pp. 243–45.
  5. Amy-Jill Levine writes: "There is a consensus of sorts on a basic outline of Jesus' life. Most scholars agree that Jesus was baptized by John, debated with fellow Jews on how best to live according to God's will, engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, gathered male and female followers in Galilee, went to Jerusalem, and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate [52]

Related Research Articles

Gospel of Mark Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. It portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, and a miracle worker. Jesus is also the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that even most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy, which foretold the fate of the messiah as suffering servant. The gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, and an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection.

Gospel of Luke Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Luke, also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels. It tells of the origins, birth, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ.

Gospel of Matthew Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.The core of its story, tells how Israel's Messiah, rejected and executed in Israel, pronounces judgement on Israel and its leaders and becomes the salvation of the gentiles.

Gospel of John Book of the New Testament

The Gospel of John is the fourth of the canonical gospels. The book went through two to three stages, or "editions", before reaching its current form, at the latest, around AD 90–110. It is written anonymously, although it identifies an unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved" as the source of its traditions.

Matthew the Apostle Christian evangelist and apostle

Matthew the Apostle, also known as Saint Matthew and as Levi, was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. According to Christian tradition, he was also one of the four Evangelists and thus is also known as Matthew the Evangelist.

John the Apostle apostle of Jesus; son of Zebedee and Salome, brother of James; traditionally identified with John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, and the Beloved Disciple

John the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Generally listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome or Joanna. His brother was James, who was another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder and the Beloved Disciple, and testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and that he was the only one to die of natural causes. However, modern scholars believe these to be separate people. The traditions of most Christian denominations have held that John the Apostle is the author of several books of the New Testament, although this has been disputed by some scholars.

<i>Gospel of Thomas</i> Coptic-language early Christian non-canonical gospel, part of the Nag Hammadi library

The Gospel of Thomas is a non-canonical sayings gospel. It was discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in December 1945 among a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library. Scholars speculate that the works were buried in response to a letter from Bishop Athanasius declaring a strict canon of Christian scripture.

Nativity of Jesus Birth of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus, nativity of Christ, birth of Christ or birth of Jesus is described in the Biblical gospels of Luke and Matthew. The two accounts agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, his mother Mary was betrothed to a man named Joseph, who was descended from King David and was not his biological father, and that his birth was caused by divine intervention.

Jesus in Christianity Jesus in Christianity

In Christianity, Jesus is believed to be the Son of God and in many mainstream denominations the second Person of the Trinity. Christians believe that through his crucifixion and subsequent resurrection, God offered humans salvation and eternal life. He is believed to be the Jewish messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, called the Old Testament in Christianity. These teachings emphasize that as the Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer on the cross at Calvary as a sign of his obedience to the will of God, as an "agent and servant of God". Jesus died to atone for sin to make humanity right with God. Jesus' choice positions him as a man of obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.

The historicity of Jesus relates to whether Jesus of Nazareth was a historical figure. Virtually all scholars who have investigated the history of the Christian movement find that the historicity of Jesus is effectively certain, and standard historical criteria have aided in reconstructing his life. However, scholars differ on the beliefs and teachings of Jesus as well as the accuracy of the details of his life that have been described in the gospels. Despite this, very few scholars have argued for non-historicity and have not succeeded due to abundance of evidence to the contrary.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament.

M Source hypothetical textual source for the Gospel of Matthew; material of the Gospel of Matthew that is neither Q source nor Mark

M Source, which is sometimes referred to as M document, or simply M, comes from the M in "Matthean material". It is a hypothetical textual source for the Gospel of Matthew. M Source is defined as that 'special material' of the Gospel of Matthew that is neither Q source nor Mark.

Baptism of Jesus event that marks the beginning of Jesus public ministry

The baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist is a major event in the life of Jesus described in three of the gospels: Matthew, Mark and Luke. It is considered to have taken place at Al-Maghtas, located in Jordan.

Parables of Jesus Short stories used by Jesus of Nazareth to illustrate moral points and the kingdom of God

The parables of Jesus are found in the Synoptic Gospels and some of the non-canonical gospels. They form approximately one third of his recorded teachings. Christians place great emphasis on these parables; which they generally regard as the words of Jesus.

Internal consistency of the Bible

The internal consistency of the Bible concerns the coherence and textual integrity of the Bible. Disputes regarding biblical consistency have a long history.

Jewish–Christian gospels

The Jewish–Christian Gospels were gospels of a Jewish Christian character quoted by Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerome and probably Didymus the Blind. Most modern scholars have concluded that there was one gospel in Aramaic/Hebrew and at least two in Greek, although a minority argue that there were only two, Aramaic/Hebrew and Greek.

The historical reliability of the Gospels refers to the reliability and historic character of the four New Testament gospels as historical documents. Some believe that all four canonical gospels meet the five criteria for historical reliability; and others say that little in the gospels is considered to be historically reliable. Almost all scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed, but scholars differ on the historicity of specific episodes described in the Biblical accounts of Jesus, and the only two events subject to "almost universal assent" are that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. Elements whose historical authenticity is disputed include the two accounts of the Nativity of Jesus, the miraculous events including the resurrection, and certain details about the crucifixion.

Q source hypothetical collection of sayings attributed to Jesus, used as a common source (along with Mark) for Matthew and Luke according to the two-source hypothesis to the synoptic problem

The Q source is a hypothetical written collection of primarily Jesus' sayings (logia). Q is part of the common material found in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke but not in the Gospel of Mark. According to this hypothesis, this material was drawn from the early Church's oral tradition.

Oral gospel traditions

Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels. These oral traditions included different types of stories about Jesus. For example, people told anecdotes about Jesus healing the sick and debating with his opponents. The traditions also included sayings attributed to Jesus, such as parables and teachings on various subjects which, along with other sayings, formed the oral gospel tradition.

Apostles The primary disciples of Jesus

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles, were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament and the Qur’an. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus.



  1. Woodhead 2004, p. 4.
  2. 1 2 Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 697.
  3. 1 2 Perkins 1998, p. 241.
  4. Reddish 2011, pp. 108,144.
  5. 1 2 Lincoln 2005, p. 18.
  6. Reddish 2011, pp. 13,42.
  7. 1 2 Lincoln 2004, p. 133.
  8. 1 2 3 Dunn 2005, p. 174.
  9. 1 2 Reddish 2011, p. 22.
  10. Sanders 1995, pp. 6.
  11. Amy-Jill Levine in The Historical Jesus in Context edited by Amy-Jill Levine et al. Princeton University Press ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6 p. 4
  12. Chilton, Bruce; Evans, Craig A. (1998). Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research p.27. Brill. ISBN   978-90-04-11142-4.
  13. Borg, Marcus J. (1994). Jesus in Contemporary Scholarship. Continuum. pp. 4–6. ISBN   978-1-56338-094-5.
  14. Theissen, Gerd; Winter, Dagmar (2002). The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria. pp.142-143 Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN   978-0-664-22537-7.
  15. Petersen 2010, p. 51.
  16. 1 2 3 Culpepper 1999, p. 66.
  17. Honoré 1986, pp. 95–147.
  18. Hurtado 2005, p. 587.
  19. Ehrman 2005, p. 215.
  20. 1 2 Burkett 2002, p. 217.
  21. Anderson 2011, p. 52.
  22. Burkett 2002, p. 158.
  23. Parker 1997, p. 125.
  24. Telford 1999, p. 149.
  25. Beaton 2005, pp. 117, 123.
  26. Morris 1986, p. 114.
  27. Aune 1987, p. 59.
  28. Johnson 2010, p. 48.
  29. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Harris, Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985
  31. 1 2 Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Luke, Gospel of St
  32. Ehrman 2005, p. 143.
  33. Burkett 2002, p. 214.
  34. Reddish 2011, pp. 108, 144.
  35. Reddish 2011, pp. 13, 42.
  36. Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, p. 41.
  37. Porter 2006, p. 185.
  38. Reddish 2011, p. 17.
  39. Burkett 2002, pp. 124–25.
  40. Martens 2004, p. 100.
  41. Boring 2006, pp. 13–14.
  42. Levine 2009, p. 6.
  43. Goodacre 2001, p. 1.
  44. Perkins 2012, p. unpaginated.
  45. Burge 2014, p. 309.
  46. Allen 2013, pp. 43–44.
  47. Edwards 2002, p. 403.
  48. Beaton 2005, p. 122.
  49. Lieu 2005, p. 175.
  50. Allen 2013, p. 45.
  51. Keith & Le Donne 2012.
  52. Amy-Jill Levine in The Historical Jesus in Context edited by Amy-Jill Levine et al. Princeton University Press ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6 p. 4
  53. Chilton, Bruce; Evans, Craig A. (1998). Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research p.27. Brill. ISBN   978-90-04-11142-4.
  54. Borg, Marcus J. (1994). Jesus in Contemporary Scholarship. Continuum. pp. 4–6. ISBN   978-1-56338-094-5.
  55. Theissen, Gerd; Winter, Dagmar (2002). The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria. pp.142-143 Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN   978-0-664-22537-7.
  56. Tuckett 2000, p. 523.
  57. Ehrman 2005a, pp. 7,52.
  58. Ehrman 2005a, p. 272.
  59. Reddish 2011, pp. 21–22.
  60. Sanders 1995, pp. 4–5.
  61. Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 36–37.
  62. Fant & Reddish 2008, p. 415.
  63. Ehrman 2005, p. 34.
  64. Ehrman 2005, p. 35.
  65. Philipp Vielhauer in Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha Vol. 1 (1971) English revised edition R. Wilson, of Neutestamentliche Apokryphen 1964 Hennecke & Schneemelcher
  66. 1 2 3 4 "Thomas, Gospel of". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  67. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. "The Gospel of Thomas", pp. 471–532.
  68. 1 2 3 "Peter, Gospel of St.". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  69. Ehrman, Bart (2003). The Lost Christianities . New York: Oxford University Press. p.  xi. ISBN   978-0-19-514183-2.
  70. Achtemeier, Paul J., Th.D., Harper's Bible Dictionary, (San Francisco: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.; 1985).
  71. Andrew E. Bernhard, Other Early Christian Gospels: A Critical Edition of the Surviving Greek Manuscripts, Library of New Testament Studies 315 (London; New York: T & T Clark, 2006), p. 2. ISBN   0-567-04204-9.
  72. Wiegers, G. (1995). "Muhammad as the Messiah: A comparison of the polemical works of Juan Alonso with the Gospel of Barnabas". Biblitheca Orientalis
  73. The church has made a point of supporting four separate gospels, "equally authoritative and worth preserving as distinct witnesses." Gabel at 210. See also Metzger at 117; Gamble at 30–35.


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